NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 13 The Indian Constitution

NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 13 The Indian Constitution Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 13 The Indian Constitution and select need one. NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 13 The Indian Constitution and After Question Answers Download PDF. NCERT SST Class 8 Solutions.

NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 13 The Indian Constitution

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Also, you can read the NCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) Book guidelines. CBSE Class 8 Social Science Solutions are part of All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NCERT Class 8 Social Science Chapter 13 The Indian Constitution and After, NCERT Class 8 Social Science Textbook of Our Pasts – III: History, Social and Political Life – III: Civics, Resources, and Development: Geography. for All Chapters, You can practice these here.

The Indian Constitution

Chapter: 13



Q.1. Why does a democratic country need a constitution?

Ans. A democratic country needs a constitution for the following purposes:

(a) It lays down rules that guard against the misuse of power by our political leaders.

(b) The constitution guarantees the right to equality to all persons and no citizens can be discriminated against on grounds of religion.

(c) Constitution provides certain fundamental rights as well as certain duties to the citizens.

(d) The constitution also ensures that a dominant group does not use its power against other less powerful people or groups.

Q.2. Look at the wordings of the two documents given below. The first column is from the 1990 Nepal Constitution. The second column is from the more Constitution of Nepal.

1990: Constitution of Nepal Part 7: Executive2007: Interim Constitution Part 5: Executive
Article 35: Executive Power: The executive power of the kingdom of Nepal shall be vested in His Majesty and the Council of the Ministers.Article 37: Executive Power: The executive power of Nepal shall be vested in the Council of Ministers.

Q.3. What is the difference in who exercises ‘Executive power’ in the above two Constitutions of Nepal? Keeping this in mind, why do you think Nepal needs a new Constitution today?

Ans. According to Constitution of Nepal 1990; the executive power is vested solely in the hands of king. He could exercise his powers as desired. On the other hand according to Interim Constitution of 2007, executive power will be vested in the council of ministers. It means the Parliamentary democracy will function in Nepal.

Nepal needs a new constitution which will decide the functions and powers of different heads of government. It will also divide the functions of legislative, executive and judiciary.

Q.4. What would happen if there were no restrictions on the power of elected representatives?

Ans. If there were no restrictions on the power of elected representatives then there will also be possibility that the elected representatives misuse their power. The misuse of authority and power can be lead to gross injustice.

Q.5. In each of the following situations, identify the minority. Write one reason why you think it is important to respect the views of the minority in each of these situations. 

(a) In a school with 30 teachers, 20 of them are male.

(b) In a city, 5 per cent of the population are Buddhists.

(c) In a factory mess for all employees, 80 per cent are vegetarians.

(d) In a class of 50 students, 40 belong to more well-off families.

Ans. (a) Female teachers are in minority. The views of female teachers should be respected. Female teachers can understand the psychology of children better. Female teachers have to work at home as well as at schools. So their work- spirit should be considered with respect. 

(b) Buddhists are in minority. India is a secular country. So rights of minority religions should be protected. They should be free to practice their own religious practices which encourage peace and non-violence.

(c) Non-vegetarian workers are in minority. Factory mess should daily prepare food for 20% non- vegetarian minority workers. Every body has the right to eat food according to own choice. When non-vegetarians (minority group) also get food of their own choice, this will create better work atmosphere in the factory. 

(d) 20 per cent students are poorer and in minority. The majority of richer students should behave well with the poor students and so that they do not get inferiority complex. There will be then better study atmosphere in the class.

Q.6. The column on the left lists some of the key features of the Indian Constitution. In the other column write two sentences in your own words, on why you think this feature is important.

Key FeatureSignificance
Separation of Powers
Fundamental Rights
Parliamentary Form of Government

Ans. 1. Federalism: It is important in our country with vast number of communities such that a system of government which did not involve only persons sitting in the capital take decisions for the whole country. It has dual objectives to safeguard and promote unity of the country, while at the same time accommodate regional diversity.

2. Separation of Powers: In order to prevent the misuse of power by any one branch of the state, the Constitution says that each of these organ should exercise different powers. Through these, each organs acts as a check on the other organs of the state and thus ensures the balance of power between all the three.

3. Fundamental Rights: Fundamental rights protect citizens against the arbitrary and absolute exercise of power by the state. Thus, the Constitution attempts to strike a balance between the individual liberty and social control.

