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NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 18 Social Changes in Modern India
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Social Changes in Modern India
TEXT BOOK QUESTIONS AND THEIR ANSWERS
NTEXT QUESTIONS 18.1
Q. 1. Name some important institutions stablished by the Orientalists.
Ans: Calcutta Madrassa (1781), Asiatic society of Bengal (1784) and Sanskrit College of Benaras (1794).
Q. 2. Underline the importance of the Asiatic Society in promoting studies on India.
Ans: Asiatic Society undertook translation of important ancient Sanskrit texts.
Q. 3. Who established the Fort William College?
Ans: Lord Wellesley.
Q. 4. Which was the first country to Experience Industrial Revolution?
Q.5. Which Act abolished the monopoly of the East India Company over the Indian Trade?
Ans: Charter Act of 1813.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 18.2
Q. 1. Briefly examine some important issues raised by Rammohan Roy.
Ans: Raja Rammohan Roy was the most notable reformer of the modern times. He started touching upon many burning issues like- custom of Sati, polygamy, lack of modern education etc., of the time. He rallied support to the efforts of William Bentinck for abolition of the Sati system and wrote extensively for the cause. In 1829, the custom of Sati was formally abolished. He also condemned polygamy and many other forms of subjugation of women. Roy was also an advocate of modern education. He opened an English school as well as a Vedanta college. He was a firm believer in the concept of one God. He was opposed to idolatry and found Upanishads as the basis of true Hinduism. He wished to purify Hinduism by removing all kinds of evils. He was not opposed to English education and spread of western knowledge.
Q. 2. Analyse the nature of conflict between Debendranath Tagore and Keshab Chandra Sen.
Ans: Keshab Chandra Sen was socially more radical in his views than Debendranath Tagore. Debendranath Tagore joined the Brahmo Samaj in 1842 and given a definite shape and popularised it beyond the city of Calcutta. He wrote Brahmo covenant and made a list of the duties and obligations of its members. Keshab Chandra Sen joined the Brahmo Samaj in 1858. He was a very eloquent and persuasive leader. He took the activities of the Samaj beyond Bengal and into UP, Punjab, Madras and Bombay. He radicalised the Samaj by attacking caste system, underlining women’s rights, promoting widow remarriage and raising the issue of caste status of Brahmo preachers which was earlier reserved for Brahmans. He laid stress on universalism in religion.
Q.3. When was the Arya Samaj divided? Who were the leaders of different factions?
Ans: The Arya Samaj was divided in 1893. Lala Hansraj and Lala Lajpat Rai were the members of DAV Section. Munsi Ram (Swami Shraddhanand), Lekh Ram and Gurudatt were members of Gurukul section.
Q. 4. What did the Farazi movement insist on?
Ans: The Farazi movement insisted on religious purification and return to the Faraiz, i.e. obligatory duties of Islam.
Q. 5. Examine the role of Sayyid Ahmad Khan in modernising the Muslim community.
Ans: Sayyid Ahmad Khan put great stress on modern education for the Islamic community in India. He asked his Muslim brethren to adopt some positive features of the English society like its discipline, order, efficiency and high levels of education. He pointed out that there was no fundamental contradiction between Quran and Natural Science and the new circumstances demanded dissemination of English language within an Islamic context.
He founded the Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College at Aligarh in 1875 which went on to become the most important seminary for modern higher education among Muslims. At the elementary level, students followed the standard government curriculum in a carefully constructed Islamic environment.
In 1878, the college classes were also started and non-Muslims were also enrolled. In 1886, Sayyid Ahmad Khan founded the Mohammedan Anglo Oriental Educational Conference. The Muslim graduates of Aligarh who numbered 220 during 1882-1902, provided lot of excitement to the Muslim intellectual world and in due course of time provided an able and modern leadership to the community.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 18.3
Q. 1. Which Act asked the East India Company to spend one lakh rupees annually on education ?
Ans: Charter Act of 1813.
Q. 2. Who was the most active proponent of English education in India?
(a) Jonathan Duncan.
(b) T.B. Macaulay.
(c) Warren Hastings.
(d) William Jones.
Ans: (b) T.B. Macaulay.
