Atlas of World History
Atlas of World History Historical atlases should be accurate, accessible and display the unfurling chronology of world history in memorable maps and captions. The team of historians, cartographers, and editors who collaborated in the construction of Philip’s Atlas of World History set out to produce a popular work of reference that could be adopted for university and school courses in world history.
Atlas of World History Pdf
THE ANCIENT WORLD
The first humans evolved in Africa around two million years ago. By 9000 BG their descendants had spread to most parts of the globe and in some areas were beginning to practice agriculture. From around 4000 BG the first civilizations developed, initially in the Near East and India and subsequently in China, Mesoamerica and South America. In the centuries that followed, to AD 500, many states and empires rose and fell.
Some five to eight million years ago, a species of small African primates began walking upright. While there are many theories about the advantages conferred by moving on two legs rather than four, there is general agreement that the success of the hominid line (humans and their ancestors) is due in part to the adoption of this new method of locomotion.
Between five and one million years ago, hominid species proliferated in East Africa and southern Africa, giving rise by 1.8 million years ago to the new genus, oral, to which we ourselves belong (map J). The development by Homo of stone tools – and, we may presume, tools that have not survived, made of other materials such as bone and wood – was a major advance in human evolution, allowing our ancestors to engage in activities for which they lacked the physical capabilities.
This ability to develop technology to overcome our physical limitations has enabled us to develop from a small and restricted population of African apes to a species that dominates every continent except Antarctica and has even reached the moon.
Between 1.8 million and 300,000 years ago, members of our genus colonized much of temperate Europe and Asia as well as tropical areas, aided by their ability to use fire and create shelter. By 9000 BG the only parts of the globe which modern humans – Homo sapiens – had not reached were some remote islands and circumpolar regions.
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