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SCERT Class 10 Social History Unit 2 Rise of Gandhi and the Freedom Movement of India
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Rise of Gandhi and the Freedom Movement of India
Very Short Answers Questions
Q1. When was Mahatma Gandhi born?
Ans: At Porbandar (Gujarat) on October 2, 1859.
Q2. In which country did Gandhi first apply the technique of Satyagraha?
Ans: South Africa.
Q3. Why did Rabindranath Tagore renounce his Knighthood?
Ans: Rabindranath Tagore renounced his Knighthood as a mark of protest against the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.
Q4. Under whose leadership was the Khilafat movement started in India?
Ans: Ali brothers- Maulana Shaukat Ali and Mohammad Ali.
Q5. When did the Chauri Chaura incident take place?
Ans: February 5, 1922.
Q6. Under what circumstances did the Lala Lajpat rai lose his life?
Ans: Lala Lajapat Rai lost his life as a result of the injury he received during the lathi-charge conducted on the crowd which protested against the arrival of Simon Commission in India in 1927.
Q7. When and in which session of the Indian National Congress was Purna Swaraj declared to be chief goal of the Indians?
Ans: In the Congress session held at Lahore in 1929, Purna Swaraj was declared as the chief goal of the Indians.
Q8. Gandhi started his Salt March from Sabarmati Ashram to the sea coast at Dandi. What was the distance between Sabarmati Ashram to the sea coast at Dandi?
Ans: 385 kms.
Q9. Who was known as ‘Frontier Gandhi’?
Ans: Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan.
Q10. Who was the sole Congress representative at the second Round Table Conference in London?
Ans: Mahatma Gandhi.
Q11. Name the British Prime Minister who announced the Communal Award in 1932.
Ans: Ramsay Macdonald.
Q12. During the course of which movement did Gandhi give the slogan ‘Do or Die’?
Ans: Quit India Movement of 1942.
Q13. Who was the founder of the Azad Hind Fauz?
Ans: Rasbihari Bose (the originator of the idea was Captain Mohan Singh).
Q14. “Give me blood and shall give you freedom”. This famous quote is attributed to which Indian leader?
Ans: Subhash Chandra Bose.
Q15. What is the name if the international boundary line between India and Pakistan?
Ans: Radcliffe Line.
Q1. What do you understand by the term ‘Satyagraha’? Briefly write about the three local disputes where Gandhi first applied the technique of Satyagraha in India.
Ans: The concept of Satyagraha was developed by Mahatma Gandhi while he was in South Africa. He used this concept as a chief weapon of resistance against the discriminatory South African regime. The term ‘Satyagraha’ consists of two words, namely ‘satya’ (meaning truth) and ‘agrha’ (meaning adherence to or holding fast). Thus, literally the term means ‘holding on to truth’ . Non-violence and truth formed the basis of Satyagraha. It is the unarmed fight against might and power using peaceful ways of expression of anger and discount. It is the practice of fighting against wickedness with goodness, hatred with love, etc. Eventually Satyagraha became Gandhi’s chief weapon to fight against the British, both in South Africa and in India. On reaching India in 1915, Gandhi organised Satyagraha movement in a better manner and on a larger scale. The lessons that he learned in South Africa became his guiding principles. The three local disputes where Gandhi first applied the technique of Satyagraha in India were:
(i) Champaran (North Bihar) dispute : Mahatma Gandhi in 1917 took up the cause of the poor and oppressed indigo workers of Champaran district of Bihar who had to suffer numerous hardships under the oppressive management of the rich indigo planters.
(ii) Kheda (Gujarat) dispute: In 1918, in the Kheda district of Gujarat, when despite crop failure, the government refused to remit land revenues and insisted on full collection, Mahatma Gandhi supported the peasants and advised them to withhold the Payment of revenue till their demand for its remission was met.
(iii) Ahmedabad (Gujarat) Dispute: Gandhi applied the method of Satyagraha to settle the disputes between the mill workers and the owners of the mills in Ahmedabad.
Q2. Why was the Khilafat movement started in India?
Ans: After the first world war, with the defeat of Turkey, the powers of the Khilafa were greatly cut down. When the Muslims realised that the sultan of Turkey, who they considered to be their Khalifa (Caliph) or spiritual head, would no longer have any control over the holy places of Turkey, they were very upset. Hence with the objective to restore the Sultan of Turkey as the Caliph of Islam, the Muslims in India started the Khilafa Movement
Under the leadership of Maulana Shaukat Ali and Mohammed Ali. Gandhi also extended support to the movement, effecting Hindu-Muslim brotherhood.
Q3. Why did Mahatma Gandhi launch the non-cooperation movement of 1920-22 ? What were its programmes ? What made Gandhi to suspend the movement ?
Ans: There were several factors that led Mahatma Gandhi to launch the non-cooperation movement of 1920-22. They include :
(i) India’s support of Britain during the First World War had negatively affected her economy, and she lost hundreds of her men in the war, without any gain.
(ii) The Indians had begun to feel very oppressed by the Rowlact Act of 1919 by which any person suspected of terrorist activities could be imprisoned for 2 years without any trial.
(iii) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre of 1919 shocked the people of India, deepening their determination to throw out the British.
(iv) India was being economically exploited by the British and this realisation gained mass support for Gandhi’s movement.
(v) Indian Muslims had started the Khilafat movement advocating restoration of power to the sultan of Turkey, and Gandhi gave support to this movement.
Some of the programmes of this agitation were:
(i) Foreign clothes were burned in bonfires in many places of the country.
