Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its compounds

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Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its compounds The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NCERT Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its compounds and select need one.

Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its compounds

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its compounds Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here…

Additional Questions

Very short Answers type questions

Q.1. Name the element whose one of the allotropic forms is buck minsterfullerene. 

Ans :- Carbon. 

Q.2. What are the two properties of carbon which lead to the formation of a large number of carbon compounds ? 

Ans :- Catenation and Tetravalency. 

Q.3. State whether the following statement is true of false : Diamond and graphite are the covalent compounds of carbon element. 

Ans :- False. 

Q.4. Name the scientist who disproved the ‘vital force theory’ for the formation of organic compounds. 

Ans :- Friedrich wohler. 

5. Name the element whose allotropic form is graphite. 

Ans :- Carbon. 

Q.6. In addition to some propane and ethane, LPG cylinders contain mainly two isomers of another alkane. Name the two isomers and write their condensed structural formula. 

Ans :- n-butane and iso-butane. 

Structural formula :-   

Q.7. Buckminsterfullerene is a spherical molecule in which 60 carbon atoms are arranged in interlocking hexagonal and pentagonal rings of carbon atoms. 

(a) How many hexagons of carbon atoms are present in one molecule of buck minsterfullerence ? 

(b) How many pentagons of carbon atoms are present in one molecule of buck minsterfullerence ? 

Ans :- (a) 20 hexagons. 

          (b) 12 pentagone. 

Q.8. Name the hardest natural substance known. 

Ans :- Diamond. 

Q.9. Which of the following molecule is called buck minsterfullerene ? C₉₀ ,C₆₀ , C ₇₀, C₁₂ O 

Ans :- C₆₀ 

Q.10. What is the next higher homologue of methanol ? 

Ans :- Ethanol. 

Q.11. Identify the functional group present in the following compound and name it according to IUPAC system : CH₃ OH 

Ans :- Alcohol group; Methanol. 

Q.12. What is the common name of methanol ? 

Ans :- Formaldehyde.

Q.13. Write the name of the following functional groups : 

Ans :- (a) Alkyne. 

          (b) Alkene. 

Q.14. Which of the following will give brisk efferves cence with sodium hydrogen carbonate and why ? CH₃ COOH, CH₃ CH₂ OH 

Ans :- CH₃ COOH. Being acid, it reacts with sodium hydrogen carbonate to produce carbon dioxide gas. 

Q.15. Name the functional group present in an organic compound which gives brisk effervescence with NaHCO₃

Ans :- Carboxylic acid group (-COOH). 

Q.16. Name one chemical compound which can be used to distinguish between ethanol and ethanoic acid. 

Ans :- Sodium hydrogen carbonate. 

Q.17. Which of the following hydrocarbons will give substitution reactions and why ? CH₄, C₃H₆, C₃H₈, C₅H₁₂, C₆H₁₀

Ans :- CH₄, C₃H₈ and C₅H₁₂ All these are saturated hydrocarbons. 

Q.18. Name one liquid carbon compound which is being used as an additive in petrol in some countries. 

Ans :- Ethanol. 

Q.19. What do you call the compounds having the same molecular formula but different structural arrangements of atoms ? 

Ans :- Isomers. 

Q.20. Give the IUPAC name of the following compound : C₂H₆

Ans :- Ethane. 

Short Answer type Questions

Q.1. What is allotropes ? What are the allotropes of carbon ? 

Ans :- the various physical forms in which an element can exist are called allotropes of the elements. 

The three allotropes of carbon are : 

(i) Diamond.

(ii) Graphite. and 

(iii) Buckminsterfullerene. 

Q.2. Give two uses of diamond. 

Ans :- (i) Diamonds are used in cutting instruments like glass cutters, saw for cutting marble and in rock drilling equipment. 

(ii) Diamonds are used for making jewellery. 

Q.3. Give two uses of graphite.

Ans :- (i) It is used as a lubricant for the fast moving parts of machinery. 

(ii) It is used for making the cores of our pencils called ‘pencil leads’ and black paints. 

Q.4. A boy sharpens a pencil at both the ends and then uses its back ends to complete and electric circuit. Will the current flow through the electric circuit ? Give reason for your answer. Name the black substance of the pencil. 

Ans :- Yes, the current will flow through the electric circuit. This is because the black substance of a pencil is graphite and being a good conductor of electricity, the graphite core of pencil allows the electric current to flow through it. 

Q.5. Define hydrocarbon. Give example. 

Ans :- A compound made up of hydrogen and carbon only is called hydrocarbon. 

Example :- Methane (CH₄), ethane (C₂H₆) etc.

Q.6. Write the types of hydrocarbons. 

Ans :- (i) Saturated hydrocarbons. 

          (ii) Unsaturated hydrocarbons. 

Q.7. Define saturated hydrocarbon. Give example. 

Ans :- A hydrocarbon in which the carbon atoms are connected by only single bonds is called a saturated hydrocarbon. 

Example :- Methane, ethane, propane, butane. 

Q.8. Define unsaturated hydrocarbon. Give examples. 

Ans :- A hydrocarbon in which the two carbon atoms are connected by a ‘double bond’ or a ‘triple bond’ is called an unsaturated hydrocarbon. 

Examples :- Ethane; Ethyne. 

Q.9. What is alkenes ? Give two examples.

Ans :-  An unsaturated hydrocarbon in which the two carbon atoms are connected by a double bond is called an alkene. 

Example :- Ethene and propene. 

