NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 31 The Medieval State

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NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 31 The Medieval State, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 31 The Medieval State and select need one. NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 31 The Medieval State Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 History Notes Paper 315.

NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 31 The Medieval State

Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 31 The Medieval State, NIOS Senior Secondary Course History Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

The Medieval State

Chapter: 31




Correct the following sentences and rewrite :

Q. 1. Muhammad Ghauri marched into the Indus basin to uproot the Ghaznavids in 1168.

Ans: Muhammad Ghauri marched into the Indus basin to uproot the Ghaznavids in 1186. 

Q. 2. Ghauri’s armies conquered Multan in 1157, Sind in 1128 and Parkawas and Lahore in 1168.

Ans: Ghauri’s armies conquered Multan in 1175, Sind in 1182 and Peshavar and Lahore in 1186.

Q.3. Iltutmish must be regarded as the real consolidator of the Turkish conquests in South India.

Ans: Iltutmish must be regarded as the real consolidator of the Turkish conquests in North India.

Q. 4. After a struggle between the two factions Jalal-ud-din Firoz Khalji assumed the sultanate in 1209.

Ans: After a struggle between the two factions, Jalal-ud-din, Firoz Khalji assumed the sultanate in 1240.

Q. 5. In 1269 Jalaluddin Khalji was assassinated by his ambitious nephew and successor, Ala-ud-Din Khalji.

Ans: In 1296 Jalal-ud-din Khalji was assassinated by his ambitious nephew and successor, Ala-ud-Din Khalji.


Q. Fill in the blanks:

1. Babur claimed descend from both _____ and ______.

Ans: Timur, Genghis Khan

2. After Sher Shah Suri died, Humayun conquered Delhi in _______.

Ans: 1555

3. From 1556 to ______ during the hey-day of its fabulous wealth and glory the Mughal Empire was a ______ and _______ organisation.

Ans: 1707, efficient, centralised

4. India under the ______ empire was governed under Muslim law _______.

Ans:  Mughal, Sharia


Q. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words from the brackets:

1. The emperor encouraged new elements to join his service, and ______ came to form an important block of the Mughal nobility. (Afghanian, Irarian, Turkish) 

Ans: Iranian.

2. Under the Sultanate immediately after Sultan the office of ______ was there to supervise all affairs of the government. (Chief Sadas, chief Justice, Wazil)

Ans: Wazir.

3. ______ under the Mughals was developed as the office for the collection of revenue who realised on behalf of the state. (Mansab, Sadr, Jagir)

Ans: Jagir.

4. The standard coin under the Sultan from Iltutmish onwards was the silver tanka weighing ______ (175, 200, 225) grains. 

Ans: 175


Q. 1. Briefly describe the role of Muhammad Ghauri.

Ans: (i) The Delhi Sultanate had its origin in victories by Muhammad Ghauri, who sacked Ghazni in 1151, and then expelled Ghaznavids to Punjab, in 1157.

(ii) He marched into the Indus basin to uproot the Ghaznavids in 1186. His armies also conquered Multan (1175), Sind (1182), Peshawar and Lahore (1186).

(iii) In 1190, he occupied Bhatinda, which triggered battles with the Rajput king Prithviraj Chauhan, whom he finally defeated in 1192.

(iv) After breaking the Rajput hold on western routes to the Ganga basin, the Ghaurid armies marched eastward until Bakhtyar Khalji finally defeated Laksmanasena in Bengal, in 1200.

(v) In 1206, Muhammad Ghauri died. 

Q. 2. Mention the principal features of the era of Balban and Khaljis.

Ans: Balban

(i) Ghiyas-ud-din Balban first acted as naib (deputy) to the Sultan and later as Sultan and ruled from 1266 to 1287.

(ii) Balban stressed the special position of Sultan as ‘Shadow of God’ (Zill-al-Allah) on earth. 

(iii) Balban emphasised court splendour, decorum and etiquette. He also believed in severe setting example punishments even to the nobles.

(iv) Balban’s immediate successors, however, were unable to manage either the administration or the intergroup conflicts between the old Turkish nobility and the new forces, led by the Khaljis.

