SCERT Class 10 Social History Unit 4 Indian Freedom Movement and National Awakening in Assam The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapter Assam Board SCERT Class 10 Social History Unit 4 Indian Freedom Movement and National Awakening in Assam and select needs one.
SCERT Class 10 Social History Unit 4 Indian Freedom Movement and National Awakening in Assam
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LONG ANSWERS TYPE QUESTIONS :
Q1. Discuss about role and activities of Asomiya Bhasa Unnati Sadhini Sabha.
Ans: Two aspects characterised Assam during the middle of the 19th century. The first aspect was that the period witnessed the emergence of a new group of educated middle class Assamese intelligentsia. The second was the growth of national consciousness in the state. During this period, there was an attempt by the middle class to organise as well as promote Assamese cultural and language. The result was the establishment of associations such as Gyan Pradayini Sabha in 1857 and Assamese Literary Society in 1872. During this period, there were a number of students studying in various colleges in Calcutta. Here they had to forgo their
mother tongue and adopt Bengali. Many young men felt the need to resurrect their language and promote it wherever possible. With this objective in mind, an association called Asomiya Bhasa Unnati Sadhini Sabha was formed in 1888 soon this association matured into a literary organisation under the able guidance of students like Hemchandra Goswami, Lakshminath Bezbarua, Kanaklal Barua, Ramakanta Barkakati and Chandrakumar Agarwala.
The society was able to promote a sense of unity and national awareness among the Assamese settled in Calcutta as well as in Assam. In order to make Assamese a standardised language, the association took the initiative to adopt correct and standardised grammatical system in the vernacular schools in Assam.
Another major activity undertaken by this society was it attempted to compile a comprehensive social history of Assam. Asomiya Bhasa Unnati Sadhini Sabha also took the initiative to translate important Sanskrit works into Assamese with a view to enrich the language. Due to these efforts of this literary society, the government undertook the publication of Hemchandra Barua’s great work named ‘Hemkosh’.
The society undertook the task of organising and leading Cultural discussion on various subjects related to the state such as Assam’s past history, cultural, literature, etc. It also tired to establish its branches through the length and breadth was the publication of its journal named ‘Jonaki’ which ushered a new era in Assamese literature. This publication was able to bring out to the public the hidden literary talents of hundreds of young men and women of Assam. The revival of language led to an awakening among the masses and this boosted the sprite of nationalism and thereby the thirst for freedom from foreign slavery.
Q2. Write about the contribution of Assam Chatra Sanmilan.
Ans: Assam Chatra Sanmilan was formed on 25th December 1916 at Guwahati under the presidentship of Lakshminath Bezbarua and its founder secretary was Chandranath Sarma. The chief contributions of this association were :
(i) Enriched the Assamese language by contributing towards its development and preservation.
(ii) Undertook the commendable work of promoting the cuse of Assamese language among college and school students by encouraging them to love their mother tongue and enrich it with their contribution. Assam Chatra Sanmilan from its inception kept itself away from politics. It was mostly concerned about the development of the Assamese language. However, the association encouraged the student community to take active participation in national politics. It promoted the cause of nationalism among the Assamese students.
Its annual session was attended by eminent men from various fields such as education, politics, literature, etc. Prominent among them were Lakshminath Bezbarua, Padmanath Gohin Barua, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Ray and Krishma Kanta Handique, etc. It published a journal named MILAN.
Q3. Give an account on the objectives and role of the Ryot Sabhas.
Ans: Among the first Ryot Sabhas, the most important were the Tezpur Ryot Sabha and the Nowgong Ryot Sabha formed in 1884-85 and 1886-87 respectively. The plan of these Ryot Sabhas were finalised and executed by the leaders of Assam middle class and aimed to fight for the right for the rights of the peasants. Most of these Ryot Sabhas raised their voice against the newly introduced land settlement of Assam by the British. It also demanded for the abolition of grazing tax, reduction of land tax, etc. Another demand made by these associations was to ban migration of peasants from East Bengal to Assam. However, it is be noted that Ryot Sabhas did not play an active role in the peasants uprising that had sprung up in 1893-94 period in different parts of Nowgong, Darrang and Kamrup districts.
In order to coordinate the work of Ryot Sabhas in the state and to achieve common objectives, an All Assam Ryot Sabha was formed on 8th April 1933 under the guidance of Congress leader Nabin Chandra Bordoloi. In the years that followed, about 300 Ryot Sabhas were formed in different parts of the state. However, they lost their vigour by the end of 1940 and many of them merged with the Assam Provincial Congress committee eventually.