(ii) Shops selling foreign goods and liquor were picketed.
(iii) Hundreds of students left government-run schools and collages.
(iv) Peasants of Midnapore in The West Bengal organised an effective no-tax campaign.
(v) Educational institutions such as Kashi Vidyapeeth, Benares Vidyapeeth and the National Muslim University at Aligarh were established.
(vi) Forty lakh volunteers were enrolled by the Congress.
(vii) Twenty thousand ‘charkas’ were manufactured and distributed.
(viii) People started to settle their disputes by means of arbitration.
(ix) The Tilak Swarajya Fund which was started to finance the non-cooperation movement of was able to collect over a crore of rupees within a short period.
(x) Titles and honours given by the British were surrendered.The non-cooperation movement was to strictly adhere to ‘Ahimsa’ or non-violence to achieve in a peaceful manner its goal of Swaraj. These were Gandhi’s strict instructions. However violence did break out on February 5, 1922 at Chauri Chura in Gorakpur district when the police attacked the protestors resulting in three deaths. In retaliation, the protestors burnt down the police station and about twenty-two policemen died. Gandhi was shocked and accepting that there was lack of enough discipline and restrain among the protesting masses, he suspended the non-cooperation movement.
Q4. What were the main aims of Civil Disobedience movement? What were the main features of this movement?
Ans: The main aim of the Civil Disobedience movement of 1930 was “Poorna Swaraj” or complete independence.
(A) Aims : On 31st January 1930, Mahatma Gandhi warned Viceroy Lord Irwin to remove the ill effects of British rule in India and gave him a list of demands. These were:
(i) To prohibit the use of intoxicants.
(ii) To change the ratio of rupee and Sterling.
(iii) To decrease the rate of land revenue and military expenditure.
(iv) To remove salt tax and Crime Investigation Department.
(v) To decrease civil administration expenditure.
(vi) To impose custom duty on foreign clothes.
(vii) To accept Postal Reservation Bill.
(viii) To set free all political prisioners.
(ix) To issue license of arms to citizens for self protection.
(B) Features : The Civil Disobedience Movement gave due emphasis on breaking salt laws of the country. Only the Government was allowed to produce salt and sell to the public. Gandhi challenged this law of the government. Hence, this movement started with the Salt Movement or Salt March. On 12 March 1930, Gandhi marched to Dandi on the sea coast along with 78 followers and made salt by boiling sea-water. Within a short time the entire country was in revolt and opposed the British by breaking salt laws.
The movement (in the north-west frontier province) was led by ‘Khudi Khitmadgars’ (servants of God) known as Red Shirts, under the leadership of Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan. Hundreds of women joined this movement, who fully supported Gandhi’s idea of breaking salt laws. Gandhi and thousands of freedom lovers were arrested during this period.
Q5. Under what circumstances was the Quit India Movement launched? Do you consider the movement to be a milestone in India’s struggle for independence? Give reasons in support of your answer.
Ans: The Quit India movement was the last mass struggle movement initiated by Mahatma Gandhi’s views, the Congress working committee met accepted with some modifications by All India Congress Committee when it met in Bombay on 7th and 8th August 1942. The circumstances leading to the revolt were :
(i) Failure of Cripps Mission.
(ii) Threat of Japanese invasion of Imdia.
(iii) Reign of terror in East Bengal.
(iv) Realisation that the British could no longer protect India.
(v) Display of racism during the evacuation.
I do feel that the Quit India Movement of August 1942 is a milestone in the history of the freedom struggle in India. It is an epic event which brought freedom close to our doorstep. The movement made achieving total independence from British rule as the only aim of the Indian national movement. Although the revolt failed in its attempt to force the British out of India, nevertheless it spread awareness and brought people together. The mass agitation succeeded in awakening and emboldening the masses.
People irrespective of caste, creed, religion, occupation, sex and religion joined this movement. Everyone wanted the British to move out of India. The slogan of ‘Do or die’ (Karo ya Maro) became the cry of the nation. The violent mass agitation shook the very foundation of British regime in india. They realised that they now couldn’t stay long in India. The event definitely quickened the attainment of freedom.
Q6. Write a brief note on the Indian National Army.
Ans: The idea of the Indian National Army was first conceived by Captain Mohan Singh, an Indian officer in the British armed forces, who surrendered to the Japanese in the second World War. A conference of expatriate Indians was held in Tokyo in March 1942, leading to the formation of the Indian Independence League. In its Bangkok Conference, in June 1942, Rash Behari Bose was elected its President. Here it was decided to raise the Indian National Army (INA) or the Azad Hind Fauz. It also invited Subhash Chandra Bose to Japan, and on his arrival Rash Behari relinquished the presidency of Indian Independence League in his favour. Subhash Chandra Bose formed the Provisional Government of free India or the Azad Hind Sarkar in Singapore on October 21, 1943, with the aim to routing the British from India. He also reorganized the INA, recruitment many civilians including women , who formed the Rani Jhansi Regiment. The INA fought alongside the Japanese against the British, and raised the slogan ‘jai Hind’. Thus, Subhash Chandra Bose with his great enthusiasm and national fervour infused fire into the organisation. His followers were motivated by the slogan “Give me blood and I shall give you freedom’. The defeat and surrender of Japan halted the fortunes of the INA. Subhash you freedom’. The defeat and surrender of Japan halted the fortunes of the INA. Subhash Chandra Bose escaped but probably died in air crash in 1945. Yet INA played a memorable role in the Indian National Struggle for freedom, bringing international attention to the cause.
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