Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 2 People on the Earth

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Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 2 People on the Earth

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 9 Geography Elective Chapter 2 People on the Earth Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here…

People on the Earth

Chapter -2

GEOGRAPHY (E)

TEXTUAL QUESTION AND ANSWERS

Q.1.Give a definition of human geography and mention its major branches? 

Ans : The division of geography which studies man’s relation with natural environment and the man made human environment done in spatio -temporal perspective is termed as human geography. This brunch of study consists of several branches of human geography are:

i) Settlement geography.

ii) Social geography.

iii) Economic geography.

iv) Cultural geography.

v) Political geography.

vi) Urban geography.

vii) Political geography.

viii) Medical geography.

ix) Historical geography.

x) Geography of regional development and planning , etc. 

Q.2. Briefly write about the subject matter of human geography? 

Ans : Human geography is the study of man’s activities in the natural and man made environment and the varying influence of one over the other. It is a vast subject and has an extensive area of study, but the study is mainly human-centric . The main subject-matter of human geography are :

i) Study of relationship between the physical environment and man :- Human geography studies the relationship between the physical environment and man. The physical environment greatly influence and activities of man. In turn, man adjusts himself to the environment for his sustenance. 

ii) Study of man-made environment and how man creates an environment :- Human geography deals with man-made environment and how man creats  such an environment. Man made environment varies from region to region. E.g.human settlement in the plains is very dense while it is quite thin in the hilly region. Thus, the understanding of the nature of man made environment in various forms and the cause behind them constitute an important area of study. 

(iii) Study of various human cracterise in different places :- Human geography focuses on different human  cracterise in various places just like the way earth surface in characters by physical different. Similarly, the physical structure, etc.of nearly seven billion people living on the earth also various. 

(iv) Study of various changes and processes that take place :- Human geography studies various changes and process that place in the relationship between environment and man which is dynamic in nature. 

Q. 3. Write briefly, what you mean by human race? 

Ans : Human race’ refer to a group of people having almost similar physical traits and skin colour and carrying breeds of similar characters from generation to generation through general reproduction process. 

Biological and anthropologist opine that man was born in Central Africa about 5-6 lakh years ago as a result of the process of evolution. This newly emerged animal human specials came to be know as Homa sapiens. However, people of similar  physical feature are categorized together to form a human race. Biological have divided human begin into three basic human races, viz Caucasoid, Negroid and Mongoloid.

Q. 4. Write briefly the bases Or criteria of division of human race. 

Ans : People living in different parts of the world have different in their skin color and various aspects of body structure. Nevertheless, people with similar physical characters which are transfer to the next generation through the process of heredity. These group have been categorised on the following main bases or criteria :

i) Skin color. 

ii) Hair colour.

iii) Height.

iv) Structure of nose.

v) Facial features.

vi) Structure of forehead.

Q. 5.Discuss in brief the origin of human and human race? 

Ans : Very little is known about the original of human begins. According to the theory of evolution proposed by biological and anthropologist, man seem to have originated from certain type of monkey like ape, chimpanzee, gorilla, etc. This  supposed to have taken place during the middle of Pleistocene period  when the overall nature environment including climate was favourable. This newly emerged animal human species came to be called Homo sapiens. 

Living  in different physical  environment causes further biological development in human being. As a result of the influence of physical environment around them, different physical characters began to appear  in Homo sapiens settle in different parts of the world. According, the human began settle in the hot region of Africa were identified as Negroes, colder region of earth were named as Caucasoid and the colder region of Central Asia were identified as Mongoloids. 

Thus, these three group can be considered as the primary human race of the world. However over the years a number of sub race seemed to have emergency from these primary group. All human beings living today belongs to one of these primary group or from a combination of primary group or there sub-races. 

Q. 6. Divide man on the earth bases on the physical  characters like hair, noce, face, heights, skin, etc. 

Ans : On the basis of physical characters such as hair colour , facial structure, height, skin, colour, etc. The human race can be divided into following three board categories

i) Caucasoid race.

ii) Negroid race.

iii) Mongoloid race. 

Q. 7.Mention the characteristics of the thee major human races in the world. 

Ans : The major human races in the world are:

  1. Caucasoid race

2. Negroid race

3. Mongoloid race

The main characteristics of the three major human races are: 

Sl. No.BasicsCaucasoid raceNegroid raceMongoloid race
(i)Skin colourPale reddish, white to olive brown.BlackSaffron to yellow brown.
(ii)Eye colourLight blue to dark brown.Black to dark brown.Brown to dark brown
(iii)Hair colourLight blonde to dark brown.CurlyBlack, long and straight
(iv)FaceNarrow to mediumBroad to narrowBoard and flat
(v)LipsThin.ThickNormal.
(vi)NoseSharp and narrow.Wide and blundFlat or low
(vii)HeightMedium to tall.Short to tallRelatively small
(viii)Head fromLong to board and shortElongatedGenerally flattered.

Q. 8. Which region of the world are considered first origin of man? With the help of sketch briefly write about the spread and distribution of major human races in the world? 