Q4. Write about the objectives and activities of Jorhat Sarbajanik Sabha.
Ans: The Jorhat Sarbajanik Sabha was founded in 1884 at Jorhat. Its founder President was Raj Naranarayan and Jagannath Barua its secretary. The chief objectives of Jorhat Sarbajanik Sabha were :
(i) To represent the various aspirations of the people to the government.
(ii) To explain government politics to the people.
(iii) To reduce the sufferings of the people.
The Sabha took up the following issues and activities-
(i) It raised voice against the introduction of Assam
Land and Revenue Regulation Act, 1886.
(ii) It took up the cause of the peasants against the enhanced rate of revenue demanded by the government in 1892-93.
(iii) In 1893, it submitted a memorandum to the Royal commission in London asking for the continuation of opium trade.
(iv)It initially opposed the partition of Bengal in 1905 but when the Chief commissioner of Assam, Bam Flyde Fuller outlined the benefits that would come to Assam after annexation with East Bengal, many members of the association accepted the idea but demanded that the interests of Assamese should be protected and certain number of jobs should be reserved for them in the new province.
Q5. Write on the contribution of Assam Association towards social reform in British ruled Assam.
Ans: The first session of the Assam Association towards social reform in British ruled Assam.
Ans: The first session of the Assam Association was held in Dibrugarh in 1905. During this session, Raja prabhat Chandra Barua was elected as its president and Manik Chandra Baruah as its General Secretary. From 1900 to 1920, this organisation served as a mouthpiece of the people. It brought to the attention of the authorities various needs and aspirations of the people. It did not believe in direct confrontation with the government. It followed peaceful and constitutional methods to bring about change in government attutide. Since many of its members were also members of the Legislative Council, they could influence the government and thus this association made commendable efforts to improve the socio-economic and political conditions of Assam. In this regard, it raised the following issues:
(i) Objective to the over presence of government members in the municipal committees and of tea planters in local bodies.
(ii) Demanded democratisation of the local bodies.
(iii) Opposed increase in taxes, excise policy, etc.
(iv) Demanded absolute prohibition of the use and sale of opium.
(v) Demanded Assamese representation in the Calcutta University Syndicate, appointment of Assamese teachers in Cotton College.
(vi) Called for the establishment of technical schools in the State.
(vii) Opposed the combining of Assam with East Bengal in 1905.
(viii) Demanded the introduction of Montagu-Chelmsford reforms of 1919 in Assam.
(ix) Demanded the establishment of a university in Assam.
Q6. Give a brief description on the creation and main roles of Assam Provincial Congress committee.
Ans: The formation of the Assam Provincial Congress Committee was an outcome of the nationalist zeal against British imperialism. With the formation of the Indian National Congress in 1885, many members of Assam based organisation began to attend its session. Among them was the Assam Association which began to contemplate merging with the Congress. Many leaders felt that they shared the aims and ideals of the Congress, but other were opposed to a merger.However with more and more of the middle class being attracted to the Congress, the Assam Association finally merged itself with the newly formed Assam Provincial Congress committee in 1921, an affiliation of the Indian National Congress. One of the main factors that appealed this merger was the decision of INC to reorganise states on the basis of language. The Assamese leaders felt that by this, Assamese as a language could be protected. Thus was formed the APCC. Its adhoc committee formed in June 1921, had Kuladhar Chaliha as president.The main roles of the Assam Provincial Congress committee were :
(i) Under an initiative taken up by APCC, Gandhi was invited to Assam in 1921.this helped to spread the Non- cooperation Movement.
(ii) APCC hosted the 41st All India Congress committee session at Pandu in 1926.
(iii) Leaders of APCC like Bishnuram Medhi, Siddhinath Sarma, Maulana Tayebullah, Ambikagiri Raichoudhury,
etc.Worked to implement the plans and programs.
(iv) The Assam Congress party with Gopinath Bordoloi as Premier, opposed grouping of Assam and North East with East Bengal in Group C by the Cabinet Mission, and succeeded in their aim. Gandhi supported Bordoloi.
Q7. Give brief description on the role of Assam in Swadeshi Movement.
