# NCERT Class 9 Social Science Chapter 12 Population

NCERT Class 9 Social Science Chapter 12 Population Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NCERT Class 9 Social Science Chapter 12 Population and select need one. NCERT Class 9 Social Science Chapter 12 Population Question Answers Download PDF. NCERT SST Class 9 Solutions.

## NCERT Class 9 Social Science Chapter 12 Population

Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 9 Social Science Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 9 Social Science Chapter 12 Population and After, NCERT Class 9 Social Science Textbook of India and The Contemporary World – I: History, Contemporary India -I: Geography, Democratic Politics – I: Political Science, Economics and Disaster Management. for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

### Population

Chapter: 12

CONTEMPORARY INDIA – I (GEOGRAPHY)

Q. 1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:

(i) Migrations change the number, distribution and composition of population in:

(a) the area of departure.

(b) the area of arrival.

(c) both the area of departure and arrival.

(d) none of the above.

Ans. (e) both the area of departure and arrival.

(ii) A large proportion of children in a population is a result of:

(a) high birth rates.

(b) high death rates.

(c) high life expectancies.

(d) more married couples.

Ans. (a) high birth rate.

(iii) The magnitude of population growth refers to:

(a) the total population of an area.

(b) the number of persons added each year.

(c) the rate at which the population increases.

(d) the number of females per thousand males.

Ans. (b) the number of persons added each year.

(iv) According to the Census 2001, a “literate” person is one who:

(a) can read and write his/her name.

(b) can read and write any language.

(c) is 7 years old and can read and write any language with understanding.

(d) knows the 3 R’s (reading, writing, arithmetic).

Ans. (c) is 7 years old and can read and write any language with understanding.

Q. 2. (i) Why is the rate of population growth in India declining since 1981?

Ans. Since 1981, the rate of population growth started declining gradually because of the family planning programme, birth control measures and increasing literacy rate.

(ii) Define age structure, death rate and birth rate.

Ans. (a) Age Structure or Composition: It refers to the number of people in different age groups in a country. Age composition is grouped in three broad groups:

(i) Children (0-14 years).

(iii) Aged (60 and above).

This structure can be represented as the under:

(b) Birth Rate: It is the number of people born in a region or country during a certain period of time i.e. mostly in a year. It is always measured with respect to per thousand live birth of people.

(c) Death Rate: It is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year.

(iii) Discuss the major components of population growth.

Ans. The major components of population growth are birth rate, death rate and migration.

(i) Birth rate is a major component of population growth because in India, birth rate has always been higher than death rate.

(ii) The main cause of the rate of growth of the Indian population has been the rapid decline in death rates.

(iii) Migration is an important determinant of population change. It changes not only the population size but also the population composition of urban and rural populations in terms of age and sex composition.

(iv) How is migration a determinant factor of population change?

Ans. The immigration (i.e., entry or move of individuals into a local population of a species in a specific area from outside) increases population size or magnitude of that area. For example, immigration of many persons from Bihar, Uttarakhand etc. states in Delhi. Emigration is the departure of some individuals from a local population of a specific area to another area due to unfavorable conditions in the former. It decreases population size of that area. For example, emigration of many Indians to Arab countries from India. Both these processes are parts of migration, i.e., movement of people from one region or country to another region or country during certain period of time, i.e., within a decade.

It plays a very significant role in changing the composition and distribution of population. In India, most migrations have been from rural to urban areas because of the push of adverse conditions of poverty and unemployment in the rural areas and pull of the city in terms of increased employment opportunities and better living conditions. Migration in India has increased from 17.29 percent of total population in 1951 to 27.78 percent in 2001. Again, there has been a significant increase in the number of million plus cities from 23 to 35 in just one decade, i.e., 1991-2001. Likewise migration creates urban agglomeration thereby extra-burden on the civic facilities in mega-cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai etc. This is the reason, problems relating to high density and environmental pollution are intensifying.

Q. 3. Distinguish between population growth and population change.

Ans. Distinction between population growth and population change:

Q. 4. What is the relationship between occupational structure and development?

Ans. There is a definite relationship between occupational structure and development. The higher the proportion of population in secondary and tertiary activities, the higher the level of income. Higher dependence of population on agriculture or primary activities results in lower levels of income. That is why, those countries where a high proportion of people is engaged in the primary activities, they are counted among the developing countries, e.g., India. On the other hand, those countries where a higher proportion of people is engaged in secondary and tertiary activities, they are counted among the developed countries, e.g., USA, Japan, etc.

Q. 5. What are the advantages of having a healthy population?

Ans. The advantages of having a healthy population are as follows:

(i) A healthy person can put in more working hours.

(ii) A healthy population can help our country to increase production which will ultimately lead to an increase in national income.

(iii) A healthy population can think more positively and intellectually. They can select good and qualitative leaders for their nation who can run their country more efficiently.

(iv) A healthy population can raise the standard of living of the people by raising national income.

(v) A healthy population can save the expenditure of the government which it had to spent on unhealthy people. The same money can be invested on other progressive plans.

(vi) A healthy population will prove definitely helpful in the development process of a nation.

Q. 6. What are the significant features of the National Population Policy, 2000?

Ans. Features of the National Population Policy, 2000:

(i) It has identified adolescents as one of the underserved population groups viz. Bereaved of reproductive and health care services.

