NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 11 Emergence of Regional State in India: Twelfth to Eighteenth Century

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NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 11 Emergence of Regional State in India: Twelfth to Eighteenth Century, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 11 Emergence of Regional State in India: Twelfth to Eighteenth Century and select need one. NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 11 Emergence of Regional State in India: Twelfth to Eighteenth Century Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 History Notes Paper 315.

NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 11 Emergence of Regional State in India: Twelfth to Eighteenth Century

Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 History Chapter 11 Emergence of Regional State in India: Twelfth to Eighteenth Century, NIOS Senior Secondary Course History Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

Emergence of Regional State in India: Twelfth to Eighteenth Century

Chapter: 11




Q. 1. List any four characteristics of regionalism in India. 

Ans: Four characteristics of regionalism in India:

(i) Language

(ii) Religious affiliations

(iii) Interaction through trade and commerce 

(iv) Regional art schools. 

Q. 2. Name the regional art schools that developed in India during Medieval period. 

Ans: (i) Bihar, (ii) Bengal, (iii) Assam, (iv) Central India, (v) Rajasthan

Q. 3. Which bhakti religions developed in the regions of India during Medieval times?

Ans: (i) Namdev, (ii) Raidas, (iii) Tukaram, (iv) Guru Nanak


Q. 1. When did decline of Delhi Sultanate began?

Ans: In 1338 after the death of Feroz Shah Tughlaq. 

Q. 2. During the rule of Ibrahim Lodi, which two states declared their independence?

Ans: Bihar and Punjab.


Q. 1. To which areas was Sharqi Sultanate extended?

Ans: Aligarh in west, Darbhanga in east, Nepal in north and Bundelkhand in south.

Q.2. Who is referred as Akbar of Kashmir? 

Ans: Zainul Abidin is referred as Akbar of Kashmir.

Q. 3. Who laid the foundation of the Ilyas Shah dynasty? 

Ans: Haji Ilyas Khan.

Q. 4. Ahmed Shah founded which city?

Ans: Ahmedabad.


Q. 1. Who appointed Sada Amir and for which region?

Ans: Mohammad bin Tughlaq for Deccan region.

Q. 2. Who was Mahmud Gawan?

Ans: He was an Iranian and first reached Deccan as a trader. He was granted the title of ‘Chief of the Merchants’ or Malik-ut-Tujjar by the Bahamani ruler, Humayun Shah. After the death of Shah, Gawan was made wazir and was given the title of ‘Khwaju-i-Jahan’.


Q. 1. Give names of any four foreign travellers who wrote about magnificence of Vijaynagara empire.

Ans: (i) Nicolo Conti.

(ii) Fernao Nuniz.

(iii) Domingo Paes.

(iv) Duareto Barbosa.

(v) Abdur Razzaq.

Q. 2. Temple of Tirupati was developed during the reign of which king?

Ans: Krishna Deva Raya.

Q. 3. Where was Amara Nayaka system prevalent?

Ans: In Vijaynagara administration.

Q. 4. What were the areas of conflict between the Vijaynagara and the Bahamani? 

Ans: The areas of conflict between the Vijaynagara and the Bahamani were: 

(i) Control of Raichur doab.

(ii) Marathwada regions.

(iii) Deltaic region of Krishna and Godavari.


Q.1. Regional states in 18th century have been divided into which categories?

Ans: Regional states in 18th century have been divided into three categories:

(i) Founded by Mughal nobles.

(ii) Watan jagirs.

(iii) The third category was those that had emerged after rebelling against the Mughal authority. The Sikhs, the Marathas and the Jats belonged to this group.


Q. 1. Trace the development of regional states from 13th century to 18th century in India.

Ans: Development of regional states from 13th century to 18th century in India:

(i) Those states that were annexed to the Sultanate formed various provinces and were place under the administration of the provincial governors.

(ii) Though these regions were now a part of the Delhi Sultanate, the regional characteristics of language, art, literature and religion remained.

(iii) Though there was hardly any regional ruling dynasty, the provincial governors of the Sultanate allied with the local rajas and zamindars and asserted their independence.

(iv) Most of the regional states that came up after the fourteenth century when the Delhi Sultanate was declining were a result of the rebellions of the governors.

(v) The establishment of Vijaynagara and the Bahamani was a result of the assertion of power by the provincial officers like Harihara and Bukka and Alauddin Hasan Bahman Shah respectively.

(vi) In East Bengal and in West Multan and Sind also became independent.

(vii) With the death of Feroz Shah Tughlaq in 1338, the decline of the Sultanate began. The relationship between the Sultan and the nobles worsened. The conflict with the local rulers and zamindars as well as regional and geographical tensions weakened the Sultanate further.

(viii) The invasion of Timur in 1398 further aggravated the decline of the Delhi Sultanate. He entered Delhi and mercilessly killed both the Hindus and Muslims and massacred women and children as well.

