NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 1 Meaning And Scope of Political Science

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NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 1 Meaning And Scope of Political Science, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 1 Meaning And Scope of Political Science and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 1 Meaning And Scope of Political Science Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Political Science Notes Paper 317.

NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 1 Meaning And Scope of Political Science

Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Political Science Chapter 1 Meaning And Scope of Political Science, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Political Science Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Meaning And Scope of Political Science

Chapter: 1



Intext Questions 1.1

Q. Fill in the blanks.

(a) Political Science deals with both and ……… issues. (empirical, normative,formal).

Ans. Empirical, normative.

(b) Political Science studies ……… and (society, state, nation, power,class).

Ans. State, Power.

(c) The term Politics is derived from the word …….. (polis,police,state).

Ans. Polis. 

(d) ……… said Politics begins and ends with the state. (Gettel, Garner, Lasswell).

Ans. Garner.

(e) ……….. defined Political Science as the study of shaping and sharing of power. (Kaplan, Easton, Garner).

Ans. Kaplan.


Q.Fill in the blanks:

(a) …….. called Political Science a “master science.” (Plato, Aristotle, Laski) 

Ans. Aristotle.

(b) Behaviouralism stressed on the ……….. part of Political Science. (science, philosophy, political)

Ans. Science.

(c) The ………. view politics as a conflict between two classes the haves and the have-nots. (Greeks, Romans, Marxists).

Ans. Marxists.

(d) Skill of practical politics is acquired through ……….. (honesty, morality, craftiness).

Ans. Craftiness.


Q.Fill in the blanks:

(a) The term ‘State’ was first used by ……….. (Plato, Machiavelli, Kautilya). 

Ans. Machiavelli.

(b) The term Liberty is derived from the ……….. word liber. (Greek, Roman, Latin) 

Ans. Latin.

(c) ………… liberalism advocated negative liberty. (Early, Modern, Libertarian). 

Ans. Early. 

(d) Your liberty to swing your ……….. ends there where my nose begins. (nose, arms, head) 

Ans. Arms.

(e) The freedom of many may require restraints of law on the freedom of ……….. (all, some, none). 

Ans. Some.

(f) Eternal ……….. is the price of liberty. (vigilance, liberty, freedom).



Q.Fill in the blanks:

(a) According to …………. justice is the reconciler of political values. (Plato, Aristotle, Barker).

Ans. Barker.

(b) Equality does not mean ……….. (identity of treatment, equality of opportunity) 

Ans. Identity of treatment.

(c) Justice for Nozick meant respect for …………. (entitlements, duties, need)

Ans. Entertainments.

(d) According to Rawls, inequality is permissible if and only if it benefits the ………… (the richest, middle class, least well-off) 

Ans. Least well-off.

(e) Equality means ……….. (absence of special privileges, identity of rewards, freedom). 

Ans. Absence of special privileges.


Q. 1.Explain the meaning of Political Science.


Give the meaning of Political Science.

Ans. Meaning of Political Science: The term, Political Science or the word ‘Politics’ is derived from the Greek word ‘Polis’ which means the city-state. Hence, Political Science deals with the problems of city or the state in which men and women live. It is, therefore, defined as the study of the activities of the state.

(i) Bluntschli has said, “Political Science is the science which is concerned with the state.” 

(ii) Garner has said, “Political Science begins and ends with the state.”

(iii) According to Paul Janet, “Political Science is that part of social science which treats of the foundations of the state and principles of government.”

(iv) According to Lasswell and Kaplan, “Political Science is the study of shaping and sharing of power.”

From above definitions we may conclude that the State’ is the central theme of Political Science.

Q. 2. Write a note on the growth of the Discipline of Political Science.

Ans. I.Growth of the Discipline of Political Science:

(i) It is said that systematic study of politics began with the Greeks in the fourth century B.C.

(ii) Great philospher of Greece such as Plato used it (political science) in the most comprehensive way.

(iii) Aristotle called politics a ‘Master Science,

(iv) For Aristotle politics is comprised not only of the institutions of state or government but also of family, property and other social institutions.

(v) In short; we can say that during the ancient period politics, for the Greeks, was an all encompassing activity.

II. Comparison of ancient Greek and the Roman view about Political Science:

(i) The ancient Greek view about Political Science was mainly ethical.

(ii) In contrast of the Greeks, the ancient Roman considered the legal aspects of politics more important than governance.

III. Medieval Age and Political Science:

(i) During the Middle Ages, Political Science became a branch of religious order of the Church. Political authority was, subordinated to the authority of the Church.

(ii) As the state grew in size and became more complex, Political Science acquired a realistic and secular (non-religious) approach.

IV. Modern age and Political Science:

(a) Political Science after Industrial Revolution: After the Industrial Revolution, the role of the state, which was limited to maintenance of law and order and providing defence against external aggression, underwent considerable changes with the emergence of the new economic system called capitalism.

(b) Political Science after the Second World War: In the twentieth century, after the Second World War (after 1945 A. D.) the “behavioural approach” offered a new dimension of political Science. The behavioural movement in American Political Science in the 1950s and the 1960s placed a lot of emphasis on the “Science” part of Politics. It wanted to model Politics after the methods followed by natural sciences like Physics, Botany, etc.