(ii) Its main objective is to check the increasing trend of population.

(iii) To promote development of the country by improving the quality of life of people.

(iv) To enhance family planning programmes and lay special emphasis on birth control measures.

(v) To stabilise population by 2045.

(vi) To impart free and compulsory school education upto 14 years of age.

(vii) To reduce infant mortality rate to 30 per 1000 live births.

(viii) To immunize all children against ailments.

(ix) To promote delayed marriage for girls.

(x) To make family welfare, a people centered programme.

SOME OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

Q. 1. In which of the following instances does a natural event like a flood or Tsunami become a ‘disaster’?

(a) Only when they affect a crowded village or town.

(b) When the natural events are of great intensity.

(c) When they happen in the environment.

(d) When they affect large uninhabited areas.

Ans. (c) When they happen in the environment.

Q. 2. Who among the following is resource creating factors as well as resources themselves?

(a) Animals.

(b) Plants.

(c) Human beings.

(d) Nature.

Ans. (c) Human beings.

Q. 3. The numbers, distribution, growth and characteristics of which of the following provide the basic background for understanding and appreciating all aspects of the environment?

(a) Natural resource.

(b) Population.

(c) Flora.

(d) Fauna.

Ans. (b) Population.

Q. 4. Why it is important to know how many people are there in a country, where do they live, how and why their numbers are increasing and what are their characteristics?

(a) Population is the pivotal element in social studies.

(b) To exploit the natural resources of the country.

(c) Human beings are producers and consumers of resources.

(d) None of the above.

Ans. (c) Human beings are producers and consumers of resources.

Q. 5. Which of the following is a major concern of study about the population of a country?

(a) Population size and distribution.

(b) Population growth and processes of population change

(c) Characteristics or qualities of the population.

(d) All the above.

Ans. (d) All the above.

Q. 6. India accounts for what Percentage of the world population?

(a) 1.02%

(b) 2.4%

(c) 3.28%

(d) 16.7%

Ans. (d) 16.7%.

Q. 7. Which of the following union territories of India has a very low population?

(a) Andaman and Nicobar.

(c) Chandigarh.

(d) Pondicherry.

Q. 8. The average number of persons per unit area, such as a square kilometer, is termed as which of the following?

(a) Population distribution.

(b) Population density.

(c) Absolute population.

(d) Population growth.

Ans. (b) Population density.

Q. 9. Which one of the following countries has higher population density than India?

(a) China.

(d) Korea.

Q. 10. Which of the following figures shows the population density of India?

(a) 1028 million persons.

(b) 3.28 million square km.

(c) 324 persons per sq km.

(d) 13 persons per sq km.

Ans. (c) 324 persons per sq km.

Q. 11. Which one of the following states has very high population density?

(a) West Bengal.

(c) Rajasthan.

Ans. (a) West Bengal.

Q. 12. Which of the following states of India has very low population density?

(b) Sikkim.

(c) Orissa.

(d) Bihar.

Q. 13. Which of the following states of India has a moderate population density?

(a) Jammu and Kashmir.

(b) Rajasthan.

(c) Chhattisgarh.

Q. 14. Which of the following southern states has a high population density?

(a) Karnataka.

(c) Kerala.

Ans. (c) Kerala.

Q. 15. Which of the following reasons is responsible for uneven population distribution in India?

(a) Variations in topography or relief in different parts of India.

(b) Variations in climate and rainfall distribution.

(c) Variations in the rate of industrialisation and urbanization.

(d) All the above.

Ans. (d) All the above.

Q. 16. Which one of the following is not one of the factors that resulted in high density of population in the Northern Plains?

(a) Flat plains with fertile soil.

(b) Rich mineral deposits.

(c) Abundant rainfall.

(d) Suitable conditions for agriculture.

Ans. (b) Rich mineral deposits.

Q. 17. Which of the following statements about population is correct?

(a) Population is a dynamic phenomenon.

(b) The number, distribution and composition of population are static.

(c) Population of a country always increases with time.

(d) Migrations do not affect the population of a country.

Ans. (a) Population is a dynamic phenomenon.

Q. 18. The change in the number of inhabitants of a country during a specific period of time is referred to by which of the following terms?

(a) Density of population.

(b) Age composition.

(c) Population growth.

(d) Absolute population.

Ans. (c) Population growth.

Q. 19. The magnitude of population growth refers to which of the following?

(b) The rate or the pace of population increase.

(c) The total population of an area.

(d) The number of females per thousand males.

Q. 20. The rate or pace of population increase per year is referred to as which of the following?

(a) Absolute increase.

(b) Magnitude of increase.

(c) Annual growth rate.

(d) Population change.

Ans. (c) Annual growth rate.

Q. 21. Which of the following statements about population growth between 1951 to 1981 is true?

(a) The annual rate of population growth was gradually decreasing.

(b) The annual rate of population growth was steadily increasing.

(c) The annual rate of population growth was static.

(d) Census reports were not available for all decades.

Ans (b) The annual rate of population growth was steadily increasing

Q. 22. Which of the following changes in growth of population has been noted since 1981?

(a) The annual rate of population growth continued to increase steadily.

(b) The annual rate of population growth shot up suddenly.

(c) The growth of population could not be computed due to absence of census.

(d) The rate of growth of population started declining gradually.

Ans. (d) The rate of growth of population started declining gradually.