The Khaljis

(i) Under the Khaljis external policy of conquest and internal methods of absolute control were followed through military expeditions and regulations.

(ii) The Khaljis used their Afghan descent to win the loyalties of the discontented nobles, who felt that they had been neglected by the earlier Sultans.

(iii) Jalaluddin Khalji was the first ruler to put forward the view that the state should be based on the willing support of the governed and that since the majority of Indians were Hindus, the state cannot be truly Islamic.

(iv) During the reign of Alauddin Khalji, the sultanate briefly assumed the status of an empire.

(v) Centralization and heavy agrarian taxation were the principal features of Alauddin’s rule.

(vi) The magnitude and mechanism of agrarian taxation enabled the Sultan to achieve two important objectives:

(a) to ensure supplies at low prices to grain carriers (b) to fill the state granaries with a buffer stock, which, linked with his famous price regulations, came as a solution to the critical financial problem of maintaining a large standing army.

Q. 3. The reign of Muhammad bin Tughlaq marked both the high point of the Sultanate and the beginning of its decline’. Comment.

Ans: (i) The reign of Muhammad bin Tughlaq marked the high point of the Sultanate and the beginning of its decline.

(ii) He wished to rule the whole of India. It was the period of continuous expansion and centralization.

(iii) The period from 1296 to 1335 can be seen as one of nearly continuous centralization and expansion.

(iv) The Tughlaq dynasty ended soon after the Timur’s invasion but Sultanate survived, though it was merely a shadow of its former self.

Q. 4. Assess the rule of the Mughals during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

Ans: (i) In 1526, Babur from central Asia established Mughal dynasty in India.

(ii) Babur followed opportunity into the Ganga basin, where he used Uzbek-style fast- horse tightly packed together cavalry equipped with muskets and cannon to sweep away the opposition. In 1526, had conquered sultans from Punjab to Bengal.

(iii) In 1555 Humayun conquered Delhi.

(iv) In 1556, Akbar ascended the throne at the age of thirteen years. Akbar ruled for fifty years (1556-1605). He continued to conquer to the end. His armies surpassed all before in their size, funding, leadership, technology, and success. At his death, his domains stretched from Kabul, Kashmir, and Punjab to Gujarat, Bengal, and Assam; and they were still increasing in the south and up into mountains on all sides.

(v) After Akbar the throne of the Mughal Empire to Jahangir (1605-1627) then to his grandson, Shah Jahan (1627-1658), and to his great-grandson Aurangzeb (1658-1707), whose death was followed by imperial fragmentation. 

(vi) Though the dynasty survived until 1858, when it was dethroned by the British.

(vii) The Mughal Empire at its peak commanded resources unprecedented in Indian history and covered almost the entire subcontinent. From 1556 to 1707, during the hey- day of its fabulous wealth and glory, the Mughal Empire was a fairly efficient and centralised organisation, with a vast complex of personnel, money, and information dedicated to the service of the emperor and his nobility.

Q. 5. Examine the nature of Medieval state. 

Ans: Nature of Medieval State

(i) Mahmud of Ghazni was the first man to the styled ‘Sultan’ by contemporaries. The title of Sultan was popular first among Turks.

(ii) Seljuk dynasties in Western and Central Asia used this title of Sultan routinely, and later, Ottoman Turks made it famous in Europe.

(iii) The Sultans of Delhi acknowledged the sovereignty of Caliph of Baghdad and considered their kingdom as a part of Dar-ul-Islam of which the Caliph was the juridical head.

(iv) India under the Mughal emperors was governed under the Muslim law Sharia. Even so neither under the Sultans of Delhi nor under the Mughal emperors did the state conform absolutely to Islamic ordinances since it had to adapt itself to the realities and often may not be the correct one.

(v) The Turkish and Afghan rulers of India had to treat the Hindus, who formed the vast majority of the population, with consideration and toleration. In fields relating to religion, property and several other non-religious affairs, the non-Muslim population was allowed full freedom to have their cases tried by their own communal courts.