4. Parliamentary form of Government: Every citizen of the country, irrespective of his/her social background, can contest in elections. This helps encourage a democratic mind set and breaks the clutches of traditional caste, class and gender hierarchies.

Q.7. Colour in the following countries in the map: 

(a) Colour India in red.

(b) Colour Nepal in green.

(c) Colour Bangladesh in yellow.



Q.1. What is a constitution?

Ans. A constitution is a set of rules, laws or principles according to which a country is governed.

Q.2. What does ‘democracy’ refer to?

Ans. Democracy refers to the government where in people have the power to vote and elect their representatives to the government.

Q.3. From which country’s Constitution our Directive Principles belong?

Ans. Ireland.

Q.4. Why did Dr. Ambedkar urge scheduled castes to join the government as well as the civil services?

Ans. Dr. Ambedkar urged scheduled castes to join the government as well as the civil services because though the laws might exist to safeguard the interests cf scheduled castes; but the administration of these laws were in the hands of ‘Caste Hindu officers’.

Q.5. What is Preamble?

Ans. The preamble is an introductory document which explains the goals of the government. It states the aims and objectives of the Constitution.

Q.6. Define the rights to equality.

Ans. Right to the Equality means all the people are equal before the law. 

Q.7. Why do the people of Nepal not want to continue with the previous constitution?

Ans. The people of Nepal do not want to continue with the previous Constitution because it does not reflects the ideas of the country that they want Nepal to be and that they have fought for.

Q.8. What does sovereignty mean?

Ans. Sovereignty means freedom to govern oneself with in a territory and to be free from any external control. All Indians are free to govern themselves and to make laws.


Q.1. “India is a democratic state” Explain.

Ans. India can be called a democratic state in the following content:

(a) The ultimate source of political and constitutional authority in India is vested with the people.

(b) Equality, the basic principle of a democratic form of government, is adhered to in the constitution.

(c) Rule of law is an essential feature of the Indian democratic state.

(d) Periodical elections are held on the basis of adult franchise.

(e) Citizens of India enjoy Fundamental Rights, which are clearly enumerated in the constitution.

Q.2. Enumerate any four Fundamental Duties of the Indian citizens.

Ans. The 42nd Amendments Act (1976) added a new chapter (Part IV A) to the Constitution of India. It is listed under Article 51 – A and enumerated the following fundamental duties:

(a) To abide by the constitution and respect the ideals and institutions, the national flag and the national anthem.

(b) To uphold and protect sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.

(c) To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.

(d) To safeguard public property and to abjure violence.

Q.3. How is a ‘state’ different from a government?

Ans. By government we mean a body which is responsible for administering and enforcing laws. The government can change with elections.

The state on the other hand refers to a political institution that represents sovereign people who occupy a definite territory. For example, we can say the Indian state, the Nepalese state etc.

Q.4. A democratic country needs a constitution why? Explain.

Ans. A democratic country needs constitution for the following reasons:

1. It lays down the rules that guard against the misuse of power by our political leaders.

2. The constitution also ensures that a dominant group does not use its power against other minority people or groups.

3. The Indian Constitution does not recognize state citizenship. It provides for a common all India citizenship.

4. Constitution provides a chapter on the fundamental rights as well as fundamental duties to the citizens.

Q.5. What are Directive Principles of State Policy? Why were they added to the constitution?

Ans. The Directive Principles of State Policy are the guidelines that are given to the government to ensure the welfare of the people. They are contained in part IV of our Constitution. 

They were added in our Constitution: 

(a) To ensure greater social and economic reforms. 

(b) To serve as a guide to the independent Indian state. 

(c) To institute the laws and policies that help reduce the poverty of the masses.

Q.6. ‘All persons are equal before the law’. Which fundamental right states this? What does this mean?

Ans. This is given under Right to Equality. 

(a) All persons shall be equally protected by the laws of the country.

(b) It also states that no citizen can be discriminated against on the basis of their religion, caste or sex.

(c) Every person has access to all public places including playgrounds, hotels, shops etc.

(d) The state cannot discriminate against anyone in matters of employment.

Q.7. What are the three organs of the state? What activities are performed by each organ of the state?

Ans. The three organs of the state are the legislature, the executive and the judiciary.

(i) The legislature refers to our elected representatives who make laws for the country.