Q. 23. Which among the following is included in the policy framework of NPP 2000?

(a) Imparting free and compulsory school education above 14 years age.

(b) Reducing infant mortality rate.

(c) Achieving universal immunization of children against all vaccine preventable diseases.

(d) all of these.

Ans. (d) all of these.

Q. 24. Which of the following migration of population does not change the size of the population?

(a) External migration.

(b) Internal migration.

(c) International migration.

(d) National migration.

Ans. (b) Internal migration.

Q. 25. The main cause for the high growth of our population is:

(a) rise in death rate.

(b) decrease in birth rate.

(c) decline of death rate.

(d) none of these.

Ans. (c) decline of death rate.

Q. 26. What is sex ratio?

(a) Number of females per thousand males.

(b) Number of females per hundred males.

(c) The study of population growth.

(d) Difference between birth rate and death rate.

Ans. (a) Number of females thous males.

Q. 27. Which one of the following is the most significant feature of the Indian population?

(a) Declining birth rate.

(b) Improvement in the literacy level.

(c) The size of its adolescent population.

(d) Improvement in health conditions.

Ans. (a) Declining birth rate.

Q. 28. What was the population density of India according to 2011?

(a) 124 person/km2.

(b) 224 person/km2.

(c) 325 person/km2.

(d) 24 person/km2.

Ans. (c) 325 person/km2.

Q. 29. A large proportion of children in a population is a result of:

(a) High birth rate.

(b) High death rate.

(c) High life expectancies.

(d) More married couples.

Ans. (a) High birth rate.

Q. 30. The number of people in different age groups is referred as:

(a) Sex ratio.

(b) Age composition.

(d) Occupational structure.

Ans. (b) Age composition.

Q. 31. As per 2011 census, which of the following states has the least density of population?

(a) West Bengal.

(b) Bihar.

Q. 32. Name the Union Territory having the highest density of population.

(a) Chandigarh.

(b) Delhi.

(c) Puducherry (Pondicherry).

(d) Daman and Diu.

Ans. (b) Delhi.

Q. 33. Which of the following is an important social indicator to measure the extent of equality between males and females in a society at a given time?

(a) Age Composition.

(b) Literacy Rate.

(c) Sex Ratio.

(d) Death Rate.

Ans. (c) Sex Ratio.

Q. 34. Which of the following factors are responsible for sparse population?

(a) Flat plains and abundant rainfall.

(b) Rugged terrain and unfavorable climate.

(c) Fertile soil and abundant rain fall.

(d) Rugged terrain and favorable climate.

Ans. (b) Rugged terrain and unfavorable climate.

Q. 35. Name the state having the highest Percentage of literacy level:

(a) Kerala.

(b) Maharashtra.

(c) Punjab.

(d) West Bengal.

Ans. (a) Kerala.

Q. 36. What year is considered a great demographic divide in India?

(a) 1911

(b) 1921

(c) 1931

(d) 1751

Ans. (b) 1921.

Q. 37. The magnitude of population growth refers to:

(a) the total population of an area.

(b) the number of persons added each year.

(c) the rate at which the population increases.

(d) the number of females per thousand males.

Ans. (b) the number of persons added each year.

Q. 38. Birth rate refers to:

(a) the number of live births per thousand persons in 10 years.

(b) the number of live births per thousand persons in 5 years.

(c) the number of live births per thousand persons in 2 years.

(d) the number of live births per thousand persons in 1 year.

Ans. (d) the number of live births per thousand persons in 1 year.

Q. 39. The country that has a higher population density than India is:

(a) China.

(b) USA.

(c) Britain.

Q. 40. In the question given below, there are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and chose the correct option.

Assertion (A): Despite considerable achievements, the health situation is a matter of major concern for India.

Reason (R): The per capita calorie consumption is much above the recommended levels in India.

Options:

(a) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.

(b) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.

(c) Both (A) and (R) are wrong.

(d) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

Ans. (a) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.

Q. 41. In the question given below, there are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and chose the correct option.

Assertion (A): Literacy is a very important quality of a population.

Reason (R): Only an informed and educated citizen can make intelligent choices and undertake research and development projects.

Options:

(a) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.

(b) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.

(c) Both (A) and (B) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(d) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

Ans. (c) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

Q. 42. In the question given below, there are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and chose the correct option.

Assertion (A): The sex ratio in the country has always remained favorable to females.

Reason (R): The girl child has always been deprived of education.

Options:

(a) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.

(b) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.

(c) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(d) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

Ans. (b) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.

Q. 43. In the question given below, there are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and chose the correct option.

Assertion (A): The age composition is not the most basic characteristics of a population.

Reason (R): A person’s age does not influences what he/she needs, buys, does and his/her capacity to perform.

Options:

(a) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.

(b) Both (A) and (R) are wrong.

(c) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(d) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

Ans. (b) Both (A) and (R) are wrong.

Q. 44. In the question given below, there are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and chose the correct option.

Assertion (A): The percentage of children and the aged affect the dependency ratio.

Reason (R): The population between 15-59 years comprises the working population.

Options:

(a) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.

(b) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.

(c) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).

(d) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

Ans. (d) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).

Fill in the Blanks:

(i) Movement of people from one country to another is known as ___________.

Ans. migration.

(ii) ________  is the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year.

