Mahatma Gandhi is one of the main people who played a major role in liberating India from the shackles of subjugation by defeating the most powerful British Imperialist forces with the weapon of Non-violence and Satyagraha.
Biography of Mahatma Gandhi
|Real Name||Mohan Das Karamchand Gandhi|
|Other Name||Mahatma Gandhi. Bapu, Father of the Nation|
|Date of Birth||October 2, 1869|
|Place of Birth||Porbandar, Gujarat|
|Father’s Name||Karamchand Gandhi|
|Education||Samaldas College, Bhavnagar|
|Death||January 30, 1948|
Mahatma Gandhi was born on October 2,1869 at Porbandar in Gujarat. Mahatma Gandhi, who has been called the savior of India, has a full name Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. The name of Mahatma Gandhi’s father who grew up in a simple family in Gujarat is Karamchand Gandhi and mother’s name is Putlibai.
Medium class student Gandhi started his formal education in Porbandar. He later received his high school education in Rajkot. Importantly, child marriage was prevalent in the Indian social system during this period of the 18th century. For which Mahatma Gandhi got married to Kasturibai at the age of thirteen. He however did not end his education even though he was married. After passing the entrance examination from Samaldas College in Bhavnagar, Gujarat, he travelled foreign to pursue his barrister’s education and enrolled in the University of London. Gandhi later returned to India after passing the barrister in 1891.
Also Read : Biography of Subhas Chandra Bose
It may be recalled that Mahatma Gandhi made his career in the Bombay High Court after his return to India. But for various reasons he could not succeed in his career due to which he took up new work as an Artzi writer ( writer of the petition)was introduced. But this work also ends for various factors. He later signed a one-year contract with Dada Abdullah & Co, an Indian company based in Natal, South Africa, and Gandhi travelled to South Africa in 1893. Importantly many Indians lived in Naatal in Africa at that time. But at that time, the British lords were subjected to inhuman and torture on Indian businessmen and workers. Because racial discrimination was rampant in Africa at that time and Indians and blacks had to face the prevailing discrimination. Importantly, Gandhi also faced this racial discrimination. As a result, Mahatma Gandhi launched a revolution called the Satyagraha Movement(truth – force)despite various united challenges against caste discrimination and prejudice. Not only this, Mahatma Gandhi, who believed in Action is a Religion, tried to spread this ideal of religion by setting up a Phoenix farm near Darwan station in Natal and setting up a Tolstoy Farm a few years later. He also played an important role in bringing the people together against racial discrimination, prejudice and unthinking intellectually by editing a paper called Indian Opinion and regularly arranging publications. Mahatma Gandhi, who has been in Natal for more than 20 years, founded the Natal Indian Congress in 1894 to politically unite Indians.
Mahatma Gandhi, who returned to India from Natal, Africa in 1915, established an ashram in Ahmedabad city on the banks of the Sabarmati river and committed to public welfare work. It may be recalled that the principles of this ashram were the ideals and the principles followed by Gandhi — truth, non-violence, ceremolation, fearlessness, self-restraint, the abolition of untouchability, education through mother tongue, and the use of khadi and indigenous materials.
It may be recalled that Gandhi introduced his good leadership by running the Indigo revolt of Champaran in Bihar and the mill movement in Ahmedabad after returning to India from Africa. Importantly, during World War I in 1914, Gandhi urged Indians to help the English. Because he thought that English would give swaraj to India. But on the contrary the English enacted the Rowlatt Act in India. Because of ungratefulness of British, Mahatma Gandhi took a strong leadership and observed strike across the country. This was followed by inhuman killings by the British in 1919 on unarmed people in Jalianabag, Amritsar. This resulted in Mahatma Gandhi initiating an agitation against the English.
Mahatma Gandhi launched the historic Non-Cooperation movement in 1920 after this inhuman murder. Uncooperatively he wanted to destroy British rule. Because he believed that the English could not maintain rule unless the cooperation of the people of India was found. He called upon all to observe this non-cooperation with complete non-violence and to strengthen the direction of financial self-reliance by boycotting foreign goods and to use khadi clothes as well as other indigenous things. Importantly, the entire Indian people responded spontaneously to Mahatma Gandhi’s call. It may be recalled that Gandhi had to spend several times in jail for crime of treason and for initiating rebellion against the British.
