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CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PEDAGOGY
As a child grows up, there is a deliberate and conscious effort made through active training to make the child learn the values and expectations of the society he or she lives in. The child has to learn to adjust and accommodate her behaviour according to the rules for appropriate behaviour in the society, Parents, teachers, elders as well as the peers (same age group children) all influence and control the behaviour of a child.
According to the Indian view, a child comes to this world with certain behavioural tendencies which carry over from previous birth. The role of the family is to bring up the child in such a way that her positive capacities are developed fully and negative tendencies are controlled. Apart from the family, there are also other influences on the child from the outside environment. The important agents of socialisation include media, day-care centers, peer group, school and religion. Parents have the most direct effect on the socialisation of the child. They are role models for children. Their responses to child behaviour, giving approval or disapproval ctc. mould the personality of a child and plays a very important role in acquiring rules. In addition, parents arrange the environment of their children in different ways. They take the child outside in specific settings like a museum, church, temple, mosque, hill station, sea beach. The grandparents and aunts and uncles of the child also contribute to the socialisation process. Children learn manners and skills by observing parents. During the lifespan of a person, at different ages, specific rituals are performed. These rituals represent the changes in the child from one stage to another. They contribute in forming the identity of the child.
The influence of the peer group of the child, particularly during middle childhood is very important. In the interactions with the children of the same age group, a child learns the importance of Icam work, sharing and trust. One of the significant effects of this is that the child learns to adjust and accommodate to the viewpoint of the others.
The school which the child attends is another very important socializing agent. The child learns different types of social intellectual and physical skills in school. The school provides the child with a miniature society where he or she has to learnt the right values and rules and follow them. Values such as honesty, democracy and fairness etc. are learnt in the school setting
Now-a-days, children search and know the world through TV, magazines, books, comics, radio and films. This media influences the socialisation of the child in significant ways. A positive influence can be learning the importance of family values by watching good and informative programmes. Watching regressive programmes and programmes based on violence can influence child negatively
In the present way of life, when both parents are doing jobs, very young children have to be left at daycare centers. These centers, therefore. play an Important role in the wall of the child because the child will learn many things about appropriate behaviour in the society. For children from poor hack ground the Anganwadis under the programme of Integrated Child Developments (co help children to learn about appropriate social behaviour and the importance of community life
Theories of Development
Psychologists continue to study human development. They are learning more about what people are like and how they develop Over the past century, many psychologists have provided theories that are considered practical guides. A theory is a principle or idea that is proposed, researched and generally accepted as an explanation. Developmental theories provide insights into how children grow and learn Theories are helpful for understanding and guiding developmental processes
Theories can be useful decision-making tools Since a variety of theories exists, teachers and to understand these different approaches for working with children. Theories will help you understand strategies for promoting children’s development. Four major theories about how children learn are important These include theories of mid-twentieth century psychologists Erik Erikson, Joan Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. The final theorist, Howard Gardner, is a twenty first century developmental psychologist. These theories are based on observation and experiences with children
Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory
Erik Erikson proposed a theory of psychosocial development He believed development occurs throughout the life span. His theory provided new insights into the formation of a healthy personality It emphasizes the social and emotional aspects of growth. Children’s personalities develop in response to their social environment. The same is true of their skills for social interaction. Erikson’s theory includes eight stages. At each stage, a social conflict or crisis occurs. These are not generally tragic situations; however, they require solutions that are satisfying both personally and socially. Erikson believed that each stage must be resolved before children can ascend to the next stage.
Maturity and social forces help in the resolution of the crisis or conflict. Therefore, teachers and parents play a powerful role in recognizing each stage. By providing social opportunity and support, teachers and parents can help children overcome each crisis. Following table contains the first four stages of Erikson’s theory. These stages occur during the carly
childhood years. The paragraphs that follow give brief overview of these early stages
|Erikson’s Stages of Development During|
|Stage||Approximate Age||Psychosocial Crisis|
|I||Birth-18 months||Trust versus mistrust|
|II||18 months-3 years||Autonomy versus shame and doubt|
|II||3-5.years||Initiative versus guilt|
|IV||6-12 years||Industry versus inferiority|
Note: The first four stages of Erikson’s theory concern children from birth to welve years
Stage 1: Trust Versus Mistrust
During the first eighteen months of life, children learn to trust or mistrust their environment. To develop trust they need to have warm, consistent, predictable, and attentive care. They need caregivers who will accurately read and respond to their signals, Why infants are distressed, they need to be comforted. They also need loving physical contact, nourishment, cleanliness, and warmth. Then they will develop a sense of confidence and trust that the world is safe and dependable. Mistrust will occur if an infant experiences an unpredictable world and is handled hanley
Stage 2: Autonomy Versus Shame
This second stage occurs between eighteen months and three years of age. During this stage, toddlers use their new motor and mental skills. They want to be independent and do things for themselves. They are in the process of discovering their own bodies and practicing their developing locomotor (physical movement and language skills
The objective of this stage is to gain self-control without a loss of self-esteem. Fostering independence in children is important. At this age, toddlers start to become self-sufficient. They need to learn to choose and decide for themselves. To do this, toddlers need a loving, supportive environment. Positive opportunities for self-feeding, toileting. dressing and exploration will result in autonomy, or independence On the other hand, overprotection or lack of adequate activities results in self-doubt, poor achievement, and shame.
Stage 3: Initiative Versus Guilt
Between three and five years of age, the third stage occurs. According to Erikson, it emerges as a result of the many skills children have developed. Now children have the capacity and are ready to learn
constructive ways of dealing with people and things They are learning how to take initiative without being hurtful to others They are also busy discovering how the world works. Children begin to realize that what they do can have an effect on the world, too. Challenged by the environment, children are constantly attempting and mastering new tasks. Aided by strong initiative, they are able to move ahead energetically and quickly forget failures. This gives them a sense of accomplishment.
Children at this stage need to develop a sense of purpose. This happens when adults direct children’s urges toward acceptable social practices. If children are discouraged by criticism, feelings of incompetence are likely to emerge. This can also occur if parents demand too much control.
Stage 4 : Industry Versus Inferiority
The major crisis of this stage occurs between six and twelve years of age. At this time, children enjoy planning and carrying out projects. This helps them learn society’s rules and expectations. During this stage, children gain approval by developing intellectual skills such as reading, writing, and math.
The way family, neighbours, teachers, and friends respond to children affects their future development. Realistic goals and expectations enrich children’s sense of self. Children can become frustrated by criticism or discouragement, or if parents demand too much control. Feelings of incompetence and insecurity will emerge.
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