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Class 11 Sociology Chapter 1 Sociology And Society
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Sociology And Society
TEXTUAL QUESTION & ANSWER
Q no 1. Who Coined the word ‘Sociology’ ?
Ans : A French philosopher named August Comte coined the word ‘Sociology’.
Q. no 2. Who is regarded as the father of sociology ?
Ans : August Comte.
Q. no 3. What is Sociology ?
Ans : sociology is the Scientific study of society.
Q. no 4. In which country and in which year sociology was born ?
Ans : Sociology was born in France in the year 1839.
Q. no 5. Write the name of an Indian Sociologist ?
Ans : Dr. Radhakamal Mukherjee.
Q. no 6. Who was the founder of positive philosophy ?
Ans : August Comte.
Q. no 7. What does Sociology do ?
Ans : Sociology systematically studies human society.
Q. no 8. What is society ?
Ans : Society is a group of people who share a common culture, live in a particular territory and tied by a network of social relationship.
Q. no 9. Sociology and Anthropology are twin sisters” – whose statement is this ?
Ans : A. L. Kroeber.
Q. no 10. “Society is the web of social relationship ” – This statement was made by max Weber /Kingsley davis /Maciver and page /D. N. Majumder ?
Ans : Maciver and page.
Q. no 11. Sociology is the science which attempts the interpretive understanding of social action” Who said this ?
Ans : Max Weber.
Q. no 12. “History is part Sociology and Sociology is present History” – Who said this ?
Ans : C. E. Howard.
Q. no 13. Sociology is a social science. Write Yes or No ?
Ans : Yes. Sociology is a social sciences.
Q. no 14. Who considered Anthropology as a special branch of sociology ?
Ans : Evan pitchard.
Q. no 15. Is society an abstract ?
Ans : Yes , Society is an abstract.
Q. no 16. ‘Economics is the handmade of sociology” – Who said this ?
Ans : P. H. Wicksteed.
Q. no 17. Who forwarded the concept of ‘Sociological imagination” ?
Ans : C. Wright Mills.
Q. no 18. In which country Industrial revolution took place ?
Ans : England.
Q. no 19. Mention one issue which has connection
between personal problems and public issues ?
Ans : poverty.
Q. no 20. Name two social sciences with which sociology has relation ?
Ans : (a) Political Science , (b) History.
Q. no 21. Mention two common area of study of sociology and economics ?
Ans : (a) Power, (b) Authority.
Q. no 22. Mention two common aspect of study of sociology ?
Ans : (a) Unemployment problem, (b) Poverty.
(b) Give Short & Long Answer :
Q. no 1. Define Values ?
Ans : Values are ideas help by individual or groups about what is desirable, proper, good or bad .
Q. no 2. What is capitalism?
Ans : Capitalism is a kind of economic system which believes in private ownership of the means of production.
Q. no 3. What is positivism ?
Ans : Positivism as a philosophy emerged in Europe in 18th century. In rejects speculative analysis of social reality. Positivism explains social reality on the basis of observed facts and logical reasoning. It is a method of scientific inquiry. It advocates empirical study.
Q. 4. Mention about the importance of sociology ?
Ans: Sociology as a subject matter has its importance. It studies society in a scientific way . It provides scientific knowledge about human society. The study of sociology helps in better understanding and planning of Society. The study of sociology also helps in solving social problems. By studying sociology we con find out the measures for restrengthening social institutions to serve individual better.
Q. 5. What is society ?
Ans : Society is network of social relationships. Society is a group of people who share a common culture, live in a particular territory and feel united.
Q. 6. Give the sociological meaning of social norm ?
Ans : Social norm means socially accepted principles that guide the activity and behaviour of the individuals social activities are organised on the basis of social norms of the society . Social norms governs the society from different point of view. The norms includes dress, food, manners , customs etc.
Q. 7. Write a note on the contribution of August Comte to sociology ?
Ans : August Comte, a French philosopher coined the term ‘Sociology’ in 1839. He is regarded as the founding father of sociology. He advocated strongly for establishing a separate discipline for scientific study of society. He first used the term sociology . He brought positivism in the study of social system. He wanted to establish science of Society that Will systematically study the human society. He argued for a scientific understanding of human society .
