NCERT Class 9 Social Science Chapter 15 Constitutional Design

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NCERT Class 9 Social Science Chapter 15 Constitutional Design

Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 9 Social Science Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 9 Social Science Chapter 15 Constitutional Design, NCERT Class 9 Social Science Textbook of India and The Contemporary World – I: History, Contemporary India -I: Geography, Democratic Politics – I: Political Science, Economics and Disaster Management. for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

Constitutional Design

Chapter: 15

DEMOCRATIC POLITICS – I (POLITICAL SCIENCE)

NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS

Q. 1. Here are some false statements. Identify the mistake in each case and rewrite these correctly based on what you have read in this chapter.

(a) Leaders of the freedom movement had an open mind about whether the country should be democratic or not after independence.

Ans. Leaders of the freedom movement had an open mind that the country should be democratic after independence.

(b) Members of the Constituent Assembly of India held the same views on all provisions of the Constitution.

Ans. Members of the Constituent Assembly of India held different opinions on the provisions of the Constitution.

(c) A country that has a constitution must be a democracy.

Ans. A democratic country must have a Constitution.

(d) Constitution cannot be amended because it is the supreme law of a country.

Ans. The constitution needs to be amended because it has to be in accordance with people’s aspirations and changes in society.

Q. 2. Which of these was the most salient underlying conflict in the making of a democratic constitution in South Africa:

(a) Between South Africa and its neighbors. 

(b) Between men and women.

(c) Between the white majority and the black minority.

(d) Between the coloured minority and the black majority.

Ans. (c) Between the white majority and the black minority.

Q. 3. Which of these is a provision that a democratic constitution does not have?

(a) Powers of the head of the state.

(b) Name of the head of the state.

(c) Powers of the legislature.

(d) Name of the country.

Ans. (b) Name of the head of the state.

Q. 4 Match the following leaders with their roles in the making of the Constitution:

(a) Motilal Nehru(i) President of the Constituent Assembly 
(b) B.R Ambedkar (ii) Member of the Constituent Assembly 
(c) Rajendra Prasad (iii) Chairman of the Drafting Committee 
(d) Sorojini Naidu(iv) Prepared a Constitution for India in 1928

Ans.

(a) Motilal Nehru(iv) Prepared a Constitution for India in 1928.
(b) B.R Ambedkar(iii) Chairman of the Drafting Committee.
(c) Rajendra Prasad(i) President of the Constituent Assembly.
(d) Sorojini Naidu(ii) Member of the Constituent Assembly.

Q. 5. Read again the extracts from Nehru’s speech ‘Tryst with Destiny’ and answer the following:

(a) Why did Nehru use the expression “not wholly or in full measure” in the first sentence?

Ans. Nehru mentioned in his speech “not wholly or in full measure” because he wanted the full supports and very substantially for the people of India.

(b) What pledge did he want the makers of the Indian Constitution to take?

Ans. The pledge of dedication to the service of India and her people and to the still larger course of humanity.

(c) “The ambition of the greatest man of our generation has been to wipe every tear from every eye.” Who was he referring to?

Ans. He refers here Gandhiji.

Q. 6. Here are some of the guiding values of the Constitution and their meaning. Rewrite them by matching them correctly:

(a) Sovereign(i) Government will not favor any religion.
(b) Republic (ii) People have the supreme right to make decisions.
(c) Fraternity (iii) Head of the state is an elected person.
(d) Secular (iv) People should live like brothers and sisters.

Ans.

(a) Sovereign(ii) People have the supreme right to make decisions.
(b) Republic(iii) Head of the State is an elected person.
(c) Fraternity(iv) People should live like brothers and sisters.
(d) Secular(i) Government will not favor any religion.

Q. 7. A friend from Nepal has written you a letter describing the political situation there. Many political parties are opposing the rule of the king. Some of them say that the existing constitution given by the monarch can be amended to allow more powers to elected representatives. Others are demanding a new Constituent Assembly to write a republican constitution. Reply to your friend giving your opinions on the subject.

Dear friend,

I have read your letter and regarding the matter following are my suggestions:

(i) You must continue your protest and make pressure on the king to make necessary amendments in the Constitution.

(ii) Ours a democratic country and the elected members rule the country on our behalf. So we have self satisfaction regarding democratic set-up.