Q. 3. Briefly examine the motive of Macaulay in spreading English education in India.
Ans: (i) Macaulay thought that spread of English education in India would support English rule. It was presumed that this class would eventually become strong pillars of the British Raj in India. It was expected that these Indians, trained through English education, would learn western morality and ethics. When incorporated into the structure of colonial rule, these Indians would help to strengthen the British domination of India. This was the ‘downward filtration’ theory. This kind of education was not meant for the masses but for the learned and affluent few in India. This theory assumed that ethics of English education would percolate down to the masses through these Indians. These trained Indians, when acting as teachers, could act as The medium through which elementary education would percolate downward in regional languages
(ii) Macaulay was convinced that with limited funds, it would be impossible to attempt to educate the masses. It is better that a few English educated Indians act as a “class of interpreters”. This class, by enriching vernacular. languages and literature, would help western. sciences and literature reach the masses. This would enable British rulers to spread western morality to Indian masses at a much less public expenditure. This theory also saw education as a means to enable Indians to occupy subordinate positions and function as clerks etc., in the Company’s bureaucracy.
Q. 4. Underline the importance of the Wood’s Dispatch in guiding education policy in India.
Ans: The most important part of the development of education in 19th century, especially English education, was the guidelines prepared by Charles Wood, the Secretary of State in 1854, popularly known as the Wood’s Dispatch. This comprehensive scheme dominated Education policy in the second half of the 19th century. It firmly put the European model on the map of Indian education.
Q.5. What was the Hunter Commission concerned with?
Ans: Hunter Commission was concerned with the progress made in education after Wood’s Dispatch and was confined mostly to secondary and primary education. It underlined the need to provide adequate facilities for spread of women education outside the presidency towns. At the secondary level, there should be two streams- one, literary education which should lead to university education and the other of a practical nature leading to a career in commercial or Vocational field.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 18.4
Q. 1. Which was the first newspaper in India and when was it published?
Ans: The Bengal Gazette. It was published in 1780.
Q. 2. Underline the importance of widespread use of printing technology in the growth of newspapers.
Ans: The widespread use of printing technology ushered in the growth of newspapers as well as production of books in large quantity. The spread of printing technology meant that books were easily available. The newspapers began getting published in English language and local language.
Q. 3. What restrictions were imposed by the Censorship of the Press Act, 1799?
Ans: Censorship of the Press Act, 1799 warranted that all content was to be cleared by the Secretary to the Government. Names of printer, editor and proprietor were to be clearly printed in every issue.
Q. 4. How did Charles Metcalfe bring about some positive changes?
Ans: He removed the regulations on press imposed in 1823. Now the publishers just had to give a declaration about the place and location of the publication. This liberating influence had a positive impact on the growth of press as a large number of newspapers started publishing.
Q. 5. What was the Vernacular Press Act of 1878?
Ans: The Vernacular Press Act of 1878 imposed strict control over the newspapers published in Indian languages. It was a highly biassed and racial measure and attempted to stifle any opposition to the government voiced in the local languages of the country. Similar restrictions were not imposed on the English language newspapers.
Q.1. How were ideologies so important in shaping British policies in india?
Ans: (i) Ideologies were very important in shaping British policies in India. Influence of ideas were clearly visible in the administration and economic policies. Lord Cornwallis was influenced by the 18th century Whig political philosophy. In the Whig philosophy, the main organs of the government, i.e. executive, legislature and judiciary should be separate. This would provide check and balance on each other’s activity so that no organ exercises arbitrary powers.
(ii) Edmund Burke (18th century) insisted that the prosperity of the natives must be secured before any attempt was made to reap profit from them.
(iii) Philip Francis (18th century) who was a member of the Supreme Council in Calcutta in the 1770s, drew up a comprehensive plan for administering prosperity in Bengal.This plan subsequently influenced Cornwallis policy of Permanent Settlement for Bengal, Bihar and Orissa in 1793. Cornwallis succeeded in laying the foundation of a strong Which policy in the government of Bengal.
(iv) After the Industrial Revolution in Britain, British industrial capitalists argued for a free play in the British colonies. They put pressure on the British government to curtail the Company’s monopoly in the Indian market.
(v) Free market theorists influenced the ideological positions of many policy makers in India.