Q. 8. Mention any three characteristics of society ?
Ans : The three characteristics of society are :
(1) Society exhibits both likeness and differences.
(2) Society is based on inter dependence among the members.
(3) Society exists because of co – operation among the members.
Q. 9. Discuss sociology as a science ?
Ans : Sociology is a scientific discipline. As a branch of knowledge it has some unique characteristics. Sociology adopts objective and systematic methods of investigation. It evaluates social reality in the light of empirical evidence and interpretation.
However, sociology is not natural science. It is a social science which deals with human behaviour and social relationships. As a social science it is empirical, abstract and general science.
Q. 10. Discuss the meaning of sociology ?
Ans : The word sociology is derived out of two words “Socius” meaning to associate and “Logos” meaning science. It means that sociology is the science of society. It studies systematically about human society, social relationship , human behaviour, social groups and social change. In simple word sociology is the science of human society.
Q. 11. Mention the function of sociology.
Ans : The function of sociology are :
(i) It examines the relationships between individual and society , social action and social relations and the impact of society on man.
(ii) It studies society in a scientific way. It provides scientific knowledge about human society.
(iii) It studies institutions and their role in the development of the individual. It suggests measures for restrengthening social institutions to serve individual better.
(iv) It provides scientific knowledge for better understanding and planning of society .
(v) It helps in the solving social problems. Scientific study of society enables to control the conditions of social life and improve them.
Q. 12. What is sociology . Discuss the scope of sociology.
What is sociology. Discuss the subject matter of sociology.
Ans : A French philosopher August Comte coined the word “Sociology” in 1839. The word sociology is derived from the Latin word “Societus” meaning “Society” and the Greek word “Logos” meaning “Study or Science” . Thus sociology means the science of society. It studies about society , human behaviour as a social being , social relationships and social group.
Scope and subject matter of Sociology :-
The scope and subject matter of sociology means the field of study of sociology. There are two views regarding the scope of sociology –
(i) Specialistic or formalistic school of thought.
(ii) Synthetic school of thought.
(i) Specialistic ot formalistic school of thought :- According to this view the subject matter of sociology consists of forms of social relationships. This view is supported by Sociologists like George Summel, F. Tonnies , Vier Kandt , Bon Wiese and Max Weber . This view regards sociology as an independent and pure social science . According to the supporters of the this view study of sociology should confine with certain aspects of social relationships. Sociology is a special social science which discuss the forms of social relationships, the process of socialization and social organization. According to Max Weber Sociology should confine itself with the analysis and classification of types of social relationships. The aim of Sociology is to interpret or understand social behaviour.
Thus , according to the formalistic view , sociology is concerned with the study of the forms of social relationships and their abstract nature. The formalistic view has limited the scope of sociology .
(ii) Synthetic school of thought :- The synthetic school of thought wants to make sociology a synthesis of the social sciences. This school believes that the scope of sociology is very wide. Durkheim, Hobhours and Sorokin supported this view. They believed that sociology studies human interactions and inter- relationship, their conditions and consequences. According to this school, the field of sociology is very wide. It includes the study of social life as a whole. All the aspects of social life are inter- related , therefore, sociology should symmetrically study social life as a whole. Sociology inter- relate and integrate various social science and thus deals with general conditions of social life.Thus the scope of sociology is very much wide. It is a general science and also a special science.
Q. 13. Examine the scientific nature of sociology .
Explain Sociology as a science.
Ans : The following arguments may be given in favour of scientific nature of sociology.
(i) Sociology employs scientific methods :- Sociology uses scientific methods like schedule, Questionnaire, Interview, Case history Observation etc.
(ii) Sociology believes in facts :- Sociology studies social relations and social activities. Thus , it makes a scientific study of social facts.