(v) Behaviouralists and Political Science: (a) The behaviouralists built theory inductively from empirical propositions. Those who follow inductive method would come to the conclusion after study, observation and experiment.

Example: For example, when some behaviouralists saw African-Americans (Blacks) of the southern United States of America (USA) voted for the Democratic Party of the United States, they came to the conclusion that the African-Americans do vote for the Democrats.

(b) Importance of behavioural approach towards Political Science: This behavioural approach shifted the focus of its study from political institutions and structures to their functions. It placed stress on political activity and the behaviour of men and women who control these institutions. It replaced the study of ideas by the study of facts, evidence and behaviour. It considered political activity manifested in behaviour as the true subject of Political Science.

(vi) Elections and Political Science: (a) A political activity may be in the form of an individual contesting an election. It may be the activity of a group seeking the adoption of a particular policy in its favour by the government.

(b) As different people pursue different interests, such activities tend to generate disagreement, competition and conflict. But the distinctive quality of Politics is that it includes physical coercion or force by the government. It may and usually does involve the persuasive influence and efforts of the government to resolve conflicts through its balanced policy decisions.

(c) Politics is also viewed as a process whereby individuals, groups or communities seek to achieve their specific but conflicting goals. Politics, as the process seeks to allocate resources (Easton calls it, values) authoritatively.

(vii) Politics and use of Power: Politics, as the study of structures, institutions, processes and activities, recognizes the possibility of the use of power.

(a) Marxist approach: The Marxist approach, which is derived from the writings of the nineteenth century German Philosopher Karl Marx, views Politics as a study of irreconcilable conflicts between the two classes (those who have private property, or simply the rich) and the “have-nots” (those who do not have. any private property, or simply the poor); in other words, the exploiters and the exploited. The emancipation of the have-nots will come only through a revolution which would put an end to the institution of private property, thus changing the class society to the classless society.

(b) Liberal approach: But Politics, as against the Marxist view, has another view also, the liberal view, according to which Politics is considered as an effort for conciliation and accommodation to bring about rule of order and justice. Incidentally, the Marxist view of politics comes as a reaction to the liberal view of politics.

Q. 3. Describe the scope of Political Science in terms of role of the State and functions of government.


What is the scope of Political Science? 

Ans. The scope of Political Science can be described under the following heads:

1.Role of the State: As we know that Political Science is the study of state. Gettel has said, “Political Science is a historical investigation of what the state has been, an analytical study of what the state is and a politico-ethical discussion of what the state ought to be.”

The role and basis of the state have been interpreted differently. According to some, its basis lies in the consent of the people. Some others feel that state is a necessary evil and it should govern the least. Some hold a view that it is an effective instrument of social change. In Marxist view, the State is an instrument of exploitation. In Gandhian view, the State would justify its existence by acting as a ‘Trustee’ of the people. It should help the least poorest and the weakest man or woman. It should restore to him or her, a control over his or her own life and destiny. It is generally agreed that the state exists for the good of the people.

2. Functions of the Government: The scope of Political Science in terms of the functions of the government is as follows:

(a) The field of Political Science is rather vast. It includes the study of political institutions. This covers a study of constitutions and comparative governments.

(b) The government is the most important instrument of the state through which it realizes its objectives.

(c) To make laws and rules, to resolve clashes and to maintain peace and order in country are some most important functions of the government. It has to ensure territorial integrity.

(d) The democratic government’s in modern times have to perform many other functions for the development and welfare of citizens and the society as a whole.

3. In Political Science we study about the various forms of government and their respective advantages and disadvantages. It also implies the study of three organs of government i.e., executive, legislative and judiciary through which the will of state is expressed.

Q. 4. Distinguish between Political Science and Politics.

Ans. The main distinction between Political Science and Politics is described as follows:

(i) Politics is used to mean the problems of the citizens which interact with the instrument of Political power in one form or the other. Sometimes, Politics was and is still used as the technique of compromise or the method to capture power and retain it.

(ii) The theoretical study of politics is different from practical politics. The study of theoretical politics is referred to as the study of Political Science. While the term political covers the subject-matter of the study of Politics, the word ‘science’ refers to a systematic way of studying it. The study of political science comprises theory of the state, concept of sovereign power, forms of government, functions of government, laws and litigations, international politics, peace and war, rights and duties, etc.

(iii) Practical politics includes actual form of government, the working of government, administration, laws and legislation, removal of untouchability, land reforms, release of bonded labourers, prohibition of sale and purchase of human beings, etc.

Q. 5. Write a note on the rights and the duties of an individual.

Ans. Introduction The relationship between citizens and the government is reciprocal. The citizens are members of the State. The State recognizes certain rights of the citizens and in turn expects certain duties from them.

The Rights of Individual:

As far as the rights of an individual concerned they can be divided into three civil, political and social classes.

(a) Civil Rights: Civil rights are those rights which are necessary for the freedom/liberty of the individual. They include the right to life and personal liberty,right to freedom of speech, expression and thought,right to own property, right to enter into contract, right to equality before law and equal protection by law. Equality before law means absence of special privileges, equal; protection of laws implies equals should be treated equally and unequals,unequally.