(iii) Democracy is must for every individual. So you must remain in contact with your countrymen and try to remain united.

(iv) Now a days we also press our government to ask the Nepali King to listen his political leaders and solve the problem.

Q. 8. Here are different opinions about what made India a democracy. How much importance would you give to each of these factors?

(a) Democracy in India is a gift of the British rulers. We received training to work with representative legislative institutions under the British rule.

Ans. (a) It is not correct that democracy is gift of the Britishers to Indian people. Because we realized the pinch and started struggle to gain freedom.

(b) Freedom struggle challenged the colonial exploitation and denial of different freedoms to Indians. Free India could not be anything but democratic.

Ans. It is correct that freedom struggle challenged the colonial exploitation and denial of different freedoms to Indians. So we fought and leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak said, “Freedom is my birth right and I shall have it.” This strong slogan motivated Indians. 

(c) We were lucky to have leaders who had democratic convictions. The denial of democracy in several other newly independent countries shows the important role of these leaders.

Ans. We have leaders who had democratic attitudes and farsightedness.

Q. 9. Read the following extract from a conduct book for ‘married women’, published in 1912.

‘God has made the female species delicate and fragile both physically and emotionally, pitiably incapable of self-defense. They are destined thus by God to remain in male protection-of father, husband and son-all their lives. Women should, therefore, not despair, but feel obliged that they can dedicate themselves to the service of men.’

Do you think the values expressed in this para reflected the values underlying our Constitution? Or does this go against the constitutional values?

Ans. According to Constitution of India, the above mentioned statement is wrong. We have equality before law and opportunity. So we can not exclude the women folk.

Q. 10. Read the following statements about a constitution. Give reasons why each of these is true or not true.

(a) The authority of the rules of the constitution is the same as that of any other law.

Ans. It is true. Because all the laws are directed according to constitution of the country.

(b) Constitution lays down how different organs of the government will be formed.

Ans. Yes, it is true, that no government can be formed beyond the constitution. 

(c) Rights of citizens and limits on the power of the government are laid down in the constitution.

Ans. It is true that the rights of citizens are given in the constitution and we cannot cross the limitations.

Q. 11. What is apartheid?

Ans. Apartheid was the name of a system of social discrimination unique to South Africa. The White European impose this system on South Africa during the seventeenth century and it continued for more than 200 years.

The system of apartheid divided the people and labeled them on the basis of their skin color.

SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

 Q. 1. On what charges was Nelson Mandela sentenced to life imprisonment?

(a) For treason.

(b) For breaking the laws.

(c) For corruption charges.

(d) For possessing illegal property. 

Ans. (a) For treason.

Q. 2. In which way did the system of apartheid discriminate among the South Africans?

(a) Restricted social contacts between the races.

(b) Segregation of public facilities.

(c) Created race-specific job categories.

(d) All the above. 

Ans. (d) All the above.

Q. 3. Why did the white regime decide to change its policies? 

(a) Increase in protests and struggles.

(b) Government realized that repression was becoming difficult.

(c) Rise of sympathetic attitude in government for the blacks.

(d) Both (a) and (b). 

Ans. (d) Both (a) and (b).

Q. 4. What did the white minority want from the new Constitution?

(a) Protect its privileges and property.

(b) A separate country for themselves. 

(c) Reservation in legislature.

(d) some special rights.

Ans. (a) Protect its privileges and property. 

Q. 5. Which of the following sentences is correct?

(a) All countries that have constitutions are necessarily democratic.

(b) All countries that are democratic necessarily have constitutions.

(c) Both (a) and (b). 

(d) None of the above.

Ans. (b) All countries that are democratic necessarily have constitutions.

Q. 6. According to which Act were the elections held to provincial legislatures in India in 1937?

(a) Government of India Act, 1935 

(b) Government of India Act, 1919

(c) Government of India Act, 1909

(d) None of the above.

Ans. (a) Government of India Act, 1935

Q. 7. Which of these positions is correct in relation to the ‘Sovereign’ status of India?

(a) USA can decide India’s foreign policy. 

(b) USSR can support the CPI(M) in setting up its government here.

(c) The Indian government only can decide its internal and external policies. 

(d) Pakistan can control India’s Armed Forces. 

Ans. (c) The Indian government only can decide its internal and external policies. 