Ans. Death Rate.

(iii) The process of the people settling into urban areas is known as __________.

Ans. urbanization.

(iv) _________ has the highest literacy rate in India.

Ans. Kerala.

(v) The fertile alluvial soil of the plains are favourable for __________.

Ans. agriculture.

True and False:

(i) Since 1981, the rate of population growth started declining gradually.

Ans. True.

(ii) Madhya Pradesh is the most populous state in India as per the census 2001.

Ans. False.

(iii) Density of population is the ratio between the total number of people and the total area of the land.

Ans. True.

(iv) Manufacturing and trade are the main occupations of rural people.

Ans. False.

(v) The distribution of population in India is uneven.

Ans. True.

Q. 1. Why are people considered an important part of society?

Ans. People are considered an important part of society as they develop the economy and the society, make and use resources. People are both producers and consumers of the resources.

Q. 2. ‘Population is the pivotal element in social studies’. How?

Ans. Population is the point of reference from which all other elements are observed and from which they derive meaning and significance.

Q. 3. What do you mean by size and distribution of population?

Ans. Population size means number of people at a particular time and place. Population distribution means how they are located in various regions.

Q. 4. Mention the different components of population quality.

Ans. Age, sex composition, literacy levels, occupational structure and health condition are the different components of population quality.

Q. 5. How is the density of population calculated?

Ans. The density of population is calculated by the number of persons per unit area.

Q. 6. Give two reasons why the population density is low in some areas.

Ans. Rugged terrain and unfavorable climate are the two reasons.

Q. 7. Which Indian regions have Moderate population density?

Ans. The North eastern and peninsular regions have moderate population density.

Q. 8. Give reasons for moderate population density in peninsular states.

Ans. Shallow and less fertile soil, moderate to low rainfall, hilly, rocky and dissected nature of the terrain are some factors.

Q. 9. Which regions of India have high population density?

Ans. The Northern Plain have high population density.

Q. 10. Mention two reasons responsible for the high density of population in the Northern Plains.

Ans. Flat plain with fertile soils and abundant rainfall.

Q. 11. What are the three processes involved in the change of numbers, distribution and composition of the population?

Ans. Births, deaths and migrations are the processes involved in population change.

Q. 12. Mention two ways through which population change could be expressed.

Ans. The two ways to express population change include absolute number and percentage change per year.

Q. 13. Which is the major component of population growth in India? Why?

Ans. Birth rate is the major component of growth in India because birth rates have always been higher than death rates.

Q. 14. Mention two types of migration.

Ans. The two types of migration are internal and international migration.

Q. 15. What is international migration?

Ans. International migration is the movement of people between countries.

Q. 16. Which population factor is influenced by internal migration size or distribution?

Ans. The distribution of population within a country is influenced by internal migration.

Q. 17. What is the sex ratio in India according to 2011 census?

Ans. 943 females per 1000 males.

Q. 18. What is the pattern of internal migration in India?

Ans. From rural to urban area.

Q. 19. What do you understand by the term ‘age composition’?

Ans. The age composition of a population refers to the number of people in different age groups in a country.

Q. 20. What benefits have to be provided to children below 15 years?

Ans. Children below 15 years are economically unproductive and need to be provided with food, clothing, education and medical care.

Q. 21. Which age groups are considered ‘non-producers’?

Ans. The children below 15 years and the aged above 59 years are considered non-producers.

Q. 22. In whose favor has the sex ratio been in the country?

Ans. The sex ratio in the country has always remained favorable to males and unfavorable to females.

Q. 23. What do you understand by the term ‘literacy’?

Ans. Literacy relates to quality of being able to read and write in any language.

Q. 24. Why do difference exist in literary level of males and females in India?

Ans. Because more preference is given to males as compared to females. Males are considered as earning members, so they are more literate.

Q. 25. Name one social indicator and one economic indicator of population composition.

Ans. One important social indicator is sex ratio and economic indicator is occupational structure.

Q. 26. What is occupational structure?

Ans. The distribution of the population according to different types of occupations is referred to as the occupational structure.

Q. 27. Mention the classification of occupations.

Ans. Occupations are classified in primary, secondary and tertiary activities.

Q. 1. Discuss the factors responsible for the distribution of population in India.

Ans. The main factors responsible for uneven distribution of population in India are as follows:

Climate: Arcas with favorable climate and high rainfall like the coastal plain and the northern plain have a high population density. Heavy monsoon rain brings agricultural prosperity in these areas and support a big density of population. On the other hand, regions with harsh climate like the Himalayan and the Indian desert have sparse population. Thus, Rajasthan, the largest state in terms of size, has only 5.5 per cent of the total population of India.

Relief: The varied relief features of the vast country has influenced the distribution of population. As such the northern plains with flat, fertile terrain and the coastal plains have higher population densities. The peninsular states with hilly dissected and rocky terrain have moderate densities. While the mountainous regions in the north and northeast have sparse population on account of the rugged terrain.

Soil: The fertile alluvial soil of the plains are favorable for agriculture and support large populations. Areas with shallow and less fertile soil have lesser populations.

Mineral wealth: The mining areas of the peninsular plateau attract population.

Industrial centres, ports, commercial centres, metro cities have high population densities because of better opportunities of livelihood and greater facilities.

