NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 30 Early States

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NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 30 Early States, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 30 Early States and select need one. NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 30 Early States Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 History Notes Paper 315.

NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 30 Early States

Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 30 Early States, NIOS Senior Secondary Course History Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Early States

Chapter: 30




Correct and rewrite the following sentences: 

Q. 1. In the beginning human society was basically not a tribal society? 

Ans: In the beginning human society was basically a tribal society.

Q. 2. The emergence of Ashoka the great strengthened the political notion of monarchy.

Ans: The emergence of the Maurya. strengthened the political notion of monarchy. 

Q. 3. The Aryan tribes united against non-Aryans due to lack of strong political foundation.

Ans: The Aryan tribes failed to unite against non-Aryans due to lack of strong political foundation.

Q. 4. In an assembly these were 7077 / 7707  rajas who represented the class of rajanyas?

Ans: In an assembly there were 7707 rajas who represented the class of Rajanyas.


Answer the following questions:

Q. 1. wrote Arth-Shastra? 

Ans: Kautilya.

Q. 2. In the 7th and 8th century what the name Kumar stood for?

Ans: Royal Princes.

Q. 3. Who was Megasthenes?

Ans: Megasthenes was a Greek ambassador who visited India during Mauryas.

Q. 4. Give name of four provincial capitals of the Mauryan era.

Ans: (i) Tosali.

 (ii) Ujjain.

 (iii) Suvarnagiri.

 (iv) Taxila. 

Q. 5. What was the strength of the empire’s military as per Megasthenes?

Ans: The strength of the empire’s military as per Megasthenes was -6,00,000 infantry, 30,000 cavalry, and 9000 elephants.


Q. Fill in the blanks:

1. The greatest empire in the 4th century was the ______.

Ans: Gupta Empire.

2. The third king _____ took the title of ______.

Ans: Chandragupta I, Maharajadhiraja.

3. The successor to Samudra Gupta was ______.

Ans: Chandragupta II

4. Fa-hsien ______  contemporary was a______ monk travelled in India and left an account of his impression.

Ans: Chinese, Buddhist.


Tick (✓) the correct answer:

Q. 1. The nucleus of Chola power during the reign of Vijayavada in the-century was Thanjavur. (8th, 9th, 10th) 

Ans: 9th.

Q. 2. Rajaraja I’s son Rajendra participated in his father’s government from ______.(1012, 1102, 1101)

Ans: 1012.

Q.3. An inscription of the______century BC at Uttaramerur temple describes the constitutions of the local council. (6th, 7th, 8th)

Ans: 8th.


Q. 1. What is meant by kingship? How did the idea of kingship grow?

Ans: Kingship means the state of being a king. The idea of kingship was grown when new kingdoms were emerged (for example in south the chiefdoms of the Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas) and proved to be stable and prosperous. Many chiefs and kings including Satavahanas and the Shakas established kingdoms in the north-western and western parts of the sub-continent. Their social origins were often obscure but once they acquired power they attempted to claim social status in a variety of ways.

Q. 2. Distinguish between Republican Mahajanapadas and Monarchical Mahajanapadas.

Ans: (i) In the republican mahajanapadas, the king was selected from the group of people called rajas. There were assemblies called sabha where the members used to have discussions regarding a particular matter, then the item was put to vote. In republican mahajanapadas, Vedic sacrifices were not given much importance and the Brahmanas were given number two social status after the Kshatriyas.

(ii) In monarchical mahajanapadas the king or chieftain was the head of the territory. In this type, the Vedic ceremonies and Brahmanas were given much importance. The king performed Vedic sacrifices.

Q. 3. Describe the rise of Magadha and Mauryas.

Ans: (i) Magadha emerged as an important power from amongst monarchical states. The rulers of the Magadha Empire fought a long war with Lichhavis. Lastly, due to the efforts of Ajatashatru Lichhavi became the part of Magadha empire.