(iii) The principles of sociology are universal :- The laws of sociology are applicable in all times and places. As long as the conditions do not vary the laws are devoid of any exceptions. For example, the principle of individual disorganization and social disorganization depend upon each other, which is true for all times and at all places.
(iv) Sociological principles are verifiable :- The laws of sociology. and subject to verification and reverification. Their validity can be examined by anybody.
(v) Sociology delineates cause -effect relationship. Sociology tries to analyse various social phenomena from the view point of cause – effect relationships. Sociology tries to find an answer to “how ” as well as “why” .
(vi) Sociology con make predictions :- On the basis of cause -effect relationship Sociology can anticipate the future and make predictions concerning social relationships, activities, incidents etc. Knowing the cause-effect relationship, it can determine “what will be” on the basis of “what it is “.
The it is clear that Sociology studies society scientifically or in other words Sociology is the scientific study of society.
Q. 14. Discuss the origina and development Sociology as an academic discipline .
Ans : Sociology as an academic discipline is of recent origin. It is one of the youngest social science. However, the study of society is as old as society itself . But as a distinct branch of knowledge it has emerged in 19th Century. There three main factors which helped in the establishment of sociology as a separate discipline. They are –
(i) Industrial Revolution of England and Social and political Revolution of French.
(ii) Inspiration from the growth of Natural Science.
(iii) Emergence of radically diverse societies and cultures in the colonial empires.The intellectual background of the eighteenth Century Europe played an important role in the emergence of sociology . The main intellectual streams that particularly influenced sociology are –
(i) political philosophy.
(ii) philosophy of history.
(iii) Theory of organic evolution.
(iv) Movement for social and political reforms.
(v) Development of the method of social survey.
During the first half of nineteenth Century, there was social and intellectual upheaval. There was a believe that existing sciences were not capable of analysing social structure and their disorder. Therefore, a need was felt by various thinkerd that a new subject can only study society scientifically and systematically.
Sociology is a compound word derived from the Lawn root “Socious” meaning society and the Greek root “Logos ” meaning science. Thus , the word sociology means the science of society Auguste Comte , a French philosopher coined the term “Sociology” in 1839. He is called as a father of sociology.
During the nineteenth Century Auguste Comte, Karl Marx and Herbert Spencer made significant contribution to the development of sociology. Other thinkers like Emile Durkheim , Max Weber, etc. also played their role in establishing sociology as an separate subject.
|Chapter 1||Sociology And Society|
|Chapter 2||Terms, Concepts And Their Use In Sociology|
|Chapter 3||Understanding Social Institutions|
|Chapter 4||Culture And Socialisation|
|Chapter 5||Doing Sociology: Methods And Techniques|
|Chapter 6||Social Structure, Stratification and Social Processes in Society|
|Chapter 7||Social Change and Social Order in Rural and Urban Society|
|Chapter 8||Environment And Society|
|Chapter 9||Introducing Western Social Thinkers|
|Chapter 10||Indian Sociologists|
Q. 15. Describe the growth of Sociology in India .
Ans : The subject “sociology ” has grown in India with the influence of western philosophical and scientific traditions. There are certain factors which contributed to the growth of the study of sociology in lndia. They are –
(i) Influence of methods of attitudes developed in Western Countries about the principles of anthropology and Sociology.
(ii) Influence of British administration.
(iii) Influence of traditional Indian Social Philosophy.
(iv) Influence of social and political circumstances in the context of reconstruction of contemporary Indian Society.
The teaching of sociology started in the department of political Economy and Political Philosophy of the Calcutta University. In 1908 two papers in the subject of Sociology were offered . However , the first department of sociology was established in at Calcutta University in 1917 by the initiative of Prof. Brajendra Nath Seal. In 1920 the department of sociology was established in Mysore University. In Bombay University, the separate department began in 1919 which was headed by Patrick Geddes . He was later joined by G.S. Ghurye . In 1921 the study of Sociology was started at Lucknow University in the department of Economics under the headship of prof. Radhakamal Mukherjee . In 1956 sociology department was established independently.