Q. 8. Match these guiding values with their meanings.

(A) Sovereign(i) government will not favor any particular religion.
(B) Republic(ii) Supreme right to make decisions without outside interference.
(C) Fraternity(iii) Head of the state is an elected person.
(D) Secular(iv) There should be a feeling of brotherhood among all the people.

Options:

(a) A-(iii), B-(i), C-(ii), D-(iv)

(b) A-(ii), B-(iii), C-(iv), D-(i)

(e) A-(i), B-(iv), C-(iii), D-(ii)

(d) A-(iv), B-(iii), C-(i), D-(ii)

Ans. (b) A-(ii), B-(iii), C-(iv), D-(i)

Q. 9. The Indian constitution has borrowed from: 

(i) Ideas from French Revolution.

(ii) The British Constitution. 

(iii) The Bill of Rights of the US.

(iv) Israeli Constitution.

Options:

(a ) (i), (ii), (iv) 

(b) (i), (ii), (iii) 

(c) (ii), (iii), (iv) 

(d) (i), (ii), (iv)

Ans. (b) (i), (ii), (iii)

Q. 10. In the question given below, there are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and chose the correct option.

Assertion (A): The apartheid system was particularly oppressive for the blacks.

Reason (R): The native people of South Africa are black in color. They made up about three-fourth of the population and were called ‘blacks’.

Options:

(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A). 

(b) Both (A) and (B) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(c) (A) is true but (R) is false. 

(d) (A) is false but (R) is true.

Ans. (b) Both (A) and (B) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

Q. 11. In the question given below, there are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and chose the correct option.

Assertion (A): After two years of discussion and debate the South Africans came out with one of the finest constitutions the world has ever had.

Reason (R): They agreed that the native Africans should become part of the solution, whatever they might have done or represented in the past. 

Options:

(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(b) (A) is true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A). 

(c) (A) is true but (R) is false.

(d) (A) is false but (R) is true. 

Ans. (c) (A) is true but (R) is false.

Q. 12. In the question given below, there are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and chose the correct option. 

Assertion (A): Preamble is the supreme law that determines the relationship among people living in a territory (called citizens) and also the relationship between the people and government.

Reason (R): It generates a degree of trust and coordination that is necessary for different kind of people to live together. 

Options:

(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A). 

(b) (A) is true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(c) (A) is true but (R) is false. 

(d) (A) is false but (R) is true.

Ans. (d) (A) is false but (R) is true.

Q. 13. In the question given below, there are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and chose the correct option. 

Assertion (A): The making of the constitution for a huge and diverse country like India was not an easy affair. 

Reason (R): The country was born through a partition on the basis of religious differences. This was a traumatic experience for the people of India.

Options:

(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(b) (A) is true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A). 

(c) (A) is true but (R) is false.

(d) (A) is false but (R) is true.

Ans. (a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

Q. 14. In the question given below, there are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and chose the correct option.

Assertion (A): The constitutional framers made provisions to incorporate changes from time to time.

Reason (R): The Constitution describes the institutional arrangements in a very legal language.

Options:

(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A). 

(b) Both (A) and (B) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

(c) (A) is true but (R) is false. 

(d) (A) is false but (R) is true.

Ans. (b) Both (A) and (B) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

Fill in the Blanks:

(i) A country in which the head is elected by the people is known as _________.

Ans. Republic.

(ii) _________ was the name of a system of social discrimination unique to South Africa.

Ans. Apartheid.

(iii) The _________  is the assembly of people’s representatives. 

Ans. Constituent Assembly.

(iv) __________ means supreme power.

Ans. Sovereignty.

(v) A ____________ State is a state which is not based on any religion.

Ans. Secular.

True and False:

(i) The elections of the Constituent Assembly were held in August, 1946.

Ans. False.

(ii) There were 480 members in the Constituent Assembly.

Ans. False.

(iii) The constitution provides a framework within which a government has to work.

Ans.  True.

(iv) The making of the constitution for a huge and diverse country like India was not an easy affair.

Ans. True.

(v) The Indian Constitution is an oral constitution. 

Ans. False.

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Q. 1. Why is the Preamble called the soul of the Indian Constitution?

Ans. Because it contains the philosophy on which the entire constitution has been built. It provides a standard to examine and evaluate any law and action of government, to find out whether it is good or bad. It is the soul of the Indian Constitution.