(ii) This region controlled the northern trade route called uttarapatha, while the southerly route called dakshinapatha was under the control of Magadha. Due to these conquests, Magadha was able to manage economic resources like fertile river valleys and iron ore mines which provided the necessary supply of materials for the production of different goods. As a result it was in Magadha that we find the beginning of signs of state formation.

(iii) The Mauryan Empire, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty, was the largest and most powerful political and military empire of ancient India.

(iv) Originating from the kingdom of Magadha in the Indo-Gangetic plains of modern Bihar and Bengal and with its capital city of Pataliputra (near modern Patna), the Empire was founded in 322 BC by Chandragupta Maurya, who had overthrown the Nanda Dynasty and begun expanding his power across central and western India.

(v) The Empire was expanded into India’s central and southern regions by Emperor Bindusara, but it excluded a small portion of unexplored tribal and forested regions near Kalinga.

(vi) After the conquest of Kalinga in a major war, Ashoka the Great ended the military expansion of the empire.

(vii) The kingdoms of Pandyas and Cheras in southern India thus preserved their independence, accepting the supremacy of the Mauryan emperor.

(viii) The Mauryan Empire was perhaps the greatest empire to rule the Indian subcontinent until the arrival of the British. Its decline began fifty years after Ashoka’s rule ended, and it dissolved in 185 BC with the foundation of the Sunga Dynasty in Magadha.

Q. 4. How did the Gupta state expand?

Ans: (i) The Guptas expanded their state either by winning a state in a war or by entering into matrimonial alliances with the smaller kingdoms.

(ii) The third king, Chandragupta I, took the title of maharajadhiraja. He married a Lichhavi princess-an event celebrated in a series of gold coins. It has been suggested that, if the Guptas ruled in Prayaga (modern Allahabad in eastern Uttar Pradesh), the marriage alliance may have added Magadha to their domain.

(iii) Chandra Gupta appointed his son Samdura Gupta to succeed him about 330 BC, according to a long eulogy to Samudra Gupta inscribed on a pillar at Allahabad.

(iv) Samudra Gupta’s campaigns took him in various directions and resulted in many conquests. Among those he rendered were willing to do what others want. They belonged to the rulers of Aryavarta, various forest chiefs, the northern oligarchies, and border states in the east, in addition to Nepal.

(v) More distant domains brought within Samudra Gupta’s orbit were regarded as subordinate; these comprised the ‘king of kings’ of the northwest, the Sakas, the Murundas, and the inhabitants of ‘all the islands’, including Sinhala (Sri Lanka), all of which are listed in the at Allahabad.

(vi) The Ganges Valley and central India were the areas under direct administrative control.

(vii) Samudra Gupta was succeeded about 380 BC by his son Chandra Gupta II. Chandra Gupta II’s major campaign was against the Saka rulers of Ujjain, the success of which was celebrated in a series of silver coins.

(viii) Gupta territory adjoining the northern Deccan was secured through a marriage alliance with the Vakataka dynasty, the successors of the Satavahanas in the area.

Q. 5. Assess the evolution of Chola administration.

Ans: (i) The king was the supreme commander and a benevolent dictator. He issued oral commands to responsible officers when representations were made to him. Such orders were recorded in great detail in the inscriptions, on the walls of temples.

(ii) A powerful bureaucracy assisted the king in the tasks of administration and in executing his orders.

(iii) The Chola bureaucracy was highly organised in nature. A careful balance between central control and local independence was maintained and non-interference in local government was very important.

(iv) There was a definite hierarchy of the bureaucracy and the tomere of the officials simply depended on the ‘Crown’s pleasure.

(v) One of the important officers were the revenue official responsible for the receipts and expenditures of the government.

(vi) Every village was a self governing unit A number of such villages constituted a Kurram or nadu or Kottam in different parts of th country.

(vii) Taniyur was a large village big enough to be a Kurram by itself. A number of Kurrams constituted a Valanadu. Several Valanadus made up one Mandalam, a province. At the height of the Chola Empire there were eight or nine of these provinces including Sri Lanka. These divisions and names underwent constant changes throughout the Chola period.

