# NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 28 Human Development

NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 28 Human Development, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 28 Human Development and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 28 Human Development Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Geography Notes Paper 316.

## NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 28 Human Development

Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 28 Human Development, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Geography Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.

### Human Development

Chapter: 28

GEOGRAPHY

INTEXT QUESTION 28.1

Q.1. What yes human development Index?

Ans. The Human Development Index is a composite index that measures the average achievements of a country in three basic dimensions of human development such as long and healthy life, knowledge and decent standard of living.

Q.2. Name the three dimensions and their respective indicator used for measuring H.D.I.

Ans. (i) Long and healthy life measured by life expectancy at birth.

(ii) Knowledge is measured by the adult literacy rate and combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrollment ratio.

(iii) A decent standard of living is measured by GDP per-capita purchasing power parity in U.S. dollar.

Q.3. Differentiate between human development and economic development.

Ans. Economic development entirely focuses on the increase of income. The Human Development stresses in expanding and widening of all aspects of humans life.

Q.4. How do we measure human poverty index for developing countries (H.P.I)?

Ans. (i) Probability at birth of not swimming at the age of 40.

(iii) (a) percentage of the population without sustainable access to an improved water source.

(b) the percentage of children underweight for age of one year.

Q.5. What is India’s position in Human Development Index according to human development report 2005? Name any two neighbouring countries of India who are doing better than India.

Ans. 127 out of 174 countries. Neighbouring countries who are doing better than India are China,Sri Lanka and Maldives.

INTEXT QUESTIONS 28.2

Q.1. Name the three demographic indicators which need to be improved to achieve the desert result.

Ans. (i) Birth Rate.

(ii) Infant Mortality Rate.

(iii) Total Fertility Rate.

Q.2. Name any three health programmes related to women and children launched by government of India.

Ans. (i) National Rural Health Mission.

(ii) Janani Suraksha Yojna.

(iii) Balika Samridhi Yojna.

(iv) Kishore Shakto Yojna.

Q.3. Defines gross enrollment ratio.

Ans. Gross enrollment ratio indicates the proportion between the total number of learners in a particular age group that are supposed to be in that particular glass and that total number of actual learners enrolled in that particular class.

Q.4. Name any three states in which people are living below poverty line.

Ans. (i) Bihar including Jharkhand.

(ii) Orissa.

INTEXT QUESTIONS 28.3

Q.1. Name any three states of Northern India which are below National average in HDI.

Ans. (i) Bihar.

(iv) Rajasthan.

Ans. Development rider is a diagrammatic representation of progress of states separately for rural and urban areas on eight distinct social indicators for two points of time namely early 1980 and early 1990.

Q.3. In which two indicators Steel substantial gaps are there as far as rural urban differences are concerned?

Ans. (i) Per-capita expenditure.

(ii) Poverty.

TERMINAL QUESTIONS

Q.1. Differentiate among Human Development Index, human poverty index and gender Development Index.

Ans. Basically all the indexes (i.e. HDI, HPI and GDI) are calculated on three common dimensions a long and healthy life, knowledge and a descent standard of living, however some indicators are different within these dimensions. HDI is a composite index of life expectancy of the birty, adult literacy rate, the combined primary, secondary and tertiary enrollment, and lastly GDP per capita income.

HPI is a composite index of probability at birth, adult literacy rate, percentage of population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and lastly, percentage of children underwear for age of one year.

HDI is a composite index of life expectancy at birth, adult library rate, combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrollment ratio, and lastly estimated earned income.

Q.2. Explain any four reasons in favour of the Human Development.

Ans. Paul Streenten, a development economist identified a six reasons in favour of the Human Development, these are:

1. The ultimate purpose of the entire exercise of development is to improve the human conditions and to enlarge people’s choices.

2. Human Development is a means to higher productivity. A well nourished, healthy, educated, skilled alert labour force is the most productive asset. Therefore investment in these sectors are justified on the ground of productivity.

3. It helps in reducing the rate of growth of population.

4. Human Development is friendly to the physical environment also. Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion decline when poverty decline.

5. Improved living conditions and reduced poverty contribute to a healthy civil society and greater social stability.

6. Human Development also helps in reducing civil disturbance in the society and increasing political stability.

Q.3. Describe any four visions envisaged in National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) implemented by government of India.

Ans. The four visions envisaged in NRHM implemented by the government of India are as under: