Class 12 History Chapter 10 Kings And Chronicles

Class 12 History Chapter 10 Kings And Chronicles The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters Assam Board HS 2nd Year History Chapter 10 Kings And Chronicles Question Answer.

Class 12 History Chapter 10 Kings And Chronicles

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Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 12 History Chapter 10 Kings And Chronicles Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here.

Write a Short Essay on the Following

Q.6. Discuss with examples the distinctive features of Mughal chronicles. 

Ans: Chronides are an important source material for the study of the Mughal Empire. They contain a plethora of information about the various Mughal institutions painstakingly collected and classified by individuals connected with the court. Generally commissioned by the emperors, they help to disseminate the imperial ideologies of the state. The authors of these chronides were mostly courtiers. The histories they wrote focused on court events, wars and administrative arrangements. For example chronides like the Akbar Nama, Shahjahan Nama suggest that for their authors, the history of the empire and court were synonymous with that of theo The chronicles were written in Persian. Turkish was the emperor. 

mother tongue of the Mughals and therefore Babur wrote his memories in this language. But under Akbar, Persian was made the main court language as well as the language of administration at all levels. Consequently Babur’s memories were translated into Persian and the Akbar Nama was written in Persian. In the chronides the written text also contained images which described the event in a visual form. Scribes left blank spaces and the painters inserted the necessary paintings. The paintings were miniatures and could be easily mounted on the pages of the manuscripts.

Q.7. To what extent do you think the visual material presented in this chapter corresponds with Abu’s Fazl’s description of the taswir (Source 1)? 

Ans: Upto great extent we think the visual material presented in this chapter correspondence with Akbar court historian Abu’l Fazl description han mob taswir source. Abu’l Fazl held the art of painting in high esteem : Drawing the likeness of anything is called taswir. His Majesty from his earliest youth, has shown a great prediction for this art, and encouragement, as he looks upon it as a means both of study and amusement. A very large number of painters have been set to work. 

Each week, several supervisors and clerks of the imperial workshop submit before the emperor the work done by each artist, and His Majesty gives a reward and increases the monthly salaries of the artists according to the excellence displayed most excellent painters are now to be found, and masterpieces, worthy of a Bihzad, may be placed at the side of the wonderful works of the European painters who have attained worldwide fame. The minuteness in detail, the general finish and the boldness of execution now observed in pictures are incomparable, even inanimate objects look as if they have life. More than a hundred painters have become famous masters of the art. This is especially true of the Hindu artists. Their pictures surpass our conception of things. Few indeed, in the whole world are found equal to them. 

The role, position, activities and patron of painters by the Mughal emperors : Painters were involved in the production of Mughal manuscripts. Chronicles narrating the events of a Mughal emperor’s reign contained, alongside the written text, images that described an event in visual form. When scenes or themes in a book were to be given visual expression. The scribe left blank spaces on nearby pages, paintings, executed separately by artists, were inserted to accompany what was described in words. These paintings were miniatures, and could therefore be passed around for viewing and mounting on the pages of manuscripts. 

Paintings served not only to enhance the beauty of a book, but were believed to possess special powers of communicating ideas about the kingdom and the power of kings in ways that the written medium could not. The historian Abu’l Fazl described painting as “magical art.” In his view it had the power to make inanimate objects look as if they possessed life. The production of paintings portraying the emperor, his count and the people who were part of it, was a source of constant tension between rulers and representatives of the Muslim orthodoxy, the alumna. 

The latter did not fail to involve the Islamic prohibition of the Portrayed of human beings enshrined in the Quran as well as the had is, which described an incident from the life of the prophet Muhammad. Here the prophet is cited as having forbidden the depiction of living beings in a naturalistic manner as it would suggest that the artist was seeking to appropriate the power of creation. This was a function that was believed to belong exclusively to God. 

Q.8. What were the distinctive features of the Mughal nobility? How was their relationship with the emperor shaped? 

Ans: One of the important pillars of the Mughal state was its corps of officers also referred to by historians collectively as the mobility. The experience of the Delhi Sultanate had taught Akbar that military power alone was not enough to ensure the permanence of any dynasty. It was necessary to have the support of indigenous groups to establish an enduring administration and give the state firm institutional roots. 

Unlike the general pattern of the Islamic state, Akbar directly cultivated the friendship and sought to incorporate non-Muslim into the state not only as subordinate but as active partners. The Mughal nobility referred to as bouquet of flowers (guldasta) was a composite governing class which incorporated not. Just the old Muslim hereditary nobility the Turanis and Iranian nobles but also new elements like the Rajputs and India Muslims. The basic principle underlying was that no ethnic, social or religious group could constitute a preponderant section in the nobility or army, so that the king was not dependent on anyone of them and enjoyed maximum freedom of action. 

By balancing all these factors Akbar was able to control the nobility as a whole. Two ruling groups the Rajputs and Indian Muslims (Shaikhzadas) entered imperial service from 1560 onwards. Prior to Akbar reign the proud warriors (Rajputs) had only been conquered never integrated. The first to join was Raja Bharmal Kachhwaha of Amber, to whose daughter Akbar got married. The climax was reached after capture of Chittor in 1567 when all Rajput clans except Mewar accepted Mughal Suzerainty. 

The Rajputs who accepted Mughal suzerainty were allowed to keep their kingdoms as watan jagirs and given handsome manuals. In return the Mughal state received the services of some of the finest warriors who became its most loyal supporters generation after generation. It is noted that while percentage of Rajputs at court doubled that of the Turanis dropped. Offices were open to talent and hence apart from big Zamindars and rajahs many capable men of ordinary background inclined towards education and accountancy were also encouraged and promoted e.g. Raja Todar Mal of the Khatri caste. 