Prof. Radha Kamal Mukherjee made significant contribution in the development of sociology as a separate subject in India. The most eminent names in the field of sociology in India are M. N. Srinivas, K. M. Kapadia, Iravati Karve , D. N. Majumder, S. C. Dube, A. R. Desai etc.
Q. 16. Explain the relationship between Sociology and Economics.
Ans : Sociology and Economics are closely related with each other. Sociology and Economics have many common areas of study such as population, division of labour, class conflict, economic organization, the problem of unemployment and poverty.
Economic factor and forces play a very important role in every aspect of social life. That is why Karl Marx said economy is the basic structure of society .Inspite both these subjects closely interrelated there are obvious differences between the two. They are –
(i) Economics concentrates on the study of economic behaviour of the people . On the other hand sociology is concerned with sociological behaviour of human being.
(ii) The scope of sociology is wide. On the other hand the scope of economics is comparatively restricted.
(iii) The methods of studying sociology and economics are different.
Q. 17. State two similarities between Sociology and History.
Ans : The two similarities between sociology and History are –
(i) The field of study is common between sociology and History. Both the subject study society.
(ii) Sociology and History studies human activities and events.
Q. 18. Show the relationship between Sociology and History.
Ans : Sociology and History are very much closely related. According to C. E . Howard History is past sociology and sociology is present history. The field of study is common for both sociology and history. Both of them study society . Sociology and history are concerned with the study of human activities and events. The study of history is useful for sociology . The study of history helps for a better understanding of cultures, institutions and human events of society. Arnold Toynbee’s book A Study of History is very useful book for sociology . Similarly history is also studied from the sociological point of view . Sociology gives the social background for the study of History . Sociology studies various stages of human society and their various forms of social institutions. Therefore, it is rightly said that the study of history would be meaningless without the understanding of social significance.
Q. 19. Distinguish between Sociology and History.
Ans : There are several differences between Sociology and History. They are –
(i) Sociology studies the present society . But History studies past background of society.
(ii) The scope of sociology is wide but the scope of History is narrow.
(iii) History is concrete and sociology is abstract. History presents a chronological description of incidents and cultures. But sociology attempts to discover their causes and general principles.
(iv) The study of History is descriptive. But the study of sociology is analytical.
Q. 20. Examine the relation between sociology and political science.
Ans : There is close relationship between political science and Sociology political science is a branch of social science which deals with the principles and organization of government in the human society. Without the study of sociological background the study of political science will be incomplete. The forms, nature, laws and spheres of government activity are determined by the social processes. Sociology also takes helps from political science. It is said that the study of sociology is an extension of the field of political inquiry. Sociology studies family, culture, civilization, religion etc.
Sociology cannot ignore the study of political aspect of society. Thus there is much interdependence between sociology and political science . Both of them are complementary and contributory to each other. Without the study of political life of the society the study of society cannot be complete. Therefore, it is rightly said that political science and sociology are the two sides of the same coin.
Q. 21. Mention the difference between sociology and political science.
Ans : There are many differences between sociology and political science. They are –
(i) Sociology is the science of society. It is a comprehensive subject. But political science is the science of state. Political science is more specialized and particular than sociology.
(ii) The scope of sociology is wider. But the scope of political science is limited in comparison to sociology.
(iii) Sociology studies both organised and disorganised communities. But political science studies only organised communities.
(iv) Sociology studies all kind of social relationships. But political science studies only political relationships.
Q. 22. Examine the relations between Sociology and Anthropology.
Ans : Sociology and Anthropology is intimately inter-related to each other . Their field of enquiry is also very much similar. Therefore A. L. Kroeber remarked thus – “Sociology and Anthropology are twin sisters”. Again, Evan Pitchchard considered Anthropology as a special branch of sociology.
Anthropology studies the development of human race . It studies man and cultures as they developed in times long past. Sociology also studies human society in its present form. Sociology depends on the material supplied by Anthropology. Anthropology is also depends on sociology to study the present society. Therefore there very much inter- dependence between these two subjects.