Q.10. What is alkyl group. Give examples. 

Ans :- The group formed by the removal of one hydrogen atom from an alkane molecule is called an alkyl group. 

Example :- methyl group (CH₃), ethyl group (C₂H₅) 

Q.11. Give the general formula of “alkynes”. Identify the alkynes from the following : CH₄, C₂H₆, C₂H₂, C₃H₄, C₂H₄ 

Ans :- The general formula of alkynes is

where in the number of carbon atoms in one molecule of the alkyne. 

Alkynes :- C₂H₂, C₃H₄ 

Q.12. A hydrocarbon molecule contains 4 hydrogen atoms. Give its molecular formula, if it is an 

(i) alkane.

(ii) alkene.

(iii) alkyne. 

Ans :- (i) CH₄ (methane). 

          (ii) C₂H₄ (ethane).

          (iii) C₃H₄ (Propyne).

Q.13. Write four characters of a homologous series. 

Ans :- (i) All the members of a homologous series can be represented by the same general formula. 

(ii) Any two adjacent homologues differ by 1 carbon atom and 2 hydrogen atoms in their molecular formula. 

(iii) The difference in the molecular masses of any two adjacent homologues is 14u. 

(iv) All the compounds of a homologues series show similar chemical properties. 

Q.14. Differentiate between soap and detergent. 

Ans :-          

1. Soaps are the sodium salts of the long chain carboxylic acids.1. Detergents are the sodium salts of long chain benzene sulphuric acids or long chain alkyl hydrogen sulphates.
2. Soaps are not suitable for washing purposes when the water is hand.2. Detergents can be used for washing even when the water is hard.
3. Soaps are biodegradable.3. Some of the detergents are not biodegradable.
4. Soaps have relatively weak cleansing action.4. Detergents have a strong cleansing action.

Q.15. Why detergents are better than soaps ? 

Ans :- Detergents are better than soaps because of the following reasons :-

(i) Detergents can be used even with hard water whereas soaps are not suitable for use with hard water. 

(ii) Detergents have a stronger cleansing action than soaps.

(iii) Detergents are more soluble in water than soaps. 

Q.16. What is the disadvantage of detergent over soap ? 

Ans :- An important disadvantage of detergents over soaps is that some of the detergents are not biodegradable, that is, they can not be decomposed by microorganisms like bacteria and hence cause water pollution in lakes and rivers. 

Q.17. Which of the following will give addition reactions and why ? C₄H₁₀, C₂H₆, C₂H₄, CH₄, C₃H₈, C₃H₄ 

Ans :- C₂H₄ and C₃H₄ These are unsaturated hydrocarbons. 

Q.18. (a) What type of compound is CH₃ COOH ? 

(b) What substance should be oxidised to prepare CH₃ COOH ? 

(c) What is the physical state of CH₃ COOH ?  

Ans :- (a) Carboxylic acid.

          (b) Ethanol, (CH₃ CH₂ OH) 

          (c) Liquid state. 

Q.19. Why soap is not suitable for washing clothes with hard water ?

Ans :- Because :- (i) When soap is used for washing clothes with hard water, a large amount of soap is wasted in reacting with the calcium and magnesium ions of hard water to form an insoluble precipitate called scum, before it can be used for the real purpose of washing. So a large amount of soap is needed for washing clothes when the water is hand. 

(ii) The scum formed by the action of hard water on soap sticks to the clothes being washed and interferes with the cleaning ability of the additional soap. This makes the cleaning of clothes difficult. 

Q.20. Write the two uses of ethanoic acid. 

Ans :- (i) Ethanoic acid is used for making cellulose acetate which is an important artificial fibre. 

(ii) Ethanoic acid is used in the preparation of dyes, plastics and pharmaceuticals.

Q.21. (a) Give the general name of the class of compounds having the general formula

Write name of the first member of this homologues series. 

(b) The general formula of a homologous series of carbon compound is . Write the molecular formula of the second and fourth members of the series. 

(c) Write the molecular formula of third and fifth members of homologous series of carbon compounds represented by the general formula

Ans :- (a) Alkynes; Ethyne 

          (b) C₃H₆ ; C₅H₁₀ 

          (c) C₃H₈ ; C₅H₁₂ 

Q.22. (a) What is the general name of the organic compound Containing the

(b) Which of the following compounds contains a carboxylic acid group ? CH₃ OH, CH₃ COOH, CH₃ CHO, CH₃ COCH₃ 

(c) How would you name the following compound ? 

Ans :- (a) Ketones.

          (b) CH₃ COOH.

          (c) Methanal.

Q.23. Fill in the blanks :

(a) The form of carbon which is known as black lead is—————. 

Ans :- Graphite.

(b) Compound of carbon with hydrogen alone are called————–.

Ans :- Hydrocarbons.

(c) is general formula of ———— hydrocarbons.

Ans :- Alkene.

(d) The IUPAC name of acetylene is ————-.

Ans :- Ethyne.

(e) The next higher homologue of ethanol is ————-. 

Ans :- Propanol.

(f) The functional group present is ethanol is —————. 

Ans :-  –OH 

(g) The Sodium salt of a long chain fatty acid is called————-.

Ans :- Soap .

(h)  ————– is better than soap for washing clothes when water is Hand.

Ans :- Detergent.

(i) The organic acid present in vinegar is ———–. 

Ans :- Ethanoic acid.

(j) Ethene and ethyne are examples of ———- hydrocarbons.

Ans :- Unsaturated.

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