Mahatma Gandhi started the Civil disobedience movement in 1930 after the Non-Cooperation movement failed. Importantly, he himself marched from Sabarmati Ashram to the shortest of the beach dandi with a group of Satyagrahis to break the Salt Satyagraha. The movement unveiled a new strong direction led by Gandhi against the British across India. It may be recalled that this Dandi yatra of Mahatma Gandhi is also seen being compared by many people to Shri Ram Chandra’s Lanka yatra. It may be recalled that due to the intensity of the civil disobedience movement led by Mahatma Gandhi, the British government, without the disinterest in giving India autonomy, had called for a round table conference and sat in the round table conference for three times. But this conference did not succeed. Importantly, imperialist British Prime Minister Sarsil made a comment on Mahatma Gandhi as non-democratic fakir.
Mahatma Gandhi launched the Quit India Movement after World War II began in 1939. In the wake of this movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi by slogan ‘Do or Die’ thousands of leaders were imprisoned for prominently supporting Gandhi. Many sacrificed their lives for the country. It was because of this uncompromising struggle of the people of India that India regained its lost independence on August 15,1947, but a rift between Hindus and Muslims led to the creation of two countries, India and Pakistan. Importantly, the creation of India and Pakistan on the basis of religion caused immense pain to Mahatma Gandhi.
The goal of Mahatma Gandhi’s life was to lead a simple life and to think better. He did everything in his daily life without anyone’s help. Gandhi, who never compromised with the right opinion, always loves to help the poor and needy, and to nurse the sick people. Gandhi who fell into the touch of evil people at one point of time in his life, he corrected himself. Apart from this Gandhi was a complete vegetarian.
Mahatma Gandhi, who led the movement against the British, was one of the writers and editors at the same time. Some of the notable books he wrote were his autobiography – The Story of my Experiments with Truth, and also the Hind Swaraj, India of my Dreams, Village Swaraj, Constructive Program-Its Meaning and Place he wrote.
In addition, Gandhi published papers in English, Hindi, Gujarati and Telugu from 1903 to 1915 Indian Opinion, From 1919 to 1931, English, Gujarati and Hindi language publications ‘Harijan’, and edited ‘Young India’ published in English, Gujarati.
Gandhi, who dreamt of building a prosperous Ram Rajya, was shot dead on January 30, 1948. Nathuram Godse a Hindu fundamentalist killed Mahatma Gandhi while attending a prayer meeting near Birla Bhawan in New Delhi. It may be recalled that Gandhi’s memorial is at Rajghat in New Delhi. Importantly, the last word uttered by Mahatma Gandhi at the last minute was “Hey Ram”
Gandhi, a symbol of non-violence, love, truth and values, has been conferred with the name Bapuji, the father of the nation. Importantly, poet Rabindranath Thakur referred to Gandhi as ‘Mahatma’, Jawaharlal Nehru and Vallabhbhai Patel called him ‘Bapuji and his English disciples Madeline Sled or Miraben first referred to him as Bapu. It may be recalled that October 2 is celebrated as Gandhi Jayanti every year on Mahatma Gandhi’s birthday and international day of non-violence is celebrated all over the world. Hailed as World’s greatest Saint Mahatma Gandhi’s human love, human service and God’s bliss, were immense. Gandhi is the ideal of the entire country and the world.
1. When and where was Mahatma Gandhi born?
Ans: He was born on October 2,1869 at Porbandar, Gujarat.
2. Who is Mahatma Gandhi?
Ans: Mahatma Gandhi is the ‘Father of our Nation.’
3. What is the real name of Mahatma Gandhi?
Ans: The real name of Mahatma Gandhi is Mohan Das Karamchand Gandhi.
4. By what name Gandhi is popularly known as?
Ans: He is popularly known as ‘Bapu.’
5. Who referred Gandhi as Mahatma?
Ans: Poet Rabindranath Thakur referred to Gandhi as ‘Mahatma’.
6. When did Gandhi launched Non-Cooperation Movement?
Ans: Gandhi launched the historic Non-Cooperation movement in 1920.
7. When did Gandhi launched Civil disobedience Movement?
Ans: He launched Civil disobedience Movement in 1930.
8. When did Gandhi launched the Quit India Movement?
Ans: Gandhi launched the Quit India Movement after World War II began in 1939.
9. What is the famous slogan given by Gandhi?
Ans: The famous slogan given by Gandhi is ‘Do or Die.’
10. When did India regained its lost independence?
Ans: India regained its lost independence on August 15,1947.
11. When did Mahatma Gandhi died?
Ans: He died on January 30 1948.
12. Who shot death/killed Gandhi?
Ans: Nathuram Godse a Hindu fundamentalist killed/shot Gandhi while attending a prayer meeting near Birla Bhawan in New Delhi.
13. What is the last word uttered by Gandhi at the last minute?
Ans: The last word uttered by Gandhi at the last minute was ‘Hey Ram.’
14. When do we celebrate Gandhi Jayanti?
Ans: October 2 is celebrated as Gandhi Jayanti every year on Gandhiji’s birthday.
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