Q. 2. What the contribution of the Orientalists in popularising India’s past?
Ans: (i) Warren Hastings, William Jones and Jonathan Duncan popularised the view that India had a glorious past which has subsequently degenerated. These scholars and administrators were called Orientalists.
(ii) They were keen to learn and propagate Indian languages and tradition. They believed that this would ensure a better understanding of India which would eventually strengthen their rule over this country. The Orientalists depicted India’s past in a way that was in consonance with the needs of the colonial administration.
(iii) Some of the important institutions that came to be identified with their efforts were the Calcutta Madrassa founded by Warren Hastings (1781), the Asiatic Society of Bengal founded by William Jones (1784) and the Sanskrit College at Benaras founded by Jonathan Duncan (1794).
(iv) William Jones learnt Indian classical languages and found important linguistic connection between Sanskrit and classical western languages like Greek and Latin.
(v) For around fifty years, the Asiatic Society was an important centre of learning and a rare institution to undertake translations of notable Sanskrit texts. The Asiatick Researches was important journal published by it.
(vi) Warren Hastings held the view that Hindus possessed laws which continued unchanged for centuries. Therefore, the British should master these laws and the Sanskrit language in which these texts were written if they wished to establish their governance in the country. To provide a precise idea of the customs
and manners of Hindus, N.B. Halhed published A Code of Gentoo Laws in 1776.
(vii) There was a strong urge to make local British administrators familiar, with Indian culture and tradition. Wellesley founded Fort William College in 1801. The college was to train the young British recruits to the civil service in India. This college became an important centre for producing knowledge on and about India. It had many departments devoted exclusively to research on Indian languages and literature.
Q. 3. What were the main social evils that afflicted the Hindu society in 19th century?
Ans: The main social evils that afflicted the Hindu society in 19th century were as follows:
(i) Practice of becoming sati was prevalent.
(ii) Polygamy and many other forms of subjugation of women were present.
(iii) Women’s had no rights. Thus, the status of women was bad.
(iv) Society was bitterly divided into various castes.
(v) Child marriage was prevalent.
(vi) The evil of untouchability was prevalent
Q. 4. How important were the issues related to women in the reform movements of this period?
Ans: (i) The issues related to women in the reform movements of this period were very important.
(ii) During this period the practice of becoming sati was prevalent. But Rammohan Roy and his Brahmo Samaj supported William Bentinck for abolition of this evil practice. And, in 1829, the custom of sati was formally abolished.
(iii) The condition of women during this period was pathetic. They had no rights. The living condition of widow was very harsh. However, due to vigorous efforts of Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar the Widow Remarriage Act was passed in 1856 legalising all widow re-marriage.
(iv) Education to girl child was rare. Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar set-up many schools devoted especially to girl child.
Q. 5. What was Vivekananda’s opinion about the Eastern and the Western civilizations?
Ans: (i) Vivekananda believed that India had to learn work ethics, forms of organisation and technological advances from the West.
(ii) He was opposed to degeneration in religion, manifold divisions, caste rigidities, practice of untouchability, superstitions etc.
(iii) In his opinion the nature of western civilization was very selfish. He wanted to establish Hindu spiritual supremacy vis-a-vis the selfish civilization of the west.
Q. 6. What were the important issues raised by the Arya Samaj ?
Ans: (i) Arya Samaj opposed a ritual-ridden Hindu religion and called for basing it on the preaching of the Vedas. Only Vedas, alongwith their correct analytical tools, were true.
(ii) Dayanand Saraswati who founded the Arya Samaj, attacked puranas, polytheism, idolatry and domination of the priestly class.
(iii) He also opposed child marriage.
(iv) He was fiercely opposed to multiplicity of castes which he thought was primarily responsible for encouraging conversion of lower castes into Christianity and Islam.
(v) Some leaders of Arya Samaj were opposed to Anglo Vedic education. They argued that the Arya Samaj’s educational initiative must focus on Sanskrit, Aryan ideology and Vedic scriptures and should have little space for English learning.
(vi) Arya Samaj also advocated greater usage of Hindi in Devanagari script.
(vii) In the 1890s, the Arya Samaj also raised the issue of cow slaughter and formed Gaurakshini sabhas for protection of cows.
(viii) The Arya Samaj led a prolonged movement against untouchability and advocated dilution of caste distinctions.