Q. 2. Which are the thinly populated areas of India? What are the causes of the thin population there?

Ans. The following areas of India are thinly populated:

1. Kuchch and West Rajasthan: The soil of the area is sandy, farming is done on a particular area only. There is scarce rainfall in Thar desert of Rajasthan. Hence farming has been impossible due to the irregular supply of water. The other cause of thin population is the lack of employment opportunities.

2. The other thinly populated areas are the adjoining parts of Jammu and Kashmir with Pakistan and Tibet border, Himachal Pradesh, Kumaun hills of Uttar Pradesh, northern Sikkim etc. The land of these areas is haphazard and rough. It is not capable of supplying food grains to a large number of people.

3. The third thinly populated area includes Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Central Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh. These areas very sparsely populated due to hilly terrain, heavy rainfall and thick forests.

Q. 3. Why is ‘Age Composition’ considered as one of the most basic characteristics of population? Explain.

Ans. The age composition of population refers to the number of people in different groups in a country. For example, children, working age, and aged people. It is an important basic characteristic of population because the age of a person influences what he needs, buys, does and his capacity to perform. It determines the populations social and economic structure. If the population of working age is more, the country makes rapid progress.

Q. 4. What is sex ratio? Give four reasons responsible for unfavourable sex ratio in India.

Ans. The number of women per thousand men is called sex ratio. In 1901 the ratio between the male and female population was 1000: 927 but it dropped to 1000: 929 in 1991. However in the last decade, it has shown a little increase in ratio from 929 females per 1000 males in 1991 to 933 females per 1000 males in 2001. However females are still lesser than men per 1000. lesser female population in India is due following causes:

1. Lesser care of female children as compared to male children.

2. Women are subject to greater risks to their lives especially at the time of child birth.

3. Women are also killed or forced to die by the dowry seekers and sometimes poor parents who cannot afford dowry and let their infant daughters die.

4. Due to illiteracy they cannot avail of medical facilities.

Q. 5. Describe three components of population.

Or

Explain the three processes responsible for the change/growth in population.

Ans. The basic components affecting the population of India are as under:

(i) Birth Rate: It is the number of births per 1000 individuals of a population per annum. It increases both population size and population density. According to 2001 census, birth rate of Indian population was 26 per 1000.

(ii) Death or Mortality Rate: It is expressed as the number of deaths per 1000 individuals of a population per year. It decreases both population size and population density. According to 2001 census, death rate of Indian population was 8 per 1000 persons.

(iii) Immigration: It is the entry of more individuals into a local population of a species in a specific area from outside due to more favorable conditions in that area. It increases population size of that area, e.g., Immigration of many persons from various states into Delhi.

(iv) Emigration: It is the departure of some individuals from a local population of a specific area to another area due to unfavorable conditions.

Q. 6. What are the three advantages of having a healthy population.

Ans. The advantages of having a healthy population are given below:

(i) A healthy population has more power to work.

(ii) A healthy population can help our country increase production which will ultimately lead to an increase in national income.

(iii) It can think more positively and intellectually. They can select qualitative leaders for their nation which can run their country more efficiently.

(iv) A healthy population can raise the standard of living of people by raising national income.

(v) A healthy population will prove definitely helpful in the developing process of a nation.

Q. 7. What are the advantages of having a healthy population?

Ans. A healthy population is a great asset to the country. There are many advantages of such a population:

(i) A healthy population will prove helpful in the development process.

(ii) A healthy population will prove useful in helping our country to increase national income as in the category of developed countries.

(iii) A healthy population can improve the standard of different family members and help them to earn more and more.

(iv) A healthy family will save much expenditure of the Government which it had to spend on diseased people.

(v) Lastly a healthy and well educated population will prove the political power for development in this millenium.

Q. 8. Differentiate between magnitude and pace in context of population.

Ans.

Q. 9. What are migration, immigration and emigration?

Ans. 1. Migration means movement of people from one place to another. It is of two types-internal migration and external migration.

– Internal migration means movement of the people within a country.

– External migration means movement of people between countries.

2. Immigration and Emigration: When people come to a country from another country, it is called immigration and when people leave that country it is called emigration.

Q. 10. What are “push” and “pull” factors of migrations in India?

Ans. In India, most migrations have been from rural to urban areas because of the “push” factors in rural areas. These are adverse conditions of poverty and unemployment in the rural areas and the “pull” of the city in terms of increased employment opportunities and better living conditions.

Q. 11. What is unemployment? Distinguish between seasonal and disguised unemployment.

Ans. Unemployment is said to exist when people who are willing to work at the going wages cannot find jobs. If some persons are voluntarily unemployed they will not treated as unemployed.

Difference between disguised unemployment and seasonal unemployment:

Disguised unemployment means that number of workers engaged in a job is more than actually required to accomplish it. If some of them are withdrawn from the job the total production will not be affected. Here people appear to be employed. This actually happens among family members engaged in agricultural activities.

Seasonal unemployment: Seasonal unemployment happens when people are not able to find jobs during some months of a year. People depends on agriculture is a seasonal activity. Crops are grown according to the season. During off season the farm workers are rendered idle.

Q. 12. Describe three harmful effects of growing population in India.

Ans. Harmful effects of growing population in India:

(a) Food Problem: It is not always possible to increase food production beyond a certain limit to provide foods to the over growing population.

