Jainendra Kumar was a well-known psychologist, storyteller, novelist and essayist and a well-known writer in Hindi literature. He left his studies and participated in the non-cooperation movement. He also worked as a reporter in political papers. Even when he was closed to Premchand, his stories were different from Premchand’s. In 1936, he edited the special issue of Hans magazine and later founded the letter ‘Public Life’.
One of the most prominent writers of the 20th century was Jainendra Kumar, who discovered the human psyche through his novels. In 1971, he was awarded the Padma Bhushan, India’s highest civilian honour. His first novel “Muktibodh” won the Sahitya Akademi Award and Fellowship.
His work is a mixture of fiction and non-fiction, and includes the most famous works in Hindi language. His writings are considered to be a masterpiece of Hindi, but many have never heard of him. In his writings, he explored the human psyche, social roles, family dynamics and complexities in different aspects of life.
Biography of Jainendra Kumar
|Date of Birth||January 2, 1905|
|Place of Birth||Koudiyaganj, Agra, British India|
|Mother’s Name||Mrs. Ram Devi|
|Father’s Name||Mr. Peeyarelal|
|Occupation||Business, Journalism and Writing|
|Died||December 24, 1988, New Delhi|
|Awards and honours||1. Hindustan Academy Puuraskar, 1929 for Parakh|
2. Sahitya Akademi Award, 1953 for Paap Aur Prakash
3. Hastimal Dalmiya Puraskar, 1965 for Muktibodh
4. Padma Bhushan, 1971
5. Sahitya Ahademi Fellowship, 1979 for Muktibodh
Early Life and Education of Jainendra Kumar
Jainendra Kumar was born on January 2, 1905 in Koudiyaganj, Agra, British India. His original name was ‘Anandilal’. Later, during Jainism, his uncle named him ‘Jainendra. Jainendra Kumar’s father’s name was Pyarelal and his mother’s name was Ramdevi Bai. His father died when he was 2 years old. He was later brought up by his mother and uncle. In 1929, Jainendra Kumar married Bhagwati Devi. His early education was in “Jain Gurukul Rishi Brahmacharyasram, Hastinapura”. Initially his name was Anandilal but he was named Jainendra Kumar to study in Gurukul. Jainendra Kumar was educated from Jain Gurukul in Hastinapur. He left Gurukul in 1912. In 1919, he passed his matriculation examination from Punjab and his higher education was done at “Kashi Hindu University”. He left the university in 1921 and became active in the non-cooperation movement. He moved to Nagpur in 1923 and worked there as a correspondent in political papers. In the same year, he was arrested and released three months later.
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Career of Jainendra Kumar
Influenced by Gandhiji and participating in the non-cooperation movement, he lost his college studies in the middle. Influenced by Gandhian philosophy, his writings began in 1927. When his first story ‘Khel’ was published in Vishal Bharat. In 1936, he edited the special issue of Hans magazine and later founded the letter ‘Public Life’. He also did the initial editing of the term (Saheb Letter) and was engaged in writing for a long time.
Literary works of Jainendra Kumar
Some of the literary works of Jainendra Kumar are – ‘Sunneta’, ‘Neelam Desh ki Rajkanya’, ‘Chidiya Ki Baachi’, ‘Ek Raat’, ‘Vatayan’, ‘Parakh’, ‘Ankita’, ‘Sukhda’, ‘Kalyani’, ‘Jayvardhan’, ‘Muktibodh’, etc. Some of his translations are – ‘Prem Mein Bhagwaan’, ‘Paap Aur Prakash’, ‘Yama.’
Literary Introduction of Jainendra Kumar
Jainendra Kumar has a special place in Hindi literature, yet the importance of his contribution over time seems to have been forgotten by the public.
At a time when Premchand proved to be mastering the task of connecting the masses with the reality of life by writing novels and stories of social background, it was not an easy task to start a completely new genre in the midst of the new wave when Hindi prose was known as the “Premchand Era”.
It can be gauged how difficult it must be for Jainendra Kumar to write stories and novels without worrying about the reactions of critics and readers. Many critics criticized Jainendra Kumar’s literature and personal environment of heroines with an independent mindset, but Jainendra Kumar was not perturbed by the man’s determination to stay away from and show the customs, prevailing beliefs and established relationships. Jainendra Kumar’s literature, which saw life and people being taken out of the bound line, gave a new direction to Hindi literature.
Jainendra Kumar, known as the most important storyteller after Prem Chand in Hindi, has a very wide and diverse contribution. He tried to bring ‘character’ and ‘psychological truth’ by lifting stories and novelists from the level of events and applying a strong mental narrative flow. The Resignation letter, published after Pak and Sunita (novel) in 1937, earned him a huge reputation as a mental (psychological) novelist. Similarly, some of his stories such as – Khel, Pajeb, Nilam desh ki Rajkainya, Apna – Apna Bhagya, were then recognized as his classic stories. Even when compared to Prem Chand, he is considered superior to Prem Chand in the sense that he runs away from telling stories, often avoiding events or wanting to replace them with symbols.
Besides being a storyteller, he has also been identified as a very important thinker. He has tried to solve deep questions related to society, politics, economy and philosophy in a very simple and informal manner. The amount of good and innate use of his Gandhian thinking in the context of questions related to the world of life is rare elsewhere and is proof of how deeply he has encouraged in Gandhianism.
Jainendra Kumar as a storyteller
Critics believe that ‘he tried to bring the story from the level of ‘events’ to ‘character’ and ‘psychological truth’. He integrated the narrative from the social level and established it in a personal and mental role.
It can be said that the respect of individuals in Jainendra Kumar’s novels and stories was a new thing in Hindi literature which not only gave a new explanation of the relationship between individuals and society but also gave proper importance to the personal mind. This contribution of Jainendra Kumar is never forgotten by Hindi literature.
Jainendra Kumarji’s language literature is a vertical dialect. Their language is simple, intuitive and fluent, mentally friendly. He as used the words ‘Ta’atma-Tadbhav’ in his language as well as Urdu, Persian and English words as per the objectives. The syntax is simple, intuitive and natural. His dialogues are short and engaging. In his language, conceptual style is the main – narrative, symbolic, picture, self-description, conversation, etc. are main despite the use of many styles.
Gandhianism had a huge impact on Jainendra Kumar’s life. In terms of ideas, he was non-violent and philosophical. Their literature is set against the backdrop of philosophy. He lived in Delhi and served literature independently. The great writer died on December 24, 1988.
1. What was the Jainendra Kumar’s childhood name?
Ans: His childhood name was Anandilal.
2. When and where was Jainendra Kumar born?
Ans: Jainendra Kumar was born on January 2, 1905 at Koudiyaganj, Agra, British India.
3. What is the name of father and mother of Jainendra Kumar?
Ans: The name of father and mother of Jainendra Kumar are – Shri Pyarelal and Mrs. Ram Devi.
4. When did Jainendra Kumar died?
Ans: This great writer died on December 24, 1988.
5. Who is the composer of the novel ‘Parakh’?
Ans: Jainendra Kumar is the author of the novel Parakh.
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