# SCERT Class 10 Social Geography Unit 4 Geography Of Assam

SCERT Class 10 Social Geography Unit 4 Geography Of Assam The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters Assam Board SCERT Class 10 Social Geography Unit 4 Geography Of Assam and select needs one.

## SCERT Class 10 Social Geography Unit 4 Geography Of Assam

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given SEBA SCERT Class 10 Social Geography Unit 4 Geography Of Assam Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

## Geography Of Assam

PART-II: GEOGRAPHY

Q 1. Write briefly about Assam’s land area, population and population density with necessary data.

Ans. the total land area of Assam is around 78,438 sq km which covers almost 2.4 per cent of India’s  total land area. According to 2011 census Assam’s population is 312.05 lakh or 31million which constitutes about 2.6 per cent of the total population of India. Out of this population 159.39 lakh are male and 152.66 lakh are female. Assam had a population density of 42 persons per sq km in 1901 which rose to 398 persons per sq km in 2011. Nearly 85 percent of Assam’s population lives in the. Brahmaputra valley having population density of 1220 persons per sq km in 2001 and density of population is as high as 1502 persons per sq km2011 census data.

Q 2. Briefly mention how the literacy rate of Assam is increasing.

Ans: According to 2001 census data, the literacy rate in Assam was just 63.25% which Rose to 72.19% in 2011, an increase of more than 10 per cent over a decade. This is a substantial Increase.

Q 3. How many first class and second class towns are there In Assam as per 2011 census data?

Ans: As per 2011 census data, Assam has about 7 first class towns and 6 second class towns. By the term ‘first class town’, We mean a town with a population of one lakh or more while the ‘second class town’ refers to a town which has a population between 50 thousand to one lakh.

Q 4. Describe the trend of population growth in Assam

Ans: during 1901 was 3 million which constituted about 1. 38 percent Indian population. after that the population of the state Increased and the population reached a figure of 7 million in 1941. This shows that Assam’s population increased by more than two times in 1901 and 1941. But during the post-independence period since 1951, the population of the state Increased rapidly due to migration across the border. In the period 1951- 61, 1961-71, the population growth was recorded as 34.98% and 34.95% respectively. However in the next decades, i,e.1971-81, 1981-91, 1991-2001,2001-2011 the population growth sightly decline due to the death rate and slight control over migration from Bangladesh. The growth rate in 2001-2011 was only 17.07% while it was over 30% in the decades following independence. Currently, the total population of the state is 31% million which was only 3 million in 1901, an increase of ten – fold.

Q 5. Analyse the geographical region-wise distribution of population in Assam.

Ans: the geographical region-wise distribution of population in Assam with regard to the size and density of population can be explained by dividing the state into three regions:

(i) The Brahmaputra valley region: This one of the most populated regions of Assam which has nearly  85 percent of the state’s population. The region has a density of 1502 person per sq km as per the 2011 census. The density is high due to factors such as favorable climate, plain topography, facilities for easy travel and communication, large number of rivers,etc.

The Brahmaputra valley region is future divided into the following regions:

(a)  Upper Brahmaputra valley: The Upper Brahmaputra valley has 21 percent of population while its density is 372 persons per sq km.

(ii) Barak valley region: According to the 2011 census, 11 per cent of the total population of the state lives in this region. This region has a density of 545 persons per sq km as per 2011 census data. This high concentration of population is due to favorable factors such as fertile alluvial soil, favourable climate, facilities of good travel and communication, etc.

(iii) Hill region: This region consists of the hill districts of the state, namely, karbi

Anglong and Dima Hasao districts are located between the Brahmaputra and Barak valley. About 3.75 per cent of the state’s population lives here with a density of 68 people per sq km. The main reason for low population are spares settlements, inconvenience physiographic condition, etc

Q 6.Briefly discuss the causes responsible for variation in the Distribution of Assam’s population with suitable examples.

Ans:The total population of Assam according to the 2011 census is 31 million and it has a population density of 398 per sq km. About 85% percent of this population lives in the Brahmaputra valley region while the Barak valley accounts for 11 per cent of the population. The Hill region which consists of the two districts of karbi Anglong and Dim Hasao accounts for 3.75%of the total population of the state. The dentist population also varies from region to region. The Brahmaputra valley region has 1502 persons per sq km while the Barak valley region and Hill region have 545 and 68 persons per sq km respectively. Thus we notice a lot of Variation in the distribution of population. The main factors for this are:

(i) Climate differences.

(ii) variation in topography.