(b) Unemployment: It is also not possible to give employment to the ever increasing number. Unemployed persons may turn into thieves, dacoits, terrorists and miscreants. They thus, join with anti-social elements and pose numerous problems to the nation.

(c) Ill-effects on capital formation: On account of unemployment the incomes as well as savings are badly affected. There cannot be any investment without savings. Thus, there is adverse effect on capital formation.

Q. 13. Why is it necessary to change the present occupational structure of India? Explain it by giving viable reasons.

Ans. As the Census Data of 2001 reveal, 64% or 2/3rd of the population in India is engaged in primary sector, i.e., agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry and fishing etc. People engaged in secondary activities share only 13% and those engaged in tertiary activities (i.e., service sector) share 20% of the population.

Quaternary activities have been recently identified hence, their share is hardly 2 or 3 percent in the total population of India. In this dismal scenario, it needs change due to following reasons:

(a) Our landholdings are too small to bear the burden of 64% population in primary  activities.

(b) The minimal share of people in secondary and tertiary activities (i.e. 13% and 20%) cannot support the national economy to make India a developed country.

(c) In an era of growing comfortable and luxurious needs, India cannot produce goods through her people to meet the demands of more than a billion people. It is therefore, compelled to import which disrupts its B.O.P.

(d) Being lower capacity of manufacture, the supply-demand gap is widening and it gives birth to money inflation, i.e., spiraling prices of goods in indigenous market. The graph of poverty is thus, increasing day-to-day.

Q. 14. Describe the basic factors affecting population.

Ans. The basic factors affecting the population of India are as under:

(i) Birth Rate: It is the number of births per 1000 individuals of a population per annum. It increases both population size and population density. According to 2001 Census, birth rate of Indian population was 26 per 1000.

(ii) Death or Mortality Rate: It is expressed as the number of deaths per 1,000 individuals of a population per year. It decreases both population size and population density. According to 2001 census, death rate of Indian population was 8 per 1000 persons.

(iii) Immigration: It is the entry of more individuals into a local population of a species in a specific area from outside due to more favorable conditions in that area. It increases population size of that area. For example, Immigration of many persons from various states into Delhi.

(iv) Emigration: It is the departure of some individuals from a local population of a specific area to another area due to unfavorable conditions in the former. It decreases population size of that area. For example, Emigration of many Indians to Arab countries.

(v) Environmental resistance: It is the sum of all the inhibitory factors which prevent the biotic potential to be realized so does not allow a population to soar towards infinity. It includes various harmful environmental factors like scarcity of food and shelter, natural calamities like tsunami, floods etc. and certain biotic factors like pathogens, parasites and predators.

Q. 15. Discuss the causes of the increase in human population during the 20th century.

Ans. The basic causes for increase in human population in India are:

(i) Decline in death rate. end

(ii) Increase in longevity or life expectancy at birth.

Various factors contributing to decrease in death rate and increase in longevity are as under:

(a) Control of several bacterial and viral diseases: Discovery of antibiotics, vaccination and surgery has controlled and even eradicated the epidemics like cholera, plague, small pox and tuberculosis etc. ailments.

(b) Infant mortality rate has been decreased due to better public health care.

(c) Community health schemes and better animation has increased life expectancy from 50 years during 1970-71 to 64.6 years in 2003.

(d) Mechanization of agriculture, use of disease free and high-yielding seed varieties, use of fertilizers and pesticides have increased food Production which had guaranteed food for all. Artificial insemination and hybridisation have also increased supply of milk, eggs and meat.

(e) Availability of food at all the times possible owing to better storage facilities.

(f) Better means of transport and communication have declined the number of deaths due to natural calamities like famines, foods etc.

(g) Living in well protected houses in cities and towns with better hygienic conditions have increased protection of life from natural risks.

(h) Small family norms has been accepted which has ensured proper care and cure of mothers and children.

Q. 16. What has been done by Government of India for women welfare?

Ans. We can summarize various programmes and plans made and implemented by Government of India as under:

(i) Establishment of Deptt. of Woman and Child Development in 1985.

(ii) Support to Training-cum-Employment Programme for Women (STEP).

(iii) Condensed Courses of Education and Vocational Training (CCE & VT).

(iv) Rural Women’s Development and Empowerment Project (Swashakti Project).

(v) Setting-up of Indira Mahila Yojna, Balika Samridhi Yojna, Rastriya Mahila Kosh.

(vi) Setting up of the office of Commissioner for the Rights of Women.

(vii) Setting up of National Commission for Women in 1992. It launched Dahej Mukti Abhiyan in 1999.

(viii) Passed Pre-natal Diagnostic Technique Act, 1994.

(ix) Reproductive Child Health (RCH) Programme, 1997.

(x) 33% reservation has been provided to women in Panchayati Raj Institutions.

Q. 17. Mention some child welfare programmes launched by Government of India.

Ans. These are as under:

(ii) Child Labour Eradication Schejhe, 1994.

(iii) National Policy for Children, 1994.

(iv) National Children Board, 1974.

(v) Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS), 1975.

(vi) Child Survival and Safe Motherhood Programme (CSSM).

(vii) Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986.

(viii) Mid-day Meal Scheme, 1995.