(ix) Fifteen years after the Timur’s raid in Delhi, the Delhi Sultanate declined. The Sultanates in Gujarat, Malwa and Jaunpur emerged as powerful regional kingdom.

(x) New regional states independent of the Delhi Sultanate arose in central and South India too. The prominent ones were the Gajapatis of Orissa, the Bahamanis and the Vijayanagara empire.

(xi) During the rule of Ibrahim Lodi (1517- 1526), Bihar declared its independence.

(xii) Daulat Khan, the governor of Punjab rebelled and invited Babur to invade India in 1526.

(xiii) During the rule of Mughal Empire from 1526 onwards, the ruling dynasties in the regional states gradually lost their power and these states over a period of time became the part of the Mughal Empire. But the regional features of language, art, literature, and religion continued with changes.

(xiv) With the decline of the Mughals in the 18th century there were rebellions of the provincial governors and a few annexed states declared their independence. As a result new regional kingdoms arose. For example, Punjab, Bengal, Awadh, Hyderabad, Mysore and Marathas.

Q.2. How were regional states different from central empire? 

Ans: The regional states were different from central empire in the following respects: 

(i) Regional languages: In different regions of India different regional languages were spoken. For example, Oriya, Gujarati, Bengali, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Marathi etc., are the regional languages. Literary works and local literature came to be written in these languages. From the 11th and 12th centuries, the regional languages came to be used in the official documents. However, a large number of official documents of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire and some regional states were written in Persian. were

(ii) Presence of the local cults and religious affiliations: For example, the cult of Jagannath in Orissa was regional to Orissa. It became the cult of the state, whereby the rulers adopted it, built temple for it and celebrated festivals around it every year. 

(iii) Development of local and regional art schools like that Bihar, Bengal, Assam, Central India, Rajasthan etc. The various regional dynasties extended their patronage to art, culture, literature and architecture. art

(iv) The political and military visions of the regional states were limited by the regional boundaries.

(v) The regional states influenced each other in the area of architecture and political culture. 

(vi) There were networks of interaction through trade and commerce and migration of artisans from one region to another.

Q. 3. How Bengal was able to assert its independence so easily?

Ans: Bengal was the easternmost province of the Delhi Sultanate. The long distance, incomfortable climate and poor means of transport and communications made it difficult for the Delhi Sultanate to control this province. Therefore, it was easy for Bengal to assert its independence.

Q.4. What were unique about Mahmud Begarha and why he is considered an important ruler of Gujarat ?

Ans: (i) Mahmud Begarha was called so because his moustaches resembled the horn of a cow (begarha). His moustache was supposed to be so long that he tied it over his head.

(ii) According to Duarto Barbosa, who was a foreign traveller, right from his childhood, Mahmud was given some poison as his food which made him so poisonous that if a fly settled on his head, it would meet instant death.

(iii) Mahmud Begarha is considered the most important ruler of Gujarat. He captured two powerful forts or garh, Girnar in the Saurashtra and the fort of Champaner from Rajputs in south Gujarat. Both these forts were of strategic importance. 

(iv) The fort of Girnar was in the prosperous Saurashtra region and also provided a base for operations against Sindh.

(v) A new town called Mustafabad at the foot of the hill was founded by the Sultan. This town with many beautiful monuments became the second capital of Gujarat.

(vi) The fort of Champaner was crucial to control Malwa and Khandesh. Mahmud constructed a new town called Muhammadabad near Champaner.

Q.5. Describe Amara-nayaka system of administration.

Ans: Amara-nayaka system of administration:

(i) It was one of the important characteristics of the Vijayanagara administration.

(ii) In this system, the commander of the Vijayanagara army was called the nayaka. Each nayaka was given an area for administration.

(iii) The nayaka was responsible for expanding agricultural activities in his area. He collected taxes in his area and with this income maintained his army, horses, elephants and weapons of warfare that he had to supply to the raya or the Vijayanagara ruler.

(iv) The nayaka was also the commander of the forts. Some of the revenue was also used for the maintenance of temples and irrigation works.

(v) The Amar-nayakas sent tribute to the king annually, and personally appeared in the royal court with gifts to express their loyalty. In the seventeenth century, of several of these nayakas became independent and established separate states.

Q. 6. The Vijayanagara and the Bahamanis were neighbours but were not at peace, why it was so, discuss?

Ans: (i) Though the Vijaynagara and the Bahamanis were neighbours, they were not at peace. There were constant conflicts between these two kingdoms over the control of Raichur doab. The Raichur doab was the land between rivers Krishna and Tungabhadra. This area was fertile and rich in mineral resources. The famous diamond mines of Golconda were located in the eastern part of the doab region.

(ii) The other areas of conflict were the Marathwada region and the deltaic region of Krishna-Godavari. Both regions had fertile areas and important ports that controlled trade to the foreign countries. For example, the fertile area in the Marathwada region was the Konkan belt that also had the port of Goa which was an important region for trade and export and import especially import of horses from Iraq and Iran.