Q. 23. Define society . Discuss the basic characteristics of society.
Ans : Society is a web of social relationships. Society means a group of people who share a common culture, live in a particular territorial area and feel themselves a unified and district entity. In simple , a society is made up of population, organization, time , place and interests.
Characteristics of society :-
(i) Social Relationship : Society is the network of social relationships. Society exhibits the social relationships among the individual. There is mutuality and co-operation even conflict among the members of a society.
(ii) Society is abstract :- Society is an abstract organization. Society prevails because there is existence of social relationships which can not be seen , touched and scented. But there exists a feeling and concrete form of organization in the form of social groups.
(iii) Likeness :- Likeness is an important element of society . There is a sense of likeness among the members of a particular society.
(iv) Difference :- Society possess the characteristic of difference or variety along with likeness . Society embodies different kind of variety like biological difference , natural difference etc.
(v) Inter – dependence :- Society embodies the characteristics of inter – dependence. No member of a society can fulfill his all needs by himself. He has to depend on other and vice – versa.
(vi) Culture:- Every society possess culture. Without culture there can be no society . Social relations among people are carried . according to the pattern of culture exists in a society . People follows various norms, folkways, laws, customs, traditions , religions etc.
Q. 24. Why is the study of the origin and growth of sociology is important ?
Ans : Sociology as subject matter has its importance. It studies society in a scientific way . It gives us scientific knowledge about human society. The study of sociology helps in better understanding and planning of society. The study of sociology also helps in solving social problems. By studying sociology we can find out the measures for strengthening social institutions to serve individual better.
Q. 25. Write one difference between sociology and economics.
Ans : Economics concentrates on the study of economic behaviour of the people. On the other hand sociology is concerned with the sociological behaviour of human being.
Q. 26. What is dialectic .
Ans : Dialectic is a method of studying social facts. It believes in the existence of opposing or conflicting social forces in the society.
Q. 27. What are the material factor which contribute towards the development of sociology.
Ans : The following material factors contribute towards the development of sociology –
(i) Industrial revolution.
(iv) Colonial rule.
Q. 28. What are the intellectual factor which contribute towards the development of sociology.
Ans : The following intellectuals factory contribute towards the development of sociology –
(i) The European intellectual movement.
(ii) Darwin’s theory of organic evolution.
(iii) French revolution.
Q. 29. What do you mean by sociological Imagination ?
Ans : The concept of Sociological Imagination was forwarded by C. Wright Mills. This concept helps in understanding the relations between people and society. There exist a reasonable relation between a private issue and public issues. This concept enables to distinguish between personal problems and public issue within society .
Q. 30. “There are pluralities and inequalities among societies ” Explain.
Ans : There are so many diversities in human societies. There are inequalities like rich and poor, educated and illiterate. There are pluralities of caste , class, language, tribe , religion etc. There are rural societies. Indian society in one of the best example of pluralities and inequalities. India is a land of multi culture , multi religions , multi ethnic and multi lingual . It is a plural society with diverse population and cultures.
There is diversity in the way of living and life style for example, diversity in eating habits, in dress and other life style. There are so many inequalities exists in Indian society . Some people are rich , some are poor. Some people are enjoying luxury and comfort, some people are suffering from poverty, hunger, disease and toiling hard . Some people are politically powerful , some are weak and deprived.
Q. 31. What is the difference between sociology and commonsense knowledge.
Ans : The commonsense knowledge is based on individualistic explanation. It is based on general assumption. It lacks systematic and scientific reason. On the other hand Sociology is a disciplined which studies society systematically . It follows scientific procedure . It has a body of concepts, methods and scientific approach . Sociology always investigates about what and why ? It explains the social phenomena by following scientific technique .
Q. 32. In what circumstances the discipline of sociology was born in Europe ?
Ans : The sociology was born in the nineteenth century in Europe under the following circumstances.
(i) The European intellectual movement the enlightenment which emphasized reason and individualism . Due to the advancement of scientific knowledge, social problems were studied by following the methods of natural sciences –
(ii) Industrial revolution created new economy and social order.
(iii) French revolution led European rethinking about equality, liberty and justice in the society.
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