Q. 7. Identify the important reform movements in the Muslim community during 19th century. What were the issues raised by them?
Ans: 1. The movement of the Farazis:
(i) This movement arose among the peasants of early 19th century Bengal. It advocated return to pure Islam. They followed the teachings of Shah Walliullah of Delhi (1703-63) who had, a century earlier, talked about regaining purity of Islam and objected to infiltration of non-Islamic customs among Muslims.
(ii) Founding leader of the Farazis, Shariat Ullah (1781-1839) preached religious purification and advocated return to the faraiz, i.e. obligatory duties of Islam, namely-kalimah (profession of faith), salat (or namaz), sawn (or rozah), zakat (or alms to poor) and Hajj. He also preached tawhid or monotheism.
2. Tariqah-i-Muhammadiyah movement:
(i) This movement also took place in Bengal. This movement was started under the leadership of Titu Mir who was initiated by Sayyid Ahmad Barelwi.
(ii) This movement also talked about return to past purity.
3. Another movement which was more concerned about the decline in power of the ulema class (Muslim priestly class) arose at Deoband in the United Provinces.
4. Delhi School of Islamic Thought was derived from the Delhi College (currently Zakir Husain College) which had begun imparting a parallel education-Islamic as well as English. Beginning 1830s, the college helped to foster a modern consciousness in the Muslim community. However, the revolt of 1857 and consequent crackdown by the British forces ended this intellectual excitement. However, the urge for modernization could easily be felt among a section of Muslims.
5. (i) Sayyid Ahmad Khan advocated modern education to be given to the Indian Muslims. He called for the study of European science and technology.
(ii) He asked Muslims to adopt some positive features of the English society like its discipline, order, efficiency and high levels of education.
(iii) He pointed out that there was no fundamental contradiction between Quran and Natural Science and the new circumstances demanded dissemination of English language within an Islamic context.
Q. 8. Examine Macaulay’s advice on spreading English education in India.
Ans: (i) Macaulay was a great advocate of English education.
(ii) Macaulay issued his minutes on Indian education on February 2, 1835. This message became the guiding principle for introduction of English education in India.
(iii) The government resolved that its aim in future would be promotion of European literature and sciences through the medium of English language. In future, all funds spent by the Company on education would be for this purpose alone. This shift meant that now English education in India would become an important medium for the import of western knowledge.
Q.9. What was the ‘downward filtration’ theory?
Ans: (i) Macaulay was a great advocate of English education. He was of the opinion that support to English education in India would create ‘a class of persons Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste.”.
(ii) It was presumed that this class would eventually become strong pillars of the British Raj in India. It was expected that these Indians, trained through English education, would learn western morality and ethics. When incorporated into the structure of colonial rule, these Indians would help to strengthen the British domination of India. This was the ‘downward filtration’ theory.
(iii) This kind of education was not meant for the masses but for the learned and affluent few in India.
(iv) This theory assumed that ethics of English education would percolate down to the masses through these Indians. These trained Indians, when acting as teachers, could act as the medium through which elementary education would percolate downward in regional languages.
(v) Macaulay was convinced that with limited funds, it would be impossible to attempt to educate the masses. It is better that a few English educated Indians act as a ‘class of interpreters’. This class, by enriching vernacular languages and literature, would help western sciences and literature reach the masses. This would enable British rulers to spread western morality to Indian masses at a much less public expenditure.
(vii) This theory also saw education as a means to enable Indians to occupy subordinate positions and function as clerks etc., in the Company’s bureaucracy.
Q. 10. What was so wrong about the Vernacular Press Act of 1878?
Ans: (i) Lord Lytton’s Vernacular Press Act of 1878 was the most serious restriction on the growth of Indian language newspapers.
(ii) It was a highly biassed and racial measure. This Act attempted to stifle any opposition to the government voiced in the local languages of the country. Similar restrictions were not imposed on the English language newspapers.
(iii) It was an important example of Lytton’s conservative and arrogant attitude. It indirectly empowered the government to control all seditious writings by Indian intelligentsia.
(iv) There was no appeal against the decision of the District Magistrate.
(v) This Act was repealed in 1882 by Lord Ripon.
Multiple Choice Questions
Tick (✓) the correct answer.