(iii) Differences in the economic development of the regions.

(iv) Differences  in the development of transport and communication.

(v) Differences in the availability of various resources.

The Brahmaputra valley supports a high density population because it has plain land, fertile soils and well-developed agriculture and transport. Similar factor are responsible for high population density in the Barak valley. In contrast, the hill region of karbi Anglong and Dima  Hasao have a sparse population due to  unfavourable topography and other physiographic conditions. According to 2011 person census, kanpur (metro) district has the highest density of population at 2010 persons per km2 while Dima Hasao has a density of only 44 persons per km2 which displays how better facilities and opportunities attract more people while economically backward areas couple with though physiography are a deterrent to human be settlement.

Q 7. Mention the districts of Assam which have highest population and lowest population and density as per 2011 census data.

Ans: According to 2011census data, Nagaon district with a population of 2,826,006 is the most populated district in Assam While Dima Hasao with 213,529 people is the lest populated district. Where the kamarpur ( metro) with 2010 persons per sq km is the most densely populated district in the state of Assam.

Q 8. Analysis briefly the causes responsible for growth of population in Assam.

Ans: The causes responsible for the growth of population in Assam are:

(i) Natural causes: Natural causes means decline in death rate and Increase in birth rate. During the last few decades due to improvement in the availability of medical care, improvement in the standard of living and better economic development, there has been a decline in death rate as well as an increase in birth rate. Both these rates are almost at par with the national death and birth rates.

(ii) Migration: The major cause for the abnormal growth of population in Assam is migration. Through the migrants have been coming into Assam since 1826, the flow was more active since the early 1900s. During partition, a large number of Hindu refugees migrated to Assam from the east pakistan. From 1951to 2001, there was an  unabated flow of migrants from Bangladesh. The growth rate of Assam’s population was against 232% the national growth rate of 185% during this period. In recent years this has been nominally checked.

Q 9. Mention the different human migration stream sequentially coming to Assam since the ancient times to the present.

Ans: Following are the different  human migration streams sequentially to the Assam since the ancient times to the present:

(i) Austric group: The frist group of people to Assam belonged to Austric racial stock. They probably came from south – east Asia.The khasi and the jaintias who currently inhabit Meghalaya (a state carved out of Assam in1970s) belong to this group. Some members of this group are found to living in karbi Anglong and Dima Hasao areas bordering Meghalaya. They also include the jaintia group of cachar district.

(ii) Mongoloid group: The second human stream to migrate to Assam was the Mongoloid Tibeto- Burman language speaking group. They came  across the Himalayas from central Asia and settled in different parts of Assam. All the tribal groups except the khasis and the jaintias presently residing in Assam belong to this racial stock.These tribes include the plain tribes of Bodo, mishing, Radha,tiwa, Deori kathari, Garo, kuki, Hmar, Hajong, Rengma Naga and zeme naga.they  are settled in the plain areas and near the river banks, foothills and Hill slop.

(iii) Aryans: the Indo-Aryans speaking people migrated to Assam soon after the Mongoloid people. The Aryans belonged to the Caucasoid racial stock. At frist they were invited by the local kings or administrator.many came their own and others were invited by seeing the economic possibilities offered by the  Brahmaputra and Barak valleys of the state. The vast majority of the non- tribal groups of living in Assam belong to the Caucasoid racial stock.Groups like kalitas,kayasthas, Brahmins, etc.of the state belong to this group and followed Hinduism.They settled mainly along the Brahmaputra and Barak valleys and established vedic culture and cultivation in the state.

(iv) Muslim soldiers: During early 13th century,an Islamic group of soldiers of Indo-Aryan origin invaded Assam under Mohammed Bin Bakhatira khilji, a muslim General of kutubuddin, on their way to conquer Tibet.In subsequent years, there were several invasions  undertaken by the Muslim generals under the patronage of the mughal kings of northern India. Some of these soldiers remained back on their own accord, some were taken prisoners and others were   engaged by the local kings and the people in different works.Later these small Muslim settlement grew big and established a significantly large muslim society in the Brahmaputra and Barak valleys.

(v) Ahoms: The next group to reach Assam were the

Ahoms are the most important ethics group that migrated to Assam. The Ahoms belonged to Mongoloid stock. They came from the Shan plateau of northern Myanmar under the leadership of seu,ka-pha in 1228. they settled in upper Assam and established the Ahoms kingdom Later they brought the entire Brahmaputra valley under their control. Ahoms ruled Assam for around 600 years and greatly contributed to the society and culture of assam ahoms settlements are found today in upper and middle Assam.