Ans: In Assam, the influence of the Swadeshi Movement was mainly seen in places such as Dhubri, Gauripur, Goalpara, Tezpur Dibrugarh, etc. Keshari Ambikagiri Raychoudhury and Gobinda Lahiri formed a revolutionary organisation among the students of Guwahati.They called upon the people of Assam to boycott foreign-made items and use indigenous commodities. The result was that the demand for foreign-made items, particularly textiles, declined. It led to greater growth of local industries and small-scale business dealing with home-made products like endi, muga, cotton and khadi cloth. A group of students in Guwahati worked as labourers in the dock twice a week and donated the money to fund the Swadeshi Movement. Ambikagiri Raychoudhury established another revolutionary society called Sewa Sangha with revolutionary activists like Khudiram Bose, Barindra Ghose, Ullash Kar Dutta, etc. The British meanwhile took several welfare measures to woo the people away from the Swadeshi Movement they included :
(i) Introduction of Assamese language and literature in the syllabus of entrance examination of Calcutta University.
(ii) Opening of bachelor degree in all departments in Cotton College with a view to making it a centre of excellence.
(iii) Introduction of 20-point land settlement in Assam. It is to be noted that Swadeshi movement was also quiet popular in Surma valley. The movement here was led by the Surma Valley Association. An outcome of the movement in this region was the establishment of national schools in Sylhet, Habibganj, Srimangal, Lakhai, Baniachang, Karimganj, Silchar, etc.
Q8. Give an account on the role of Assam in non-cooperation movement.
Ans: When Gandhi called all the people of India to Join the non-cooperation movement, the Assam Association was not sure about joining the movement. A section of the association led by Gangagovinda Barua, Tara Prasad Chaliha, Ghanashyam Barua and Chandradhar Barua preferred not to join the movement. Nevertheless, majority of the members felt the need to Join the national movement. At the 17th session of the Assam Association held at Tezpur in December 1920, the Association took the decision to join the non-cooperation
movement led by Mahatma Gandhi. The result was that this group was merged with Assam Provincial Congress Committee in June 1921.
The non-cooperation movement received a great boost with the visit of Mahatma Gandhi to Assam in 1921.Thousands of people attended his meeting. Many of them responded to Mahatma Gandhi’s call by joining the movement and boycotting educational institutions, government offices and courts. Prominent youth leaders along with students, professionals and lawyers actively joined the boycott movement.
Another group of people who fully supported the Non-cooperation Movement were the tea garden workers. They took the opportunity to voice their anger against their colonial exploitation. There seemed to have taken place several sporadic strikes and disturbances in the tea garden belt during this period. In 1921, over 8000 tea garden labourers of Karimganj sub-division came together to protest against the colonial masters under the Congress leadership. They demanded a huge wage increase. However, the government put down these protest marches with an iron hand and hundreds of workers lost their lives while others were forced to go back to their work. One of the positive impacts of the Non-cooperation Movement was the establishment of national schools in different parts of Assam such as Guwahati, Nalbari, Jorhat, Tezpur, Sibsagar, Nowgong, Karimganj and Maulvibazar. The first national school established in Assam was the Tilak Memorial School in Guwahati in February 1921.
Another positive impact of the movement was the decline in the use of opium. Formerly, the state of Assam was noted for the extensive use of opium. But as a result of widespread anti-opium campaign by the Congress, the sale and use of opium drastically came down in the state. The revenue earned from selling of opium decreased by 19 Lakh rupees. Moreover, the movement led the people to accept and use khadi .This resulted a spurt in the production of cotton textiles, particularly khadi textiles.
Q9. Give an account of the role of Assam in Civil Disobedience Movement.
Ans: In support of Gandhi’s Salt March, Congress leaders such as Hemchandra Barua, M. Tayebullah, Bishnuram Medhi and Ambikagiri Raychoudhury assembly at Judges’ Field at Guwahati and expressed their solidarity with Gandhi’s Salt Satyagraha. An Assamese patriot named Leeladhar Barua, then studying at C.T. college at Calcutta joined the Dandi march led by Mahatma Gandhi. However, many Congress men in Assam were not very enthusiastic about launching the Civil Disobedience movement in the state. Bishnuram Medhi, Muhammad Tayebullah and Ambikagiri Raychoudhury became new office-bears of the Congress and they injected new life into the party. Under their leadership, the Civil Disobedience movement became a mass movement in Assam. Several committees and sub-committees were formed to organise various aspects of the movement. Their main task consisted of raising funds, taking measures in defiance of repressive laws and ordinances, boycotting British goods and spreading anti-opium and anti-liquor campaigns in the state.
Initially the response of the students to the movement was lukewarm. However two events encouraged them to Join the national movement. One was the arrest of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi by the British authorities. Hundreds of students protested against their arrest. Thousands boycotted classes as a mark of protest against their unlawful arrest. The second factor that brought students to the movement was the so-called ‘Cunningham circular’ wherein R.J. Cunningham, Director of Public Interaction, asked students and parents to provide a written undertaking that they would not participate in the various political movements going on in the country.