(viii) The administration of a common village UR or Oor was different from that of a village gifted to brahmins.

(ix) Revenue officials were also responsible for the purchase of land on behalf of village assemblies. They also attested and certified important documents drawn up by local government agencies such as village councils. They also acted as magistrates.

(x) Besides the tax collected by the central government, several local bodies enjoyed the privilege of collecting tolls and other important charges.

(xi) Justice was mostly a local matter in the Chola Empire, where minor disputes were settled at the village level.

(xii) Crimes of the state such as treason were heard and decided by the king.

(xiii) Village assemblies exercised large powers in deciding local disputes. Small committees called Nyayattar heard matters that did not come under the jurisdiction of the voluntary village committees. The punishments in most cases were in the form of donations to the temples or other endowments. The convicted person would remit their fines at a place called Darmadesana.

(xiv) There was no distinction between civil and criminal offences. civil disputes were allowed to drag on until time offered the solution. Crimes such as theft, adultery and forgery were considered serious offences. In most cases the punishment was in the ordr of the offender having to maintain a perpetual lamp at a temple. Even murder was punished with a fine.

Multiple Choice Questions

Tick (✓) the correct answer.

Q. 1. Which kind of authority has been uncovered by the archaeological evidences? 

(a) weak authority.

(b) kingship.

(c) strong centralised authority.

(d) decentralised authority.

Ans: (c) strong centralised authority.

Q. 2. The meaning of mahasanimata is:

(a) elected leader.

(b) great elect.

(c) elected king.

(d) none of the above.

Ans: (b) great elect.

Q. 3. The king’s duty was to protect:

(a) dharma.

(b) religious beliefs.

(c) economic affairs.

(d) political affairs.

Ans: (a) dharma.

Q. 4. Who was called the ‘Protector of the People’?

(a) God.

(b) King.

(c) People.

(d) Administrative Officers.

Ans: (b) King.

Q. 5. The region where lived the people of the tribe was called:

(a) state.

(b) country.

(c) prant.

(d) jana.

Ans: (d) jana.

Q. 6. Who were given much importance in the monarchical mahajanapadas?

(a) Rajputas.

(b) Brahmanas.

(c) Shudras.

(d) Vaishyas.

Ans: (b) Brahmanas.

Q. 7. Dakshinapatha was under the control of:

(a) Magadha.

(b) Kalinga.

(c) Vijayanagara.

(d) Bijapur.

Ans: (a) Magadha.

Q. 8. Ashoka the Great ended the military expansion of the empire after the conquest of:

(a) Magadha.

(b) Bengal.

(c) Kalinga.

(d) Gujarat.

Ans: (c) Kalinga.

Q. 9. The Lion Capital of Ashoka is at:

(a) Varanasi.

(b) Sarnath.

(c) Lumbini.

(d) Gaya.

Ans: (b) Sarnath.

Q. 10. Who took the title of:

(a) maharajadhiraja.

(b) maharaj.

(c) King.

(d) Parmeshwar.

Ans: (a) maharajadhiraja.

Q. 11. Who wrote Arthshastra?

(a) Megasthenes.

(b) Fa-hien.

(c) Kautilya.

(d) Ashoka.

Ans: (c) Kautilya.

Q. 12. Which of the following was a provincial capital of Mauryan era?

(a) Toyasali.

(b) Ujjain.

(c) Tamila.

(d) All of the above.

Ans: (d) All of the above.

Q. 13. In the 7th and 8th century what for thame Kumar stand for?

(a) Princes.

(b) Royal princes.

(c) The King. 

(d) The emperor.

Ans: (b) Royal princes.

Q. 14. The successor to Samudra Gupta was:

(a) Chandragupta I.

(b) Chandragupta II.

(c) Prithviraj.

(d) Prabhavati.

Ans: (b) Chandragupta II.

Q. 15. The greatest empire in the 4th century was the: 

(a) Gupta empire.

(b) Maurya empire.

(c) Vijayanagara empire.

(d) Bijapur empire.

Ans: (a) Gupta empire.

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