(vi) Migration during British rule: The British conquered Assam in 1826 and they needed some education and skilled persons for carrying out the administrative, economic and commercial activities on their behalf.for this purpose, they brought qualified people from bengal, Bhiar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, nepal, etc.later when the British introduce tea captivation in Assam, they brought tribal people from the Chotanagpur plateau of central India to work in these tea gardens. These tribals belonged to Austric racial of stock and spoke the Mundari group of language.these tea tribes are found in upper and middle Assam.

(vii) Migration from Bangladesh: Landless muslim present in migrated to Assam from East Bengal (now Bangladesh,) even in the last decade of the 19th century before independence.

After August 1947 Hindu refugees migrated from newly created east pakistan.the muslim present settled in the firtile plains, while the Hindu migrants in business opportunity areas. Migration from Bangladesh continues till date as Assam offers better opportunities.

(viii)  Inter- state migration: Due to social, economic and education reason many people have migrated to Assam from the other state of Indian to settle permanently. These people are mainly from Rajasthan, Punjab, Bihar, west Bengal, Manipur etc.

Q10. Give the ethics identify of the Ahoms.

Ans: the Ahoms probably migrated to Assam in the 13th century. They belong to the Mongoloid racial stock.A group of Ahoms reached the state in 1228 under the leadership of seu- ka-pha.They came to Assam vai the patkai Hills from the Shan plateau of northern Myanmar. They  established themselves in upper Assam and later conquered the entire state of Assam. The Ahoms ruled the state for almost 600 years and made substantial contribution to assamese society and culture.they profoundly influenced the religion , society, culture and political identity of the people of the state. The present -day Assamese are mostly descendants of this group. They are  found in tinsukia,Dibrugrah, sibsagar, jorhat, Golaghat, Lakhimpur,Dhubri, Morgan, Nagaon and sonitpur districts of Assam.

Q 11. Briefly state how the transport system of Assam has been helping the state’s economy.

Ans: Transport system of constitutes one of the important factors of economic development of a nation or a region. it primarily established communication and linkage between different parts of a country. It helps exchange of resources, knowledge, culture and cultivation. Therefore,an efficient transport system which consists of roadways, waterways and is the lifeline of a nation.The development of various sectors of the economy such as agricultural , industry trade communication ,etc. greatly depend on the transport system.It is absolutely true

With the regard to a state like Assam. Assam is frouate to have vital resources, immense human potential, etc. All these resources can be developed only with the help of an efficient transport system.

Assam stands of the gateway to other state of the north-east. the development of einter north- east is dependent on the transport system ofAssam . Various economic goods required economy of these state have to be   transported through  Assam by way of the transport system.This has greatly boosted the economy of the state.Assam stands at the estern corner of India. It is the transport system which connects this state with rest of India. A lot of economic goods required for the economic development of the state have to be brought from outside the state. Locally produced goods such as tea, oil, natural gas, limestone, etc. Are export with the help of the transport system.In other words, the transport system has played a vital role in bringing about the economic development of Assam.

Q 12. Write a short note on water transport system in Assam.

Ans :The water transport system in Assam mainly consists of inland water Assam is blessed with the Brahmaputra and Barak rivers with their numerous tributaries which account for 32 per cent of the total water resources of India. The891 km navigable part of Brahmaputra extending form sadia to Dhubri was declared in 1988 as the  second National Waterways of the country while the 121km navigable part of the Barak river was declared as the sixth National  Waterways of the country in 2013.The economic development of winter nort- east is greatly dependent on the these two waterways. Currently the management of Inland waterways of Assam is in the hands of two agencies named central Inland waterways corporation and Directorate of Inland water transport. These two agencies take care of the ferry system of the state.padu Guwahati is the main port.There  are 30pairs of ferry Ghat on the Brahmaputra.At present there are as many as 96 ferry services operating in the rivers Brahmaputra and Barak and their tributaries under IWT.There are also  many private ferries and bhoot-bhooty services that transport goods and passengers:

(i) Lesser fule expenditure.

(ii) No or much lesser air pollution.

(iii) Available to people in areas where road transport is underdeveloped.

(iv) plays an important role during natural disasters.

(v) No cost of road construction, maintenance and repair.

(vi) Effectively transports goods and passengers.

Q 13. Mention five major causes which  are  regarded as hindrance to the development of transport system of Assam.