Thus, territorial and economic motives were the main causes for the war.

Multiple Choice Questions

Tick (✓) the correct answer. 

Q. 1. Who established the Vijayanagar empire? 

(a) Harihara.

(b) Bukka.

(c) Harihara and Bukka.

(d) Bahman Shah.

Ans: (c) Harihara and Bukka.

Q. 2. In which year Timur attacked Delhi Sultanate?

(a) 1338

(b) 1368

(c) 1378

(d) 1398

Ans: (d) 1398

Q. 3. Jaunpur is situated on the bank of the river:

(a) Ganga.

(b) Yamuna.

(c) Gomati.

(d) Koshi.

Ans: (c) Gomati.

Q. 4. Who was given the title of Sutanu-Sharq by Sultan Nasiruddin Mohammad Shah Tughlaq?

(a) Malik Kafur.

(b) Malik Sarwar.

(c) Firuz Khan.

(d) Bahlol Lodhi.

Ans: (b) Malik Sarwar.

Q. 5. Ibrahim was a: 

(a) ruler of Sharqi dynasty.

(b) a scholar.

(c) governor.

(d) both (a) and (b)

Ans: (d) both (a) and (b)

Q. 6. At its heights the Sharqi Sultanate extended from Aligarh in the western Uttar Pradesh to __ in north Bihar.

(a) Patna.

(b) Madhubani.

(c) Darbhanga.

(d) Muzaffarpur.

Ans: (c) Darbhanga. 

Q. 7. Who annexed Jaunpur after 1484?

(a) Bahlol Lodhi.

(b) Sikandar Lodhi.

(c) Alauddin Khalji.

(d) Muhammad bin Tughlaq.

Ans: (b) Sikandar Lodhi.

Q. 8. The rulers of Kashmir were followers of:

(a) Shaivism. 

(b) Vaishav religion.

(c) Buddhism.

(d) Jainism.

Ans: (a) Shaivism.

Q. 9. Al-Hind is associated with:

(a) Firuz Shahi.

(b) Albiruni.

(c) Bahman Shah.

(d) Abul Fazl.

Ans: (b) Albiruni.

Q. 10. Who of the following issued an order that all Hindus especially, the Brahmanas living in his kingdom should embrace Islam or leave his kingdom?

(a) Suha Bhatt.

(b) Sikandar Shah.

(c) Shamsuddin Shah.

(d) Mirza Haider.

Ans: (b) Sikandar Shah.

Q. 11. The ruler of Kashmir who abolished Jaziya and prohibited cow slaughter and gave the Hindus important state posts was:

(a) Shamsuddin Shah.

(b) Sikandar Shah.

(c) Bahman Shah.

(d) Zainul Abidin.

Ans: (d) Zainul Abidin.

Q. 12. Who introduced carpet and shawl making, which make Kashmir famous till day?

(a) Zainul Abidin.

(b) Shamsuddin Shah.

(c) Sikandar Shah.

(d) None of the above.

Ans: (a) Zainul Abidin.

Q. 13. Who wrote Rajtarangini?

(a) Kalidas.

(b) Kabir.

(c) Mirza beg. 

(d) Kalhana.

Ans: (d) Kalhana.

Q.14. Who laid the foundation of the Ilyas Shah dynasty?

(a) Malik Sarvar.

(b) Malik Kafur.

(c) Haji Ilyas Khan.

(d) Sikandar Shah.

Ans: (c) Haji Ilyas Khan.

Q. 15. Who was well known for dispensing free and fair justice to people?

(a) Ghiyasuddin Azam.

(b) Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.

(c) Muhammad bin Tughlaq.

(d) Mubarak Shah.

Ans: (a) Ghiyasuddin Azam.

Q. 16. Bengal was annexed by Sher Shah Suri in:

(a) 1518

(b) 1528

(c) 1538

(d) 1548

Ans: (c) 1538

Q. 17. Who built Jama Masjid and Teen Darwaza at Ahmedabad?

(a) Ahmad Shah.

(b) Mahmud Bagarha. 

(c) Bahman Shah.

(d) Ghiyasuddin Azam.

Ans: (a) Ahmad Shah.

Q. 18. Who was Haran Kangu?

(a) Founder of Vijayanagara empire.

(b) Founder of Bahamani Sultanate.

(c) Founder of Bengal Kingdom.

(d) Founder of kingdom of Golkonda.

Ans: (b) Founder of Bahamani Sultanate.

Q. 19. Taraf’ was:

(a) assembly of villages.

(b) province.

(c) assembly of learned men.

(d) district.

Ans: (b) province.

Q. 20. Tuluva dynasty was founded by:

(a) Harihara.

(b) Krishnadevaraya.

(c) Bukka.

(d) Achyuta Deva Raya.

Ans: (b) Krishnadevaraya.

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