Q. 2. What is the significance of the phrase ‘We the people of India’ in the Preamble?

Ans. The preamble is an introductory part of the Constitution. It is called the key of the Constitution. “We the people of India” means the Constitution has been drawn up and enacted by the people through their representatives, and not handed down to them by a king or any outside powers.

Q. 3. What determines the rights of citizens and the powers of the government?

Ans. As the supreme law of the country, the Constitution determines the rights of citizens, the powers of the government and how the government should function.

Q. 4. What is meant by ‘segregation’?

Ans. In South Africa, all the public places like trains, buses, schools, hospitals, beaches etc. were separate for the whites and blacks. Even the churches were separate. The black people were forbidden from living in white areas. This is called segregation.

Q. 5. What do you mean by political equality?

Ans. Every citizen is entitled to all the constitutional rights and freedom without making distinction of any kind like gender, race, status, religion etc. Equal voting right to all adult citizens of country, be it rich or poor with no discrimination comes under political equality.

Q. 6. What was the state of the princely states when the British left India?

Ans. The British had left it to the rulers of the princely states to decide whether they wanted to be with India or with Pakistan or remain independent.

Q. 7. What are Constituent Assembly Debates?

Ans. When every document presented and every word spoken in the Constituent Assembly was recorded and preserved these referred as Constituent Assembly Debates.

Q. 8. Write the significance of ‘Constituent Assembly Debates’. 

Ans. The Constituent Assembly Debates provide the reason behind every provision of the constitution. They are used to interpret the constitution.

Q. 9. Who was the President of the Constituent Assembly?

Ans. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the President of the Constituent Assembly.

Q. 10. Write the names of any two members of the Constituent Assembly. 

Ans. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and Sh. K.M. Munshi were the two members of the Constituent Assembly. 

Q. 11. What is the Constituent Assembly?

Ans. The Constituent Assembly is the assembly of people’s representatives. This assembly is often framed to write the constitution of a country.

Q. 12. Who was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of Indian Constitution?

Ans. Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar, an eminent lawyer and politician.

Q. 13. State the powerful ideals laid down in the Constitution of India.

Ans. The powerful ideals laid down in the Constitution of India are given below: 

(i) Democracy. 

(ii) Socialism. 

(iii) Secularism. and 

(iv) National integration.

Q. 14. Who has written the book, “Long Walk to Freedom”?

Ans. Nelson Mandela. It is his autobiography. 

Q. 15. What is the Preamble of the Constitution?

Ans. Preamble’ is a short statement of the constitution’s basic values. The basic foundation of the Indian Constitution is the dignity and the freedom of the individuals.

Q. 16. State three features of the Indian Constitution.

Ans. Three features of the Indian Constitution are stated below: 

(i) Federal form of government. 

(ii) A written constitution. and 

(iii) Parliamentary form of government.

Q. 17. What does the word ‘Sovereignty’ mean?

Ans. ‘Sovereignty’ means supreme power.

It means the right of people to take decisions on internal matters as well as policies which determines our relation with the other countries.

Q. 18. What do you understand by ‘Republic”? 

Ans. ‘Republic’ means the head of the state is an elected person. He wields power for a fixed period. 

Q. 19. What are “Fundamental Rights”?

Ans. The constitution guarantees to all citizens of India certain basic rights such as Right to Equality and Right to Freedom. They are called “Fundamental Rights”. 

Q. 20. Which feature of the constitution of India do you like the most? Write any one. 

Ans. I like the ‘secular’ feature of the Indian Constitution.

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Q. 1. What is the need and importance of constitution?

Ans. (i) The constitution provides a framework within which a government has to work.

(ii) It controls the misuse of power by the government.

(iii) It minimizes the chances of disputes among the various organs of the Government as it clearly defines their powers and functions.

(iv) It safeguards the fundamental rights of the citizens.

Q. 2. Indian Constitution is partly rigid and partly flexible. Explain. 

Ans. The Constitution of India is neither wholly rigid nor wholly flexible. It is partly rigid and partly flexible. It is because of the fact that for three types of amendment procedures has been adopted in our constitution.