(vi) The land revenue system under the Sultan and the ceremonies and the procedure at the royal court bear the unmistakable evidence of Indian tradition.

(vii) The medieval state under the Muslim rule was definitely a theocracy, since it had all its essential elements-the sovereignty of God and government by the direction of the God through priests in accordance with divine laws.

(viii) The Sultans of Delhi considered themselves as deputies or assistants of the Caliph who was God’s representative.

(ix) Sher Shah and Islam Shah assumed the title of Caliph and the Mughal emperors, from Akbar to Aurangzeb, adopted titled like ‘Shadow of God’, and ‘Agent of God on earth’. The sovereignty of God was unquestioned.

(x) The supremacy of the Sharia was always acknowledged, though Akbar added to the Sharia the state laws. However, these rulers did not allow the Muslim divines to dictate the policies of the state.

(xi) The primary concerns of the Delhi Sultanate included defence, law and order and collection of revenue. In other matters, it generally followed a policy of non-interference, as the welfare of the people was not the primary concern of the Sultans.

(xii) Toleration under the Sultans was the exception rather than the rule. Thus, while claiming to be Islamic the state of Delhi. Sultanate was militiaristic and aristocratic in character.

(xiii) In Mughal Empire, toleration and kindness were the guiding principles of Akbar’s government. Akbar considered his subjects as his children and hence held himself responsible for their welfare. The state established by Akbar was not confined to any particular class and was based on the principle of ‘peace with all’.

(xiv) In spite of imparting charities and kind monarchs the Mughal state was not a welfare state.

(xv) Extraction of the land revenue and defense were its main functions.

(xvi) The form of government was a monarchy which in spite of being hereditary could net develop a well defined law of succesion. The king was the fountain head of all branches of the government. However, weak persona of the ruler could provide the opportunity to the nobility and the ulema to exercise effective check on the royal power. 

Q. 6. What is meant by persona of the king? 

Ans: (i) A Sultan’s retinue regalia privileges and a king and family symbolised his greatness.

(ii) Sultans were sticklers for public etiquette and limited protocol, lest subordinates exceed their station. The Sultans had to have the biggest, richest, most elaborate, extravagant, valuable things visible on his person, to dramatise his ascendency constantly, 

(iii) Vijayanagar Rayas styled themselves ‘Lords of the Eastern and Western Oceans’ by adorning their bodies with precious commodities from overseas trade, specifically, perfumes and precious things like Chinese porcelain.

(iv) The Sultan’s home was a larger version of his own body and dramatised his power to accumulate, command, control, and define wealth, value and taste.

(v) Significant features of a Sultan’s persona emerged in publicly visible domestic dramas, above all, marriage. Weddings were great events of political life because marriage was the most secure method of political alliance.

(vi) In the inner secret deep inside area of the palace family members vied for influence and engaged in the secret plans that often culminated in wars of succession, in which relatives killed one another.

(vii) At home, the Sultan’s honour rested on the stainless virtue of his mother, wives, daughters, and sisters. Women were separated from public view. They lived behind a curtain, pardah, and women in seclusion, parda nasheen, became the Sultan’s own virtue.

(viii) Practices of female seclusion spread among elites who modelled themselves on sultans, Hindus and Muslims alike, at all levels of society.

Q. 7. Write a brief note on provincial administration.

Ans: Provincial Administration

(i) During the reigns of Delhi Sultanate muqtis or walis were in-charge of the provinces.

(ii) There was a Sahib-i-diwan assisted by mutasarrifs and Karkums to control income and expenditure in the end of the 13th century.

(iii) Shiqiq, later was known as Sarkar, was an administrative division.

(iv) The courts of the Qazi and the Sadr!functioned as the justice courts in the provinces. 

(v) The Mughal empire was divided into fifteen provinces. Kashmir and Qandahar were districts of the province of Kabul and Sindh, then known as Thatta, was a district in the province of Multan. Orissa formed a part of Bengal

(vi) The provinces were not of uniform area or income.