Q. 18. Why is the distribution of population in India uneven? Explain with five examples.

Ans. The distribution of population in India is uneven. According to 2001 census the population of India is 102.7 crores and the density of population is 324 persons per sq. kilometer. The density of population varies according to relief, climate and the agricultural productivity of the land. The density of population depends on the amount of rainfall. The areas of sufficient rainfall can support a large number of people.

Factors favoring high density:

(i) Sufficient rainfall.

(ii) Fertile river valleys and deltas.

(iii) 2 or 3 crops of nice in a year.

(iv) Healthy climate.

(v) Rich in mineral and power resources.

Factors for low density:

(i) The hilly nature of the land.

(ii) Dense forest.

(iii) Low rainfall.

(iv) Poor economic development.

(v) Absence of minerals.

(vi) Lack of irrigation and agriculture.

(vii) Cold climate.

Q. 19. Explain the three process of change of population.

Ans. The major components of population growth are:

(i) Birth rate: It is a major component of population growth because in India, birth rate has always been higher than death rate.

(ii) Death rate: The main cause of the rate of growth of the Indian population has been the rapid decline in death rates.

(iii) Migration is an important determinant of population change. It changes not only the population size but also the population composition of urban and rural populations in terms of age and sex composition.

Q. 1. Why are the years 1921 and 1951 most significant in the history of population growth in India?

Ans. The population of India is increasing at a rapid rate during this century. Between 1901 and 1981 it has increased almost three times. The population growth has been fluctuating during this period

From the next table, it is clear:

(i) Till year 1921, the population of India remained more or less stable. During the year 1901-1921 there was an increase in population by only 12 mills (at the rate of 3% per decade). This was due to a large death toll because of great influenza (1911-21), First World War (1914), epidemics (1918) and droughts (1920) After 1921 the population began to rise at slow but definite rate. Thus the year 1921, is known as a great divide in our demographic history.

(ii) Till 1951, there has been a steady growth of population. After 1951, the population rose at a rapid rate. Thus the first stage of population growth was over by the year 1951. Between 1951-81, a period of 30 years, our population has been doubled almost at a growth rate of 2.4% per annum.

Q. 2. Write a brief account of the impact of rapid urbanization in India.

Ans. Urbanization is increasing rapidly in India. In the beginning of this century the urban population was 26 million. In 2001, the urban population of India rose to 277 million. This urbanization has affected the country is the following ways:

1. The growing urbanization has put great pressure on existing resources and services available in cities.

2. People are at times devoid of basic amenities like water, food, oil etc.

3. People do not get proper educational facilities for children.

4. Health and medical facilities are not adequately available.

Q. 3. Distinguish between Birth Rate and Growth Rate.

Ans.

Q. 4. Distinguish between Productive Population and Dependent Population.

Ans.

Q. 5. Distinguish between Total Population and Density of Population.

Ans.

Q. 6. Distinguish between Rural population and Urban population.

Ans.

Q. 7. “The spatial distribution of population in India is highly uneven.” Discuss with the help of suitable examples.

Or

Write an essay on population distribution in India.

Ans. The distribution of population in India is very unequal. According to 2001 census the total population of India is 102.7 crores and the density of population is 324 persons per sq. kilometer The density of population varies according to relief, climate and the agricultural productivity of the land. The density of population depends on the amount of rainfall. The areas of sufficient rainfall can support a large number of people.

1. Densely populated areas: These areas have a density of more than 400 persons per sq. kilometer. The high density areas makes a girdle round the Deccan plateau. Right from Satluj-Beas plain to Brahmaputra valley, the density of population is very high.

(a) The West Coastal Plain: Kerala has 819 persons per sq. kilometer density of population.

(b) The East Coastal Plain: TamilNadu has a density of 478 persons per sq. kilometer.

(c) The Northern Plains: It includes West Bengal (904), Bihar (880), Uttar Pradesh (689), Punjab (482).

Factors favoring high density:

(i) Sufficient rainfall.

(ii)  Fertile river valleys and deltas.

(iii) 2 to 3 crops of rice in a year.

(iv) Healthy climate.

(v) Rich in mineral and power resources.

2. Moderately populated areas: These include the areas with a density between 200 to 400 persons per sq. kilometer. These areas are surrounded by Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats. Haryana (477), Maharashtra (314), Andhra Pradesh (275), Karnataka (275), Gujarat (258), Orissa (236), Goa (363), Assam (350) have a moderate density.

Factors for moderate density:

1. Agriculture is not developed due to thin and rocky soils.

2. Rainfall is uncertain.

3. Means of transportation are not developed.

4. Some areas have high density of population due to irrigation, lava soils and mineral resources.

3. Sparsely populated areas: These areas have a density less than 200 persons per sq. kilometer.

(a) North Eastern India: This region includes Meghalaya (103), Manipur (107) Nagaland (120), Sikkim (76) and Arunachal Pradesh (13).

(b) Rajasthan Desert: Rajasthan has a density of 165 persons per sq. kilometer.

(c) Western Himalayas: It includes Jammu and Kashmir (99), Himachal Pradesh (109).

Factors for low density:

1. The hilly nature of the land.

2. Dense forests.

3. Low rainfall.

4. Poor economic development.

5. Absence of minerals.

6. Lack of irrigation and agriculture.

7. Cold climate.

HOTS QUESTION

Q. 1. Why is it necessary to know about the age composition of a country?

Ans. It is necessary to know about the age composition of a country to estimate the depending ratio and develop measures to check birth-rate so that working population could do saving for future. It will finally contribute to national economy.