Briefly we can discuss these procedures in the following way: 

(i) Certain provisions of the constitution can be amended by a simple majority in parliament. (Flexible) 

(ii) Certain provisions can be amended by a two-third majority in parliament and ratified by at least fifty percent of the states. (Rigid)

(iii) The remaining provisions can be amended by parliament by two-third majority. (Rigid) 

Q. 3. When and who first of all drafted a Constitution for India?

Ans. 1. As far back as in 1928, Motilal Nehru and eight other Congress leaders drafted a Constitution for India. In 1931, the resolution at the Karachi session of the Indian National Congress dwelt on how independent India’s Constitution should look like. 

2. Both these documents were committed to the inclusion of universal adult franchise, right to freedom and equality and to protecting the rights of minorities in the constitution of independent India. 

3. Thus some basic values were accepted by all leaders much before the Constituent Assembly met to deliberate on the constitution.

Q. 4. Mention any three features of the Indian Constitution.

Ans. The main features of the Indian Constitution are as under: 

(i) It establishes a Sovereign, Socialist, Democratic, Republic in India. 

(ii) It establishes a secular state in India.

(iii) It provides fundamental rights and fundamental duties to the citizens of India. 

(iii) It establishes a parliamentary form of Government in India.

Q. 5. India has a Parliamentary form of Government. Explain. 

Ans. India has a Parliamentary form government which is clear from the following facts:

(i) In India, head of the State (President) is nominal head of the State. Although the Constitution has given him vast powers, hat in actual practice, these powers are exercised by the Prime Minister and other members of the Council of Ministers. It is they who run the administration of the country.

(ii) The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Parliament. They remain in office as long as they enjoy the support of majority in Lok Sabha.

(iii) Lok Sabha enjoys the power to remove the ministers by passing a vote of no-confidence against them

Q. 6. What do you know about the terms:

(i) Secular state. and 

(ii) Republic? 

Ans. The Preamble of the Constitution declares India to be a ‘Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic Republic.’ 

(i) A Secular State is a state which is not based on any religion. There is no state religion and every citizen is free to adopt the religion of his/her choice. The state cannot discriminate between its citizens on the basis of their religion.

(ii) The word ‘Republic’ included in the Preamble means that in India, head of the state cannot be a hereditary king. The head of the state i.e. the President is elected for a fixed tenure. 

Q. 7. What are the main reasons for the bulkiness of the Indian Constitution? 

Ans. The following are the reasons for the bulkiness of our Constitution:

(i) In the Constitution, the detail of fundamental principles are given. 

(ii) The Constitution provides for a federal form of government. The division of powers into the three lists-Union List, State List and Concurrent List has been explained in detail. 

(iii) Description of Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State Policy is given in detail. 

(iv) Inclusion of the provisions for the protection and development of the members of scheduled tribes.

(v) Detailed description of the emergency powers of the President has also contributed to the bulkiness of the Constitution.

Q. 8. Write a short note on Nelson Mandela.

Ans. 1. Nelson Mandela, being tried for treason by the white South African government. He and seven other leaders were sentenced to life imprisonment in 1964 for daring to oppose the apartheid regime in his country.

2. He spent the next 28 years in prison. 

3. After his release he became the first black President of South Africa.

Q. 9. Mention some of the facts regarding new Constitution of South Africa.

Ans. 1. After two years of discussion and debate the people of South Africa came out with one of the finest constitutions of the world. This constitution gave to its citizens the most extensive rights available in any country. 

2. Together, they decided that in the search for a solution to the problems of racial and color discrimination nobody should be excluded, no one should be treated as a demon.

3. They agreed that everybody should become part of the solution, whatever they might have done or represented in the past. 

Q. 10. What are the four main ideals enshrined in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution? 

Ans. The ideals written in the Preamble of the Constitution are as under:

1. Justice: Every citizen of India will have social, economic and political justice. 

2. Liberty: Every citizen will have the liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship. 

3. Equality: Every citizen will be provided with the equality of status and of opportunity.

4. Fraternity: All the citizens of India have been assured about the dignity of individual and the unity and integrity of the nation.

Q. 11. How you can say that apartheid system was particularly oppressive for the blacks? Mention some of the examples.

Ans. 1. They were forbidden from living in white areas. They could work in white areas only if they had a permit. Trains, buses, taxis, hotels, hospitals, schools and colleges, libraries, cinema halls, theaters, beaches, swimming pools, public toilets, were all separate for the whites and blacks. This was called segregation.