Meanwhile, the Assam Chatra Sanmilan decided to picket government institutions as part of the Civil Disobedience Movement. It appears that around 3,117 out of 15,186 students left their institutions in July and August 1930 and joined the picketing which soon extended to shops selling opium. Hundreds of peasants joined the movement and they demanded the reduction of land revenue by 50 per cent. Forest laws were also violated in chapapur and Bijini. Students of Surma valley too joined the movement following the example of students of Bhramaputra valley. All these made the Civil Disobedience movement a grand success in Assam.
Q10. Give an account of the Quit India Movement in Assam.
Ans: Mahatma Gandhi stared the Quit India movement in Mumbai on 8 August 1942. It was during this movement that Gandhi gave the famous call ‘Do or Die’ to Indians. The national movement had its repercussions in Assam too.
Like in other parts of India, the Congress leaders in Assam also organised Quit India Movement in the state. However, soon most of these leaders were arrested and imprisoned. The Assam Pradesh Congress Committee, All District Congress Committee and other subsidiary bodies were declared banned. Any public demonstration against the government in the form of huge public gathering, hartals and protest marches were prohibited. In the beginning, Quit India Movement in Assam was peaceful and used non-violent methods such as hartals processions, demonstrations and picketing.
However, after some time the movement became slightly violent. People attacked government buildings, destroyed railway tracks and sabotaged military lines. Such violent agitation were mostly seen in the districts of Nowgong and Darrang. Incidents of sabotage of railway lines were seen at Shahabibazar in Habiganj, Barpathar in Golaghat, Panbari and Rangiya in Kamrup and Kamrupand Suffrai in Sibsagar district. The government tried to put down the rebellion with brute force. Hundreds of people were arrested and imprisoned. Kushal Konwar was hanged in Connection with derailment of a train at Barpathar. He was the only Indian to be hanged during the Quit India Movement. Several places in Assam witnessed police firing. A 14-year old girl named Kanaklata Barua of Gohpur died in one of such firings. She stands as a witness to the brute force used by the British during the agitation.
Since the main leaders of the movement were in jail, the movement in Assam was led by second-rung leaders of the Congress party. Therefore, Congress leaders such as Sankar Chandra Barua,
Mahendra Nath Hazarika, Jyotiprasad Agarwala, Gahan Chandra Goswami Prasad, Lakshmi Brajanath Sarma Goswami, etc. Played a key role during this movement.These leaders organised severely underground Camps. In fact, there were around 32 such camps in Bajali area alone. Many such camps were also organised in different parts of Kamrup, Nowgong, Darrang and Sibsagar districts of Assam.
One of the notable benefits of this movement was that the rural villagers became quiet active. Many villages organised parallel governments which began to take care of their various needs of administration. Village panchayats were established in several places such as Bajali, Hastisung, Dhakuakhana, Raha, Jamuguri and Bahjani. In many villages, ‘No Revenue’ campaign became a strong cry. In other words, there was widespread feeling against the British. There is no doubt that though the Quit India Movement was suppressed, it quickened the process of achieving independence for our country.
Q11. Give a brief description about the institutions established in Assam under the leadership of Bordoloi Ministry.
Ans: The institutions established in Assam under the leadership of Bordoloi Ministry are :
(i) Assam Agricultural University : Assam Agricultural College was established at Jorhat and Assam Veterinary College at Nowgong Came to be established in 1948. In 1969, both these Colleges were placed under a university named Assam Agricultural University. Though the university was not established during the time of the Bordoloi ministry yet the first steps to establish such a university were initiated during his ministry.
(ii) Gauhati University (GU) : Gauhati University was established on 26 January 1948. It was the first university to be established in the entire north-eastern region. The idea to establish a university in Assam was proposed by Sedlar Commission in 1917. Assam Association made it one of its major demands. As a result, a university was established in 1948 under Gauhati University Act of 1947 of the Government of Assam. At the time of its formal establishment, it had 17 affiliated colleges and eight postgraduation departments. The campus of the university was shifted to the present campus in 1955-56. The university area today is known as Gopinath Bordoloi Nagar.
(iii) Assam Medical College : The origin of Assam Medical College can be traced to Berry-White school of medicine which was established in 1900 at Dibrugarh using a donation of 50,000 rupees from Doctors John Berry-White, the Civil Surgeon of East India Company. After the end of the Second World War the college moved to the nearby hospital premises that had been used by the US army. The new medical college was renamed Assam Medical College. It was formally established on 3 November 1947 by Bordoloi ministry to cater to the healthcare needs of the general public of Assam.
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