Q. 2. What are the implications of the present age structure of our country?

Ans. The implications of the present age structure of India can be discuss in the following points:

After China the total population of India is the highest. The rate of population growth in India is declining since 1981. Even than the growth rate of population of India is having growing trend due to higher birth rate, low death rate and increasing immigration.

Age structure or c composition: It refers to the number of people in different age groups in a country. Age composition is grouped in three broad groups:

(i) Children (0-14 years).

(ii) Aged (60 years and above).

This structure can be represented as:

(a) Birth rate: It is the number of people born in a region or country during a certain period, i.e., mostly in a year. It is always measured with respect to per thousand live births of people.

(b) Death rate: It is number of deaths per thousand persons in a year.

3. Give reasons for the shift in the occupational structure from primary to secondary and tertiary sectors. What are its consequences?

Ans. 1. Industrial or secondary sector and tertiary sector are expanding day-by-day.

2. Agriculture or primary sector is not expanding as the land is limited.

3. Urbanization in recent time is taking place.

Consequences:

1. Liberalization and globalization is being welcome by the youth and supporters of westernization, modern technology and new economic policy.

2. Primary sector occupations are not attracting people of cities and well educated in India.

3. New educational professional training institutes are being open.

4. India is participating in international market in all major industrial products.

5. Standard of living of the people due to urbanization and industrialisation is increasing.

6. Demand for well developed infrastructure is rising day-by-day.

PASSAGE BASED QUESTIONS

India’s population as on March 2011 stood at 1,210,6 million, which account for 17.5 per cent of the world’s population. These 1.21 billion people are unevenly distributed over our country’s vast area of 3.28 million square km, which accounts for 2.4 per cent of the world’s area.

(i) The most populous state of India is:

(a) Punjab.

(c) Haryana.

(d) Rajasthan.

(ii) Which state has the lowest population?

(c) Goa.

(d) Sikkim.

Ans. (d) Sikkim.

(iii) Almost half of India’s population lives in just five states. Which one of the following is not one of these five populous states?

(a) Maharashtra.

(b) Bihar.

(d) West Bengal.

(iv) Name the biggest state of India in terms of area.

(d) Rajasthan.

Ans. (d) Rajasthan.

The proportion of people working in different activities varies in developed and developing countries. Developed nations have a high proportion of people in secondary and tertiary activities. Developing countries tend to have a higher proportion of their workforce engaged in primary activities. In India, about 64 per cent of the population is engaged only in agriculture. The proportion of population dependent on secondary and tertiary sectors is about 13 and 20 per cent respectively.

(i) ‘Occupational structure’ refers to:

(a) the distribution of the population according to their choice of occupation.

(b) the distribution of the population according to the availability of occupation.

(c) the distribution of the population according to different types of occupation.

(d) the distribution of the population engaged in tertiary occupation.

Ans. (c) the distribution of the population according to different types of occupation.

(ii) Primary activities include:

(a) manufacturing.

(b) support services to manufacturing and agricultural sector.

(c) professional occupations like teaching.

(d) agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry,  fishing, mining and quarrying, etc.

Ans. (d) agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, fishing, mining and quarrying, etc.

(iii) What has been the reason for a shift in the occupational structure in favor of secondary and tertiary sectors?

(a) growth of population over the decade.

(b) growing industrialisation and urbanization in recent times.

(c) increase in demands of the people.

(d) increase in the purchasing power of the people over the years.

Ans. (b) growing industrialisation and urbanization in recent times.

(iv) Why do developed nations have a high proportion of people in secondary and tertiary activities?

(a) Because these countries are technically more advanced.

(b) Because more population in these countries live in the urban areas.

(c) Because people in these countries are very rich and generous.

(d) Because the working population is more in these countries.

Ans. (a) Because these countries are technically more advanced.

The NPP 2000 provides a policy framework for imparting free and compulsory school education up to 14 years of age, reducing infant mortality rate to below 30 per 1000 live births, achieving universal immunization of children against all vaccine preventable diseases, promoting delayed marriage for girls, and making family welfare a people-centered programme.

(i) What is the basic aim of the ‘Family Welfare Programme’ in India?

(a) Promoting education standards of the population in India.

(b) Promoting unity among the citizens of India.

(c) Promoting the sense of responsibility among the citizens of India.

(d) Promote responsible and planned parenthood on a voluntary basis in India.

Ans. Promote responsible and planned parenthood on a voluntary basis in India.

(ii) Besides nutritional requirements, the policy puts greater emphasis on other important needs of adolescent including:

(a) occupation and living standards.

(b) professional training and health.

(c) protection from unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases.

(d) education and occupation choice.

Ans. (c) protection from unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases.

(iii) A healthy population provides:

(a) welfare and well-being of a society.

(b) boost to the development process of a nation.

(c) both (a) and (b).

(d) none of these.

Ans. (c) both (a) and (b).

(iv) What made the Government of India initiated a comprehensive Family Planning Programme in 1952?

(a) The pressure of ever growing population.

(b) The need to provide occupation to the population.

(c) The need to raise the living standard of the people.

(d) Recognising that the planning of families would improve individual health and welfare.

Ans. (d) Recognising that the planning of families would improve individual health and welfare.

Scroll to Top