2. They could not even visit the churches where the whites worshiped.

3. Blacks could not form associations or protest against the terrible treatment.

Q. 12. Why do the South African people needed a constitution?

Ans. 1. The South African example is a good way to understand why we need a constitution and what do constitution do. The oppressors and the oppressed in this new democracy were planning to live together as equals. It was not going to be easy for them to trust each other. They had their fears.

2. They wanted to safeguard their interests. The black majority was keen to ensure that the democratic principle of majority rule was not compromised.

3. They wanted substantial social and economic rights. 

Q. 13. Who inspired us on social and economic equality? 

Ans. 1. The socialist revolution of 1917 in Russia had inspired many Indians to think of shaping a system based on social and economic equality.

2. Yet, they were not simply imitating what others had done. At each step they were questioning whether these things suited our country. All these factors contributed to the making of our constitution.

Q. 14. What was the philosophy behind the constitution?

Ans. 1. Values that inspired and guided the freedom struggle and were in turn nurtured by it, formed the foundation for India’s democracy. These values are embedded in the Preamble of the Indian Constitution. 

2. They guide all the articles of the Indian Constitution. The constitution begins with a short statement of its basic values. This is called the Preamble to the Constitution. 

3. Taking inspiration from American model, most countries in the contemporary world have chosen to begin their constitutions with a preamble.

LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS 

Q. 1. What is a Constitution? Why do we need a Constitution? 

Ans. I. What is a Constitution? The set of basic rules according to which the government of a country runs is called a constitution. It deals with the relations of the Centre with the States, between one state and the other, between the different organs of the government (like Legislature, Executive and Judiciary) and between the government and its citizens. 

II. Why do we Need a Constitution?

We need a constitution to achieve the following things:

1. Constitution specifies how the government will be constituted and who will have the power to take decisions. 

2. It lays down limits on the powers of the government and guides it to respect the Fundamental Rights of the people.

3. It aims at the creation of a good or liberal and civilized society and give expression to the aspirations of the people.

4. It generates trust and coordination among the different groups of people to live together in harmony. 

Q. 2. Why do you think there is more importance of a constitution to a democratic country?

Ans. Importance of Constitution to a Democratic Country: The constitution has more importance in a democratic form of government because of the following reasons:

1. It is according to the constitution that the government in a democratic country is formed and its work is conducted. A monarch or a dictator does not require a constitution.

2. The constitution delimits the scope of activity of the various organs of the government. Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people. It must work for the people and in no case misuse its powers, and minimize the chances of confrontation among them.

3. In a democratic country, powers of a democratic government are clearly defined in a constitution and as such it cannot misuse them.

4. In a democratic form of government, the rights of the people have a great importance of their own. It is the constitution which safeguards the rights of the citizens.

5. Constitution is an index of the aspirations of the people. It is not a mere document. It constantly goes on growing and evolving according to the needs and aspirations of the people as well as the functioning of institutions.

Q. 3. “Historical enemies succeeded in negotiating a peaceful transition from apartheid to democracy.” What are the qualities one can imbibe from this example of South Africa?

Ans. The qualities one can imbibe from a peaceful Transition from apartheid to democracy the given below: 

(i) The system of apartheid divided the people and labeled them on the basis of their skin color.

(ii) The apartheid system was particularly oppressive for the blacks. 

(iii) They were forbidden from living in white areas. 

(iv) They could work in white areas only if they had a permit.

(v) Trains, buses, taxis, hotels, hospitals, schools and colleges, libraries, cinema halls, theaters, beaches, swimming pools, public toilets were separated for them.

In South Africa if the black majority would have decided to take revenge on the whites for all their oppression and exploitation there would have been blood shed everywhere. But fortunately, the South Africans did not follow this policy. They followed the policy of non-violence in their freedom struggle.

Q. 4. Why should we accepted constitution made by the Constituent Assembly more than 60 years ago? 

Ans. 1. The constitution does not reflect the views of its members alone. It expresses a broad consensus of its time. 

2. Many countries of the world have had to rewrite their constitutions a fresh because the basic rules were not accepted to all major social groups or political parties. In some other countries, the constitution exists as a mere piece of paper.