Ans : There r no conclusive evidence to say when or where exactly man began to live on earth. But information of modern archaeology reveal that human beings were first seen in the eastern part of tropical Africa of the old world at least one lakh years ago. About 25-30 thousand years ago, human beings started moving towards others parts of the world. 

The long period of migrants and impact of geographic conditions and climate change, etc. brought tangible change in the physical characteristics of man at that time. It is believed that human body structure at that time was merely a mixture of the major human race, viz. Caucasoid, Negroid and Mongoloid race. But  due to migration and process of natural selection or hereditary, difference among human race begin to new image in man settle indifferent parts of the world.

the first margination start from Central Africa the centre of of human organ. The human race begin to move toward not in North directions. Initially this group Mast have use the island group as the vast ocean stood and block. Toward East and west. Besides the snow cover ocean during the Pleistocene ice Age acted as link  between the landmasses. This enabled them to cross bering strait between siberia and Alaska. Similarly, the people of Central Asia of Mongoloid racial origin moved toward North, central and south America. Moreover, people of Caucasoid racial origin migrants from South West Asia and moved to North and Western Europe and north and East Africa and from Central Africa to  South Africa and some parts of south Asia. 

The people resulting in India belong long sub race called Mediterranean class of the Caucasoid racial group who migrate from southern Europe the white people living in South Africa Australia and New Zealand belong to the north class of The Eagle group with migrate from Western Europe. 

Sl. No.CONTENTS
Chapter 1Weather and Climate
Chapter 2People on the Earth
Chapter 3Population Growth and Distribution
Chapter 4Human Settlement
Chapter 5Concept and Classification of Resources
Chapter 6Economic Activities or Occupation
Chapter 7Agriculture
Chapter 8Industry

Q. 9. What are the major religion? Discuss the silent characteristics and distribution of this religion group along with there population size? 

Ans : The major religion of the world are what are the Christianity Islam Hinduism and Buddhism this four  religiones constant about 75% of the world population the population size of this religion as per  2006 cement is given below

NamePopulation size (in crores)Percentage
i) Christianity213 crores33%
ii) Islam135 crores21℅
iii) Hinduism90 crores14℅
iv) Buddhism38 crores6℅

1. Christianity :- Christianity was founded about 2000 years bye Jesus Christ.Through this religion started in old Israel, soon it  begin to spared to other parts of the world through missionary activities. Particularly in the then Roman Empire. Some  of the the main futures of Christianity are :

i) Christians are monotheists ( belief in one God). 

ii) lt is the biggest religion in the world with nearly 213 crores people belonging to this religion (as per 2006 data) 

iii) Christianity has two major divisions, viz. Roman Catholics and protestants. 

iv) Their holy book is the ‘Bible’. 

2. Islam :- Islam was founded by proohet mohammad about 1400 years ago in the desert region of Middle East and soon it spread to parts of Africa, South Asia and South -east Asia. Some of the feature of this religion are:

i) Muslim are monotheists (belief in one god) 

ii) The  two major groups of Islam are Shia and Sunni. 

iii) It is the second largest religion group in the world. 

iv) Their  holy book is called the Quran. 

3. Hinduism : Hinduism is considered as the world oldest religion. It is founded after Aryan settled in the Indo-Gangetic valley about 5000 years ago. The salient features of the religion are :

i) Hinduism came to be known after the name of its birth place India located on the the east of the river Indus. 

ii) It was founded about 5000 years ago. 

iii) The religion is closely associate with many of the social and cultural practice of India. 

iv) It is practiced bi maturity of the  Aryans and Dravidians. 

v) Their chief holy books are the the four Vedas the Ramayana and Mahabharat. 

4. Buddhism :- Buddhism was founded by Lord Gautam Buddha about 2500 years ago in the the board Gaya reason of North East India. This religion spit from India to the the neighbouring countries of Bhutan China Sri Lanka South East asia etc. Some off the main futures of Buddhism are:

i) Its  to measure divisions are Hinayana and mahayana sects. 

ii) The  main holy book of Buddhist is tripitaka. 

Q. 10. Write in brief about religion compositions and distribution of population in India. 

Ans : India is a land of many religiones. India has been the the birthplace of major religion such as Hinduism Buddhism Jainism and Sikhism. 

Religious composition :- the the religious composition of India are are :

Sl.No.ReligionsPercentage
(i)Hindus81. 4%
(ii)Muslim12.4%
(iii)Christians2.3%
(iv)Sikhs1.9%
(v)Buddhists0.8%

Distribution :- the largest religiones group in India is the Hindus who live throughout all parts of the country the cheap Islam dominated state in India is Jammu and Kashmir .People of Islam religion are also found in Uttar Pradesh Bihar West Bengal Andhra Pradesh Kerala etc. The sicks mostly live  in the states of Punjab and Haryana north eastern state search s Nagaland Mizoram in Meghalaya have hai concentration of Christians. There are also formed in certain pockets in different part of the country. The Buddhism are mostly formed in Sikkim western part of Arunachal Pradesh Northern part of west bengal and northern part of Bihar. The Jain mostly live in Rajasthan. 