(b) Political Rights: Political rights include the right to vote to form or join a political party. and the right to contest elections.

(c) Social Rights: Social rights include the right to some degree of economic welfare and security and the right to live the life of a civilized being according to standard prevailing in the society.

Duties of an Individual:

(a) To pay taxes: It is the primary duty of the citizen to pay taxes to the government.

(b) To obey laws and rule: The citizen should cooperative with the government and abide by the laws and rules.

(c) In preventing diseases: An individual should help in preventing diseases by immunization and by keeping neighbourhood neat and clean.

(d) To Check the growth of population: An individual should help in control of population. He should have small families to help the government check the population growth.

(e) To Check public property: An individual should protect public property, help in catching and punishing antisocial and anti national elements.

(f) By avoiding violence: Further,the citizens of different castes, religions, languages and regions should solve their problems by understanding and agreement and not by violent means. In this way, a lot of resources, energy and time of the government can be saved for constructive purposes.

Q. 6. Define liberty in their negative and positive dimensions.

Ans. Definition of liberty in their negative and positive dimensions:

1. Definition: The term ‘liberty’ is derived, from the Latin word ‘liber’ meaning free.Thus,liberty means freedom. Freedom is of paramount importance for the development of an individual’s personality.

2. Liberty in negative dimension: 

(a) Historically speaking, the term liberty was initially defined as absence of all restraints on an individual. This is known as the negative concept of liberty.

(b) Early liberalism championed negative liberty. John Stuart Mill, the nineteenth century English political philosopher, described,”Restraint” as an evil.” Mill was especially worried about the restraints coming from the state and society.

3. Liberty in positive dimension: However, since individuals live together in a society, complete absence of restraints would be neither possible nor desirable. Further, differentiating between the self-regarding and other-regarding action is not always possible. It has been very aptly said that your liberty to swing your arm ends there where my nose begins. For liberty to be enjoyed by everyone, it should have reasonable restrainsts. This is the concept of positive liberty.

Q. 7. What do you mean by equality of opportunity?

Ans. Equality of opportunity means everybody should have the same chance to access public positions and office. An example of the working of the equality of opportunity in India is the Civil Services Examination conducted by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC). Any Indian graduate from any university of India can appear in the examination.

Q. 8. Explain the term justice and bring out the different conception of it.

Ans. Explanation of the term Justice: The term justice is derived from the Latin word ‘Just’ which means a bond. Various people in a society are bound together by certain rights and duties. According to Barker,”Joining and fitting between man and man (or man and woman) in an organised system of human relations’ is Justice. According to another view“the idea of justice can note a rightful balance in a situation where two or more parts or principles are in conflict.”

Different conceptions of Justice:

(i) Social Justice: Social Justice lies in providing all facilities for the development of personality of everyone and fulfil his or her social needs. Social justice also demands the support of society to the helpless, disabled and all those who are are not in a position to acquire means for themselves. They should be helped by the state by application of protective discrimination and distributive justice. As a matter of fact social justice has become the first and foremost objective of the welfare states.

(ii) Political Dimension of Justice: Political justice implies the participation of the people in the affairs of the state and the share in the governance of the country. In a democracy the system of adult franchise symbolizes political justice. Equal opportunity to public appointments, right to contest elections for public office, right to freedom of expression and speech to form associations and unions and the right to criticize government are the foundations of political justice.

(iii) Economic Dimensions of Justice: According to M.C. Setalvad,”Economic justice is the provision of equal opportunities to the citizens to acquire wealth and use it for their living. It implies that those who are disabled or old, and unemployed and therefore, not in a position to acquire wealth should be helped by the society to live.”

According to Gandhiji, the equal distribution is essential to establish the economic justice in society.
Conclusion: The concept of justice is explained by Barker as a natural outcome of freedom or liberty and equality. In other words, logical consequence of freedom is equality and logical outcome of equality is justice. Thus economic equality results in economic justice. Freedom and equality are two aspects of justice. The ultimate objective of both freedom and equality is justice. Today it is universally recognised that for the proper development of personality freedom is as much necessary as equality before law, equal protection of law, and I, economic and political justice.


Choose the correct answer: 

Q.1.Who had said that politics begins and ends with the state?

(a) Garner.

(b) Easton.

(c) Kaplin.

(d) none of the above. 

Ans. (a) Garner

Q. 2. Write the name of scholar who has defined political science as the study of shaping and sharing of power?

(a) Kaplan.

(b) Plato.

(c) Aristotle.

(d) Garner.

Ans.(a) Kaplan.

Q. 3. Who called Political Science as a ‘master science’?

(a) Aristotle.

(b) Laski.

(c) Plato.

(d) Kaplan.

Ans. (a) Aristotle.

Q. 4. On which part of the Political Science behaviourism stresses?

(a) political.

(b) philosophy.

(c) science.

(d) art.

Ans.(c) science.

Q. 5. How is the skill of practical politics acquired through?

(a) craftiness.

(b) dishonesty.

(c) morality. 

(d) honesty.

Ans.(a) craftiness.

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