Ans: Assam has excellent prospects for the development of an efficient system, and the need is also great, yet  there are several problem which is have stood as major hirances to the development of this sector. The causes for the underdevelopment of the transport system in Assam can be put down as below:

(i) Expansion of the transport system is difficult in a topography that feature such variety as hills, plateaus, plains, floodplains and wetlands.

(ii) only a narrow corridor connects Assam the rest of India through its west, making expansion of the transport network difficult.

(iii) soil properties in some areas are not  suitable for road construction. Moreover, high rainfall in the state damage the roads easily, which as it is are made with out use of modern technology.

(iv) The underdevelopment transport system has lead to backwardness in industrial development, and vice versa.

(v) Tourism industry has not been given enough impetus, which if done can boost the transport sector.

(vi) Assam has not succeeded in begin active In National and international trade and consequently the transport system has not been developed

(vii) Trade and commerce has suffered major setback due to the insurgency problem leading to a fall in national and foreign investment in the state. This too has caused the transport system to suffer.

(viii) the transport system in Assam has see quantities expansion but not qualitative.Also all types of transport suffer from lack of operative and technical efficiency.

(ix)There is lack of coordination among the road, railway, water and air Transport mechanisms in the state of hindering overall transport development.

(x) Government schemes for transport development and expansion are not executed timely and properly.

Note: Students shall write any five points or as per requirement of questions asked in the examination.

Q 14. What do you mean by the term ‘resources’ ? What are the major natural resources of Assam?

Ans: The  materials which directly or indirectly satisfy human needs and wants are known as resources.Nàtural resource are those resources which are created in nature by the natural factors. The major Natural resources of Assam are:

(i) Land resources: The land of Assam is composed of various types of soils, of which the alluvial soils are an important resources.New alluvial soils are found on the floodplains and river plains of Brahmaputra and Barak Rivers. It  supports cultivation of rice, jute,  pulses and vegetables. Old Alluvial soils are found in the higher plains of Brahmaputra and Barak rivers and also being fertile they support cultivation of rice and tea. As per 2009-10 data, 35% of Assam’s land is under cultivation.

(ii) Forest resources: Due to population pressure the forest cover of the state has depleted, yet Assam is relatively rich in forest resources. All types of tropical forest are found here which are a rich habitat for variety of plants and animals. Valuable tall trees like Nahar,Cham, Sirish , Amari, Simul, etc. and Short trees and grasses like Bamboo, cane, Tora, koupat, Dhekai,etc. Are found. Firewood, wood, thatch , vegetables, fruits, medicinal plants etc. are derived from these plant resources. The forests of Assam, including reversed forests, are habitat for a variety of animals which include  the one horned rhinos, elephants, tigers, bears, wild buffaloes, deer, monkeys, reptiles, etc. 34% of Assam’s land is under forest cover and 72% of these forest are reserved forests.

There are 5 national parks and 20 wildlife sanctuaries.

(iii) Mineral resources: The Rich mineral resources of Assam haven not been fully exploited due to difficult locations and adverse natural environment. The important minerals found here are coal, mineral oil, natural gas and limestone. Major oilfields are at Digboi, Niharika, Lakoa, Geleki , Bhorhola and Amguri. Natural gas reserved are also found in these locations.coal is found in makum,  Dilly – Jaipur , Charaipung – Tarajan, koliajan, Umrangchu, Garampani, singimari regions. Limestone is found in the hills districts of karbi Anglong and Dima hasao.other minerals found in Assam are Iron ore, felspar, quartz and clay.

(iv) water resources: Assam is very rich in  both surface and ground water resources . presence of the Brahmaputra and Barak rivers with the tributaries, coupled with high rainfall, and numerous ponds, marshes, wetlands, etc. has enriched Assam giving it one – third of the total water resources of the country. Numerous types of fishes and many aquatic plants are found in the wetlands and  marshes.

Q15. Name the major oilfields of Assam.

Ans: Digboi oilfields was the first oil field discovered and development in India and it is situated in the state of Assam. This oil field started production in 1889.other oil fields developed over the years in the state  include Naharikatia, Moran-hugrijan, Rudrasagar, Lakoa, Geleki, Bhorhola and Amguri oil fields.

Q 16. Write briefly about the water resources of Assam.