Q.11. Write a short notes on :

a) Men and human geography.

b) Human race.

c) Negroid population group.  

d) Religion composition.

e) Buddhist religion.

f) People of  Christian religion in India.

Ans : (a) Man and human geography :- man seems to have organised million of year ago such as result of the process of evolution from certain animals like monkeys chimpanzee Gorilla etc. This may have happened in in Central Africa uh around 6 to 5 lacks  years ago and later they A Preset to other part of the world this expect of origin developmental an existence of man and his influence on the environment are the major area of the study of human geography. 

As a result of the impact of environment on men people in different places begin to have different physical characteristics which in the process lead to the formation of three distance human races named Caucasoid race , Negroid race and Mongoloid race. Over the years numerous Sab races have been formed by the primary races in different parts of the world the science that study this development of India and his relationship between the physical environment and man made environment and the impact and influence of one over the other is known as human geography. 

(b) Human race :- according to biologist an anthology man seem to have organised in Central part of Africa about 5 to 6 years ago as a result of the process of involution the newly Emergency Man belong to a group of spices call hormones pinus according to the central Logix men seem to have passed through several stages to reach the present level of development during the letters statement seem to have migrated to different parts of the world. As a result of the impact and influence of the geographical conditions future physical difference begin to emerge among the people of the world. Nevertheless people with similar physical features have been placed together to form what is known as human race. The team human race repairs to a group of the people having almost similar physical characteristics which are transport to the next generation through the process of hardly. On the basis man has been characteristics into three primary human races called Caucasoid, Negroid and Mongoloid race. 

(c) Negroid population group :- Negroid are mostly found in Africa, Southern India, Sri Lanka, some parts of south-east Asia and in certain parts of Oceania. The people belonging to the  Negroid racial group have tall stature with dark or dark -brown body skin , curly hair and wide and blunt nose. The Sub-race of the Negroid population group are :

i) Nelotic-Hemitic of Eastern Africa. 

ii) Bantu of Central and Southern Africa. 

iii) Bushman and Pigmy of Western Africa. 

iv) Negrito of southern India and south -east Asia. 

v) Melanesian of   South Western Pacific Ocean region. 

vi) Australian of oceania. 

d) Religious composition :- the set of rules and morals that guide people of different place or groups living in the art for a proper living is termed as religion. From time immemorial people all over the wall practice sum form of religion or other. The four major religions of the world are Christianity Islam Hinduism and Buddhism. They constituted about 75% of the world’s population and the race 25 Institute of 6 James Chinese folk religion confuse , Bahai, judai shinto, vaishnab, etc. The religious composition of the people of the world is:

SI.NO.NamePopulation Size(in Crores)Percentage(%)
1.Christianity21322.0
2.Islam13521.0
3.Hinduism9014.0
4.Buddhism386.0
5.Judaai religion1.60.2
6.Chinese flock religion396.1
7.Sikh religion2.30.3
8.Bahai religion70.1
9.other religion124.619.3

e) Buddhist religion :- Buddhism was formed by Gautam Buddha about 2500 years ago on the Bahar Gaya religion of Northern India that to measure division of Buddhist are in Iron and mahayana sets. The main holy book of Buddhism is tripitaka. According to 2006 stimate there were about 38th crores Buddhist in the world. They constitute about 6% of the world’s population. Buddhism spread from India to the countries of Bhutan China Sri Lanka South East Asia etc. 

f) People of Christian religion in India :- According to 2000 Celsius nearly 2.6 % of the population in India are Christians trees are mostly formed in the state of Nagaland Mizoram Meghalaya Kerala Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu etc. Christian are of mainly two types Roman Catholics and Protesters. The protesters are  future divided into several subgroups each impressing different accept of Christianity all these groups are form in India they are one of the fastest growing religion in India are mostly due to their missionary work throughout the country. 

Q.12. Choose the correct answer :

(a) When was human being born on the earth ?

(i) 5-6 lakh years ago

(ii) 1-2 lakh years ago

(iii) 50-6 lakh years ago

(iv) 10-12 lakh years ago 

Ans : 5-6 lacks years ago. 

(b) which is the largest religion group in in terms of population? 

(i) Islam.

(ii) Hindu.

(iii) Christian.

(iv) Chinese Folk Religion.

Ans : Christian.

(c) in which continent did man appear first ? 

(i) Asia.

(ii) Africa.

(iii) Europe.

(iv) Oceania.

Ans : Africa.

(d) with which racial did the people of China belong ? 

(i) Caucasoid group

(ii) Negroid group.

(iii) Mongoloid group.

(iv) Australiod group.

Ans : Mongoloid group. 

Q.13. Collect data about religious composition of population in your village or locality under the guidance of your teachers and prepare a table? 

Ans : Suggestions :- students should do itself with the help of teacher. 

Q. 14. Divide the human population of world in the basis of their colour shape of the nose and face height in skin colour? 

Ans : Suggestion :- repaired to chat given the beginning of chapter. 

Q.15. Draw a sketch map of the the world and show there in the magazine of people from the original area of birth? 

Ans : suggestion:- [Refer 2 map of question number 8 of textbook].

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