(ii) The executive is a smaller group of people who are responsible for implementing laws and running the government.

(iii) The judiciary refers to the system of courts in the country which acts to settle the disputes.

Q.8. Which Fundamental Rights will the following situations violate?

(a) If a 13 year old child is working in a factory manufacturing carpets.

(b) If a politician in one state decides not to allow labourers from other states to work in his state.

(c) If the government decides not to promote an officer of the armed forces because she is a woman.

(d) If a group of people are not given permission to open a Telugu- medium school in Kerela.

Ans. (a) Right against Exploitation.

(b) Right to Freedom.

(c) Right to Equality.

(d) Cultural and Educational Rights.


Q.1. Discuss the key features of the Indian constitution in detail. 

Ans. Key features of the Indian constitution are:

(a) Federalism: Federalism means (i) Existence of more than one level of government in the country. 

(ii) In India, we have governments at the central level, state level and at the village level.

(b) Parliamentary Form of Government: Every citizen of the country, irrespective of his/her social background, can contest in elections. This helps encourage a democratic mind set and breaks the clutches of traditional caste, class and gender hierarchies.

(c) Separation of Powers: According to the constitution there are three organs of the state namely the legislature, the executive and the judiciary. In order to prevent the misuse of power by any one branch of the state, the constitution says that each of these organs should exercise different powers.

(d) Fundamental rights: These are often referred to as the conscience of the Indian constitution. Fundamental rights protect citizens against the arbitrary and absolute exercise of power by the state.

(e) Secularism: A secular state is one in which the state does not officially promote any one religion as the state religion.

Q.2. Explain all the six Fundamental Rights which are granted by the Indian Constitution to all Indian citizens.

Ans. Fundamental Rights: The Indian Constitution has granted six fundamental rights to its citizens which are:

(i) Right to Equality: Right to Equality is a valuable right. In India, the right to equality is guaranteed to every citizen without any discrimination on grounds of religion, caste, creed, colour or untouchability.

(ii) Right to Freedom: is the essence of human existence. The Indian Constitution provides to every citizen, the right to freedom of speech, peaceful associations, movement and residence in any part of Indian territory.

(iii) Right against Exploitation: All religions in India have equal respect. Religion and politics are two different aspects.

(iv) Right to Freedom of Religion: India is a country of many religions. All religions have equal respect. Every person has the right to practise, prefers and propagate the religion of their choice.

(v) Cultural and Educational Rights: The constitution states that all minorities, religious or linguistic, can set-up their own educational institutions in order to preserve and develop their own culture.

(vi) Right to Constitutional Remedies: This right allows a citizen to move to court if they believe that any of the Fundamental Rights have been violated by the state.


Q.1. How does Fundamental Duties help us?

Ans. Fundamental duties helps us to:

(i) Promote the feeling of patriotism.

(ii) Protect the unity of the country.

(iii) Promote the idea of harmony.

Q.2. How is our Constitution both rigid and flexible at the same time?

Ans. It is because:

(i) The flexible part consists of those articles which the parliament is empowered to amend by its simple majority.

(ii) It is rigid on other hand because it consist of those articles which can be amended by parliament through clear majority of both the houses of the parliament.

Q3. Write a short note on Nepal’s struggle for freedom.

Ans. Nepal’s struggle for freedom can be explained as follows:

(a) In Nepal, there was a people’s struggle for freedom in 1990. Democracy was established and it lasted for 12 years until 2002.

(b) In October 2002, King Gyanendra began taking over different aspects of the government with the army’s existence.

(c) The King finally took over as the head of the government in February 2005.

(d) In 2006 people’s movement for democracy began gaining immense force and finally in 2006 the king restored the third parliament and asked the political parties to form a government.

(e) In 2007, Nepal adopted an interim constitution.


Q.1. “The objective of Fundamental rights is two fold.” Explain the statement.

Ans. The objective of fundamental rights is two fold:

(a) The first objective is that every citizens must be in a position to claim Fundamental Rights.

(b) Secondly, Fundamental Rights must be binding upon every authority that has got the power to make laws.


Q.1. Multiple Choice Questions 

Tick (✔) the correct option

1. Who is regarded as the father of our Constitution? 

(a) Mahatma Gandhi.

(b) Jawaharlal Nehru.