3. No one actually follows it. The experience of our constitution is different. Over the last half a century, several groups have questioned some provisions of the constitution.

4. But no large social group or political party has ever questioned the legitimacy of the constitution itself. This is an unusual achievement for any constitution.

Q. 5. Like South Africa India’s Constitution was also drawn up under very difficult circumstances. Mention some of the facts.

Ans. 1. The making of the constitution for a huge and diverse country like India was not an easy affair. At that time the people of India were emerging from the status of subjects to that of citizens.

2. The country was born through a partition on the basis of religious differences. This was a traumatic experience for the people of India and Pakistan.

3. At Least ten lakh people were killed on both sides of the border in partition related violence. There was another problem. The British had left it to the rulers of the princely states to decide whether they wanted to merge with India or with Pakistan or remain independent.

4. The merger of these princely states was a difficult and uncertain task. When the constitution was being written, the future of the country did not look as secure as it does today. The makers of the constitution had anxieties about the present and the future of the country.

Q. 6. Write a short note on Judicial Review.

Ans. Judicial review means the power of the courts to review the acts and orders of the legislature and executive wings of government and to declare them, when challenged by the affected persons, null and void if they are against the provisions of the constitution.

Unlike the American Constitution, the Indian Constitution has specially provided for the judicial review. Under the Indian Constitution, Parliament is not a sovereign body as the Supreme Court can strike down the acts passed by the Parliament. Similarly, the orders of the executive are subject to judicial review. This power of the Supreme Court extends to the orders issued and laws passed by the state legislatures also.

HOTS QUESTION

Q. 1. Discuss some of the vital aspects of apartheid in South Africa. What would have happened in South Africa when the black majority had decided to take revenge on the whites for all their oppression and exploitation?

Ans. (a) Meaning of apartheid: Apartheid was the name of a system of racial discrimination unique to South Africa.

(b) Impact of apartheid on South Africa: 

(i) The system of apartheid divided the people and labeled them on the basis of their skin color.

(ii) The apartheid system was particularly oppressive for the blacks.

(iii) They were forbidden from living in white areas.

(iv) They could work in white areas only if they had a permit.

(v) Trains, buses, taxis, hotels, hospitals, schools and colleges, libraries, cinema halls, theaters, beaches, swimming pools, public toilets were separated for them.

(c) Role of Great hero – Nelson Mandela:

(i) Nelson Mandela was tried to treason by white South African government.

(ii) He was sentenced to life imprisonment for daring to oppose the apartheid in his country. 

(iii) He spent 28 years in South Africa’s most dreaded prison, Robben Island.

(d) Results of wrong and revengeful decision of the black majority:

In South Africa if the black majority would have decided to take revenge on the whites for all their oppression and exploitation there would have been blood shed everywhere. But fortunately, the South Africans did not follow this policy. They followed the policy of non-violence in their freedom struggle.

Q. 2. How far is it correct that India is a Union of States?

Ans. The Constitution of India has established the federal form of Government in India. Therefore, it is called the Union of States. In India, a federation has been established consisting 28 states and 7 union territories. Two main federal features of the Indian Constitution are the following:

(i) Division of Powers: Like any other federal country, in India also the powers have been divided between the union and the states. These powers are divided in the three lists i.e. 

(i) Union List.

(ii) State List.

(iii) Concurrent List. 

(ii) Written Constitution: The Indian Constitution is a written constitution consisting 395 articles and 9 schedules. In the constitution, every detail concerning the Union Government and the State Government has been given.

Q. 3. Do you think the Constituent Assembly itself functioned and was formed based on some democratic principles, why?

Ans. The Constitution of India was discussed and adopted by a sovereign assembly of people’s representatives and nominees from the native states. It was called Constituent Assembly. It worked on the basis of the principle of sovereignty of the people. This principle holds that people along, directly or through their representatives, can enact the basic law for their government. Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in July 1946. Its first meeting was held in Dec. 1946. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected its President.

PASSAGE BASED QUESTIONS 

1. Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow:

“I Have fought against white domination and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.”

(i) Identify the speaker of the above speech:

(a) Mahatma Gandhi.

(b) Nelson Mandela.

(c) Jawaharlal Nehru. 

(d) Dr. BR Ambedkar.

Ans. (b) Nelson Mandela.

(ii) Why was the speaker imprisoned? 