Q. 1. Group of British administrators who popularised India’s glorious past was known as:
(d) hard liners.
Ans: (b) orientalists.
Q. 2. Asiatic society of Bengal was founded by:
(a) Warren Hastings.
(b) John Marshall.
(c) William Jones.
Ans: (c) William Jones.
Q.3. Who was associated with Calcutta Madrassa?
(a) Warren Hastings.
(b) Jonathan Duncan.
(c) Lord Dalhousie.
Ans: (a) Warren Hastings.
Q. 4. Sanskrit college at Banaras was founded by:
(b) Motilal Nehru.
(c) Jonathan Duncan.
(d) William Jones.
Ans: (c) Jonathan Duncan.
Q. 5. ‘A code of Gentoo Laws’ was published by:
(a) N.B. Halhed.
(b) H.S. Parikh.
(c) N.B. Kapadiya.
Ans: (a) N.B. Halhed.
6. Fort William college was founded in:
Ans: (d) 1803
Q. 7. Who became Governor General in 1786?
(a) Lord Dalhousie.
(b) Lord Clive.
(c) Alexander Read.
(d) Lord Cornwallis.
Ans: (d) Lord Cornwallis.
Q. 8. Who is associated with the Bengal Renaissance’?
(a) Bipin Chandra Pal.
(b) Swami Vivekananda.
(c) Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
Ans: (a) Bipin Chandra Pal.
Q. 9. Brahmo Samaj was established by:
(a) Ram Mohan Roy.
(b) Bankim Chandra Chatterji.
(c) Keshab Chandra Sen.
(d) Devendra Nath Tagore.
Ans: (a) Ram Mohan Roy.
Q. 10. Who abolished the practice of ‘sati’?
(a) Lord Cornwallis.
(b) William Bentirick.
(c) William Johns.
(d) Lord Dalhousie.
Ans: (b) William Bentirick.
Q. 11. Bramo Covenant was written by:
(a) Keshab Chandra Sen.
(b) Ram Mohan Roy.
(c) Devendra Nath Tagore.
(d) Mahatma Gandhi.
Ans: (c) Devendra Nath Tagore.
Q. 12. Keshab Chandra Sen radicalised the Samaj by attacking:
(a) Caste System.
(b) promoting widow remarriage.
(c) underlining women’s right.
(d) all of the above.
Ans: (d) all of the above.
Q. 13. Who of the following was an active proponent of education of girl child?
(a) Ram Mohan Roy.
(b) Keshab Chandra Sen.
(c) Dayanand Saraswati.
(d) Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar.
Ans: (d) Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar.
14. The original name of Swami Vivekananda was:
(a) Devendra Nath.
(b) Narendra Nath.
(c) Sham Nath.
(d) Ram Nath.
Ans: (b) Narendra Nath.
Q. 15. Who attempted to establish Hindu spiritual supremacy vis-a- vis the selfish civilization of the west?
(a) Swami Ramkrishna Paramhansa.
(b) Swami Vivekananda.
(c) Dayananda Saraswati.
(d) Lajpat Rai.
Ans: (b) Swami Vivekananda.
Q. 16. Arya Samaj was founded by:
(a) Swami Vivekananda.
(b) Dayanand Saraswati.
(c) Lala Hansraj.
(d) Keshab Chandra Sen.
Ans: (b) Dayanand Saraswati.
Q. 17. Who advocated modern education for Muslims?
(a) Sayyid Ahmad Khan.
(b) Shariat Ullah.
(c) Sayyid Ahmad Barelwi.
(d) Shah Walliullah.
Ans: (a) Sayyid Ahmad Khan.
Q. 18. The first newspaper in India published by:
(a) Devendra Nath Tagore.
(b) Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
(c) William Jones.
(d) James Augustus Hickey.
Ans: (d) James Augustus Hickey.
Q. 19. Who of the following was associated with Vernacular Press Act of 1878?
(a) Lord Lytton.
(b) Lord Rippon.
(c) Lord Cornwallis.
(d) Lord Dalhousie.
Ans: (a) Lord Lytton.
Q. 20. Who of the following was a supporter of free press?
(a) John Adams.
(b) Lord Wellesley.
(c) Charles Metcalfe.
(d) Lord Lytton.
Ans: (c) Charles Metcalfe.