(c) Dr.B.R Ambedkar.

(d) Dr. Rajendra Prasad.

Ans. (c) Dr.B.R Ambedkar.

2. Which article of our Constitution safeguard our Fundamental Rights?

(a) Article 25 

(b) Article 32 

(c) Article 46 

(d) Article 30

Ans. (b) Article 32 

3. When was the Constitution adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India?

(a) 26 November 1950 

(b) 26 November 1949

(c) 28 January 1951

(d) 26 November 1948 

Ans. (b) 26 November 1949

4. Who was the Finance Minister when the Constitution was signed in 1950?

(a) Sri Jai Ram Das Daulat Ram.

(b) Rajkumari Amrit Kaur.

(c) Dr. John Matthai.

(d) Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel.

Ans. (d) Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel.

5. Name a Dalit writer who faced discrimination in school.

(a) Om Prakash Valmiki. 

(b) Om Prakash Sachdeva.

(c) Ram Prakash Valmiki.

(d) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.

Ans. (a) Om Prakash Valmiki. 

6. _______________ is a country which have unwritten Constitution.

(a) India. 

(b) Great Britain.

(c) Australia.

(d) The USA.

Ans. (b) Great Britain.

7. Which of the country has direct democracy?

(a) Ireland.

(b) Switzerland.

(c) Australia. 

(d) Britain.

Ans. (b) Switzerland.

8. Right to Freedom includes:

(a) The right to freedom of speech and expression.

(b) The right to form association and right to move freely and reside in any part of the country.

(c) The right to practise any profession, occupation or business.

(d) All of these.

Ans. (d) All of these.

9. At the Lahore session of the Congress in December 1929, it was decided that 26 January would be celebrated as the day of ___________.

(a) Purna Swaraj.

(b) Complete Independence.

(c) Either (a) or (b).

(d) None of these.

Ans. (c) Either (a) or (b).

10. _____________ signing the Indian Constitution.

(a) Dr. Rajendra Prasad.

(b) Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru.

(c) Dr. B.R Ambedkar.

(d) Dr. Sachidanand Sinha.

Ans. (b) Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru.

11. What does the term ‘Republic’ mean?

(a) The head of the state shall not be a hereditary head.

(b) The head will be chosen by the people through an election for a certain period of time.

(c) Both a and b.

(d) None of these.

Ans. (c) Both a and b.

12. ____________ are essential for efficient governance of a country. 

(a) Principles.

(b) Rules.

(c) Laws.

(d) Guidelines.

Ans. (b) Rules.

13. What does the Constitution prohibit?

(a) Trafficking.

(b) Forced labour.

(c) Children working under 14 years of age.

(d) All of these.

Ans. (d) All of these.

14. Who was Shri A.K Ayyar?

(a) A member of Constituent Assembly.

(b) A member of parliament.

(c) First Vice-President of India.

(d) None of these.

Ans. (a) A member of Constituent Assembly.

Q.2. Fill in the blanks:

1. Although the Indian Constitution is federal in form, it is ____________ in spirit.

Ans. Unitary.

2. A _____________ country has no official religion.

Ans. Secular.

3. The Indian Constitution provides for a ____________ form of government.

Ans. Federal.

4. The President of India is only a _____________ head.

Ans. Constitutional.

5. The real power in our country lies with the ____________and his Council of Ministers.

Ans. Prime Minister.

6. The Constitution of India has a _____________ form of government.

Ans. Parliamentary.

7. In democracy, citizen chooses their _____________ who exercise power responsibility on their behalf.

Ans. Representatives. 

8. The state has no ____________ of its own.

Ans. Religion.

9. A country is a ____________ if it has an elected head of state.

Ans. Republic.

10. The centre legislates on the to subjects included in the ___________ list.

Ans. Union.


See the given picture and answer the questions that follows.

Q.1. What is this picture depict? 

Ans. This picture depicts the Preamble of the Indian Constitution.

Q.2. From which country the idea of Preamble was borrowed?

Ans. The idea of Preamble was borrowed from the Constitution of USA.

Q.3. Name the qualities which are mention in the preamble of Indian Constitution.

Ans. Name of the qualities which are mention in the preamble of Indian Constitution are sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic.

Q.4. What is the aim of the preamble?

Ans. The preamble aims to give Justice, liberty and equality to all citizens of India.

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