(vii) There were in each province a governor, a dewan (who was a revenue and finance officer), a bakshi (who was a military commander), a sadr (who was a religious administrator), and qazi (judge) and agents who supplied information to the central government.

(viii) In imperial administration, separation of powers among the various officials was a significant operating principle.

(ix) The Mughal provinces were also divided into districts (sarkars). Each district had a faujdar (who was a military officer whose duties roughly corresponded to those of a collector), a qazi, a bitikchi (head clerk), and a khazanedar (treasurer).

(x) Justice was administered by a hierarchy of courts rising from village panchayat to the pargana, sarkar and provincial courts and finally to the chief sadr cum qazi and ultimatley the emperor himself.

(xi) Kotwal was the enforcer of law at the local level in both Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal empire.

Multiple Choice Questions

Tick (✓) the correct answer.

Q. 1. The Indian polity saw decentralisation and rise of various regional states after the decline of the:

(a) Gupta State.

(b) Maurya State.

(c) Kushana State.

(d) Vijayanagara empire.

Ans: (a) Gupta State.

Q. 2. Who of the following is regarded as the real consolidator of the Turkish conquests in north India?

(a) Muhammad Ghauri.

(b) Mahmud Ghazni.

(c) Iltutmish.

(d) Qutubuddin Aibak.

Ans: (c) Iltutmish.

Q. 3. Who was defeated by Muhammad Ghauri in 1992?

(a) Qutubuddin.

(b) Feroz Shah.

(c) Prithviraj Chauhan.

(d) Mewar King.

Ans: (c) Prithviraj Chauhan.

Q. 4. Who stressed the special position of Sultan as ‘Shadow of God’? 

(a) Iltutmish.

(b) Sikandar Lodi.

(c) Balram Khan.

(d) Balkan.

Ans: (d) Balkan.

Q. 5. The first ruler who put forwarded the view that Delhi Sultanate cannot be truly Islamic was:

(a) Iltutmish.

(b) Mahmud.

(c) Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.

(d) Jalaluddin Khalji.

Ans: (d) Jalaluddin Khalji.

Q. 6. Who built the city of Tughlaqabad near Delhi?

(a) Samsuddin.

(b) Ghazi Malik.

(c) Balban.

(d) Alauddin Khalji.

Ans: (b) Ghazi Malik.

Q. 7. Babur established Mughal dynasty in India in:

(a) 1520

(b) 1522

(c) 1526

(d) 1528

Ans: (c) 1526

Q. 8. Who was the first person to be styled ‘Sultan’ by contemporaries?

(a) Mahmud of Ghazni.

(b) Muhammad Ghauri.

(c) Akbar.

(d) Humayun.

Ans: (a) Mahmud of Ghazni.

Q. 9. Who is associated with Sulh-i- Kul?

(a) Akbar.

(b) Babur.

(c) Humayun.

(d) Shah Jahan.

Ans: (a) Akbar.

Q. 10. Who claimed descend from both Timur and Genghis Khan?

(a) Humayun.

(b) Jahangir. 

(c) Aurangzeb. 

(d) Babur.

Ans: (d) Babur.

Q. 11. After Sher Shah Suri died, Humayun conquered Delhi in:

(a) 1552

(b) 1555

(c) 1558

(d) 1560

Ans: (b) 1555

Q. 12. The standard coin under the Sultan from Iltutmish onwards was the silver tankas weighing:

(a) 175 grains.

(b) 200 grains. 

(c) 222 grains.

(d) 275 grains.

Ans: (a) 175 grains.

Q. 13. The Mughal empire was divided into:

(a) 10 provinces. 

(b) 12 provinces.

(c) 14 provinces. 

(d) 15 provinces.

Ans: (d) 15 provinces.

Q. 14. Which of the following was not a province of the Mughals?

(a) Multan.

(b) Bihar.

(c) Baluchistan.

(d) Kabul.

Ans: (c) Baluchistan.

Q. 15. The Mansab system was based upon the organisation of the public services of the:

(a) Mauryan Empire.

(b) Vijayanagara Empire.

(c) Gupta Empire.

(d) Mughal Empire.

Ans: (d) Mughal Empire.

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