Ans: Assam is rich in surface ground  water resources due to high rainfall, numerous perennial rivers, thousand of wetlands, etc. The two main rivers , the Brahmaputra and Barak rivers, carry huge amount of water. These two rivers with their tributaries amount to almost one – third of the water resources of the country. Besides there are some large and small marshes and ponds all over the state. In fact Assam has more than three thousand wetlands. These water Bodies have various types of fish, other aquatic animals and a verity of plants. The surface water  of these rivers is used for Agriculture and domestic activities and Industrial purpose. These rivers also constitute one of the main mods of transport in the state. The ground water resources are also abundant in the Brahmaputra and Barak valleys. In the plains , the range of  underground water level in 5 meter from the surface.it is also utilised for Agriculture, industrial and domestic purpose . However, it is to be noted that water resources are not fully utilised in the state and a lot more can in this regard.

Q17. What are the causes responsible for degradation of Assam’s natural resources?

Ans: usually natural resources of a place  are degraded both by natural and Human factors. Unfortunately Assam’s rich natural resource forces have been degrading due to haphazard used by man The main causes for this are:

(i) The ever growing population which has seen an explosion in the last few decades has led to Increase of demand for human settlement and food-crops. This demand been met by clearing forests filing up wetlands and using fertile agricultural lands , leading to their degradation.

(ii) misuse of land has lead to land erosion, loss of land fertility, soil pollution etc .

(iii) Demand for higher food and crop production has led to clearing of lands and wetlands and using them for Agriculture.

(iv) use of Chemical fertilizers to Increase crop yield has also lead to natural properties of cropland soils begin destroyed.

(v) Unscientific extraction and overuse of mineral for development of transport, industry and energy sector is leading the state to face exhaustion of Mineral resources soon.

(vi) Unplanned urbanisation and industrialisation has led to pollution of air, water and land resources.

(vii) Irrigation use of natural resources has played a major role in the degradation.

Q 18. How has the growing population of Assam put impact on the natural resources?

Ans. Assam has abundant natural resources such as land resources , forest resources , mineral resources and water resources. But these resources are getting depleted at a fast rate. The main reason for this rapid depletion is the immense pressure put on the ever- growing population of the state.This Increasing population has put an impact on the natural resources in the following ways:

(i) Growth of population has led to demand for more settlements. To meet this demand, forest have been cleared, wetlands filled and ever fertile agricultural land occupied, to build human settlement, leading to environment degradation . Resultantly forests, wetlands marshy lands. etc.are fast disappearing.

(ii) High population means more food-crops need to be produced.As agricultural lands have been used for Agriculture. Moreover, the use of chemical fertilisers to Increase crop production has led to loss of land fertility, soil pollution, etc.

(iii) Growing population also means parallel development of transport, industry and energy sectors leading to near exhaustion of non- renewal mineral resources.Air, water and land resources are all under threat of server unless population pressure is checked.

Q 13. Is the vast population of Assam a burden (problem) on resources of the state? Discuss.

Ans:  It is true that vast population of Assam is a burden ( problem ) for the state. But right steps to be taken in trans forming this vast population into resource in instead  of regarding this as a problem to burden . The total population of Assam according to 2011census is about 61 million. It is 2.58 per cent of total population of India.About 73% per cent of population of Assam are educated. The male literacy rate in Assam is 78%pre cent, while the female literacy rate is around 67 per cent.It is noteworthy that unlike China or Japan. The population of India including Assam has not become exhausted with aged persons. Around 35 per cent of total population of Assam consists of person with age range 15years to 35 years i.e. the number of such people is More than 10 millions. Among the person of this youth generation there are prospects of intenes working capability. In addition to providing general and technical education to the youth generation, positive steps should be taken for empowerment of women and weak classes of the society, such steps would make development of human  resources possible.i.e.in spite of the vast population of Assam is burden (problem)at present, can be turned into resources by accepting effective planning.

Q 20. According to you what steps need to be followed in creating human resources in Assam?

Ans: The steps to be followed in creating  human resources in Assam are :

(i) Literacy rate must be improved by taking more measures to spread  education in the rural areas and among females.

(ii)  Government should allot more funds for the expansion of education.

(iii) Government must establish more vocational training institutes and Industrial training institutes.

(iv) The government with the cooperation  of private individual and companies should start courses for enhancing the employability skills of the youth of the state, by making them efficient in education, intelligence, technical know- how ,etc. through proper management.

(v) The government should be support the well – qualified youngsters of the state to start businesses of their own.

(vi) The  Bright children of the state should be encouraged to take up higher studies. They should be given adequate financial support for this purpose.

(vii) The state government should demand more central universities and technical institutes in the state.

(viii) people from backward sections, differently abled person and woman need to be empowered.

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