(a) He was against the constitutional framework of the country. 

(b) He advocated the policy of racial discrimination.

(c) He and seven other leaders were sentenced to life imprisonment in 1964 for daring to oppose the apartheid regime in his country. 

(d) He was against the formation of the South African Constitutional Assembly.

Ans. (c) He and seven other leaders were sentenced to life imprisonment in 1964 for daring to oppose the apartheid regime in his country.  

(iii) To which of the following political party was he associated with? 

(a) African Native Committee (ANC).

(b) African National Committee (ANC).

(c) All National Congress (ANC).

(d) African National Congress (ANC).

Ans. (d) African National Congress (ANC).

(iv) Which group of people in South Africa was classified as coloured?

(a) People of mixed races.

(b) People who migrated from India. 

(c) People of white origin.

(d) People of native Africa.

Ans. (a) People of mixed races.

2. Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow:

The manner in which the Constituent Assembly worked gives sanctity to the Constitution. The Constituent Assembly worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner. First some basic principles were decided and agreed upon. Then a Drafting Committee chaired by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar prepared a draft constitution for discussion. Several rounds of thorough discussion took place on the Draft Constitution, clause by clause. More than two thousand amendments were considered. The members deliberated for 114 days spread over three years. Every document presented and every word spoken in the Constituent Assembly has been recorded and preserved. These are called ‘Constituent Assembly Debates’.

(i) The term ‘draft’ refers to:

(a) the Preamble to the Indian Constitution. 

(b) the debates in the Indian Constituent Assembly.

(c) a preliminary version of a legal document.

(d) the document presented by the members of the Indian Constituent Assembly.

Ans. (c) a preliminary version of a legal document.

(ii) Clause is a:

(a) part of a bill.

(b) distinct section of a document.

(c) part of a law.

(d) point of discussion.

Ans. (b) distinct section of a document.

(iii) The debates of the Indian Constituent Assembly are used to:

(a) decide the future action of the government. 

(b) interpret the formation of the government

(c) basic nature of the country as a Republic. 

(d) interpret the meaning of the Constitution.

Ans. (d) interpret the meaning of the Constitution.

(iv) In social terms, the Assembly represented members from: 

(a) elite classes of the society.

(b) religious majority of the country.

(c) different language groups, castes, classes, religions and occupations. 

(d) minority population of the country.

Ans. (c) different language groups, castes, classes, religions and occupations. 

3. Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow:

The drafting of the document called the constitution was done by an assembly of elected representatives called the Constituent Assembly. Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in July 1946. Its first meeting was held in December 1946. Soon after, the country was divided into India and Pakistan. The Constituent Assembly was also divided into the Constituent Assembly of India and that of Pakistan. The Constituent Assembly that wrote the Indian constitution had 299 members. The Assembly adopted the Constitution on 26 November 1949 but it came into effect on 26 January 1950. To mark this day we celebrate January 26 as Republic Day every year.

(i) What do you mean by ‘Constituent Assembly’?

(a) An assembly of freedom fighters. 

(b) An assembly of people’s representatives that write a constitution for a country.

(c) An assembly of political elites. 

(d) An assembly of legal experts.

Ans. (b) An assembly of people’s representatives that write a constitution for a country.

(ii) Why should we accept the Constitution made by this Assembly more than six decades ago?

(a) It reflects the motive of united India. 

(b) It provide the fundamental rights to every citizen. 

(c) It not only reflects the veins of its members but also expresses a broad consensus of its time.

(d) It highlights the basis of a welfare society.

Ans. (c) It not only reflects the veins of its members but also expresses a broad consensus of its time.

(iii) Why is constitution considered as a supreme law? 

(a) It determines the political framework of the country. 

(b) It determines the foreign policy of the country. 

(c) It determines the social setup of a country.

(d) It determines the relationship among people living in a territory and the relationship between the people and government.

Ans. (d) It determines the relationship among people living in a territory and the relationship between the people and government.

(iv) What was the state of the princely states when the British left India?

(a) They were made a part of the Indian union.

(b) They were made a part of Pakistan.

(c) They were left to decide whether they wanted to be with India or with Pakistan or remain independent.

(d) They were granted independence from both India and Pakistan. 

Ans. (c) They were left to decide whether they wanted to be with India or with Pakistan or remain independent.

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