The emergence of the Indian Muslims as an important section of the nobility also contributed to creating a greater support base for the empire amongst indigenous Muslim community, e.g. appointment of Sheikh Abun Nabi as Sadr-us-Sudur, in 1565. Under Jahangir due to the influence of the queen Nur Jahan. Iranians gained high offices. Aurangzeb appointed Rajputs to high positions and Marathas accounted for a sizable number within the body of officers. The officer corps of the Mughals was held together by loyalty to the emperor. Akbar organized his heterogenous nobility within the framework of the mansabdari system. The nobles were classified into grades comprising two numerical designations Zat which was an indicator of position in the imperial hierarchy and the salary of the official (mansabdar) and sawar which indicated the number of horsemen, he was required to maintain in service. 

The lowest rank was 10, and the highest 5,000. Ranks over 5,000 were generally reserved for royal family but in exceptional cases could be granted to a noble as a mark of honour e.g., Raja Mansingh was given a mansal of 7,000. Under mansabdari system a nobles personnel pay, military organisation and status in a imperial hierarchy was determined by numerical rank (mansal) and not by birth ethnic or racial background. By this system nobility not only came to be bureaucratised but nobles now became paid servants of the king. The nobles participated in military campaigns with there armies and also served as officers of the empire in the provinces. 

The emperor personally reviewed changes in rank, titles and official postings for all except the lowest ranked officers. Akbar also established spiritual relationship with a select band of the nobility by treating them as his disciple (murid). For members of the nobility imperial service was a way of acquiring power, wealth and highest possible reputation. A person wishing to join the service was a way power, wealth and highest possible reputation. A person wishing to join the service petitioned through a noble, who presented a tajwiid to the emperor through the Mir Bakshi. 

Three important nobles/ ministers of the central administration the diwan-i ala, mir bakshi and sadr-us-sudur occasionally came together as an advisory body but were independent of each other. Akbar with these and other advisers shaped the administrative and fiscal and monetary institutions of the empire. The nobles stationed at the court (tainat-i-rakal) were reserve force, duty bound to appear twice daily to express submission to the emperor in the public audience hall. 

Q.9. Identify the elements that went into the making of the Mughal ideal of kingship. 

Ans: The Mughals believed in the Divine Right of kingship, that their power came directly from God. One of the legends often quoted to prove their point was that of the Mongol queen Alanqua who was impregnated by a ray of sunshine. The child she bore had this Divine light and passed it one from generation to generation. Abu’l Fazl placed Mughal kingship as the highest station in the hierarchy of objects receiving light coming from Go’ It was the first sufi Saint Shihabuddin Suhrawady who first believed th. there was a hierarchy in which Divine light was transmitted to the king. The king then became the source of spiritual guidance for his subjects. Consen iently from the seventeenth century onwards Mughal artists began to portray emperors wearing the halo which was supposed to symbolize the light of God. 

Sovereignty according to the Mughals was a social contract. The king’s duty was to protect the life property, honour and faith of their subjects. return the people had to obey the king and he was entitled to a share of the country’s resources. Only just sovereign it was felt would be able to fulfil the terms of the contract with Divine guidance. An important element of Mughal kingship was stressor justice. A number of important symbols portrayed this love for justice. One of the most widely used symbols was a motif of the lion and lamb peacefully coexisting with each other. This motif implied under the Mughals, the strong and the weak could both coexist in harmony. Court scenes from the Badshah Nama place such motifs in a niche directly below the emperor’s throne. 

Map Work

Q.10. On an outline map of the world, plot the areas with which the Mughals had political and cultural relations. 

Ans :        

Class 12 History Chapter 10 Map 1

C. Passage Based Question & Answers:

Read the following extract and answer the questions based on it : 


Abu’l Fazl gives a vivid account of Akbar’s darbar : Whenever His Majesty (Akbar) holds court (darbar) a large drum is beaten, the sounds of which are accompanied by Divine praise. In this manner, people of all classes receive notice. His Majesty’s sons and grandchildren, the grandees of the Court, and all other men who have admittance, attend to make the kornish, and remain standing in their proper places. Learned men of renown and skilful mechanics pay their respects; and the officers of justice present their reports. 

His Majesty, with his usual insights, gives orders, and settles everything in a satisfactory manner. During the whole time, skilful gladiators and wrestlers from all countries hold themselves in readiness, and singers, male and female, are in waiting. Clever jugglers and funny tumblers also are anxious to exhibit their dexterity and agility. 


a) How did the people come to know that the emperor was going to hold court ? 

Ans: a) Sounds of the beating of a large drum and chants in praise of God intimated people that the king was going to hold a darbar.

b) What do you understand by the term Kornish ? 

Ans: The Kornish was a form a ceremonial salutation in which the courtier place. the palm of his right hand against his forehead and bent his head.

c) What activities were conducted by the emperor in the Diwan- in-khas ?

Ans: In the Diwan-i-khas, the emperor private audiences and discussed confidential matters. Petitions were presented before the king by the state ministers. Tax officials presented their accounts to the emperor. Occasionally the king viewed the work of reputed artists or the building plans of architects.

d) What forms of Salutation were practised in the court ? 

Ans : The forms of salutation to the ruler indicated the person’s status in the hierarchy. The highest form of salutation was the sijda or complete prostration. Under Shah Jahan these were replaced with chahar taslim and zambinos (kissing the ground)

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