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NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 22 Land Use And Agriculture
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Land Use And Agriculture
TEXTUAL QUESTION & ANSWER
INTEXT QUESTION 22.1
Q.1. Match the following:
|Types of farming||Chief characteristics|
|(i) Subsistence Farming||(a) Factory like management.|
|(ii) Wet farming||(b) Large production for market.|
|(iii) Shifting Cultivation||(c) Practised in the area of low rainfall.|
|(iv) Dry farming||(d) Forests are cleared for raising crops.|
|(v) Commercial Farming||(e) Practised in the areas of high rainfall.|
|(vi) Plantation Farming||(f) Most of the production consumed locally.|
|Types of farming||Chief characteristics|
|(i) Subsistence Farming||(f) Most of the production consumed locally.|
|(ii) Wet farming||(e) Practised in the areas of high rainfall.|
|(iii) Shifting Cultivation||(d) Forests are cleared for raising crops.|
|(iv) Dry farming||(c) Practised in the area of low rainfall.|
|(v) Commercial Farming||(b) Large production for market.|
|(vi) Plantation Farming||(a) Factory like management.|
Q.2. Which down state of the India has the highest percentage of net sown area?
Ans. Punjab (84%).
INTEXT QUESTIONS 22.2
Tick the most appropriate answer for the following questions from the options given in brackets.
1. Of the total cattle population in the world, what percentage is found in India? (15/ 25/ 35/ 45)
Q.2. Which state of India has the largest number of cattle population? (West Bengal/ Uttar Pradesh/ Tamil Nadu/ Kerala)
Ans. Uttar Pradesh.
Q.3. Which state of India has the highest number of goats? (Uttar Pradesh/ Rajasthan/ Bihar/ Assam)
Q.4. What is the percentage share of land area under the forests in India? (20/ 22/ 24/ 26)
Ans. 22 percent.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 22.3
(a) Name two important fibre crops of India.
Ans. (i) Cotton and
(b) Name two important sugarcane producing belts in the country.
Ans. (i) From Punjab to Bihar in northern plains.
(ii) From Gujarat to Tamil Nadu in South India.
(c) Name the city where sugar can research institute located.
(d) What is the ranking of India in the production of banana in the world?
(e) Which state is the largest producer of rice in India?
Ans. West Bengal.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 22.4
Q.1. What are the determinants of cropping pattern in India?
Ans. The determinants of cropping pattern in India are:
1. Climate (rainfall and temperature).
3. Size of the farms.
4. Availability of fertilisers.
5. Good quality of seeds.
6. Irrigational facilities and
7. Price incentives.
Q.2. What do you understand by globalisation?
Ans. Globalisation means to make global, worldwide or affecting whole world or all people. It integrates economy of a country with world economy.
Q.3. Name three agriculture and seasons found in India?
Ans. Agriculture and seasons found in India are:
2. Kharif and
Q.4. During which five year plan period special programme for the green revolution started?
Ans. During IIIrd Five Year Plan (1961-66)
Q.5. Write four objectives of new national agriculture and policy, 2000.
Ans. (i) Achieving more than 4% annum growth rate in agriculture sector.
(ii) Growth based on efficient use of resources and conservation of our soil, water and biodiversity.
(iii) Growth with equity in region and among the farmers.
(iv) Growth that caters of domestic market and maximises benefits from exports of agricultural products.
Q.1. Discuss changing pattern of cropping in India.
Ans. Changing crop pattern in India is as under:
1. Dominance of food crops over non food crops: At the time of independence, more than 75% of total area was under the production of food crops. Gradually with the commercialization of agriculture the farmers in India have started shifting area to non-food crops. Now area under food crops has decline to 65.8% in 2000.
2. Variety of crops grown: Almost every kind of crops are grown in India as it has the variety of soils. These are food crops, fibre crops, oil seeds and medicinal plants and spices.
3. Dominance of cereals among food crops: Within broad group of food crops cereals like wheat and rice dominate. About 82% of the area under food crops has been put to cultivation of cereals.
4. Decline in coarse cereals: Jwar, bajra, maize, millets, barley etc. are called coarse or inferior cereals. The area under these crops to the total area cereals crops has declined from 48% in 1950-51 to 29% (2001).
5. Declining importance of kharif crops: Till recently kharif crops have been contributing the large share in the crop production in India. But this dominance is on the decline. The share of kharif has decline from 71% in the 1970 to 49% in 2003-04. This makes a significant change in Indian agricultural practices after Green Revolution. The kharif crops are not reliable because they are dependent on rainfall.
Q.2. What is meant by Green Revolution? Write its impact on agricultural production and environmental.
Ans. Green revolution generally stands for increased farm productivity per unit area through the application of triple technology providing high yielding seeds, more chemical, assured irrigation water simultaneously. The term Green Revolution was used first in 1968 by Dr William Gadd of the U.S.A. the green revolution in India has been successful mainly in Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh because these regions had advantage of assured irrigation and adequate supply of fertilisers and H Y.V. seeds. Due to increased application of chemical fertiliser and over irrigation soils in the areas of the Green Revolution have been degraded in the form of salinity and water logging. The Green Revolution package has led to serious environmental disruption in areas of its success. Excessive concentration of chemical fertilisers and pesticides contaminate the streams and the groundwater with serious health hazard for the people.
Q.3. What is the impact of globalisation on agricultural sector in India?
Ans. Some experts say that India will get benefited through improved prospects for agricultural export as a result of increase in the world prices of agricultural commodities wait reduction in heavy firm subsidies provided in the developed countries and breaking of barriers to trade. The prices of agricultural products in India are not likely to increase as all major programs such as subsidies on P.D.S. and on agriculture are exempted from the control of W.T.O. There will be a large market worldwide for these products. More over it is also said that an improvement in terms of trade in favour of agriculture will promote faster agricultural growth in India.
But according to other experts clamps for questionable of the following grounds:
(i) Due two globalisation, the Indian farmers might have to face much unstable prices of agricultural products as world prices for these products fluctuate largely on year-to-year basis.
(ii) The impact of trade liberalisation on the prices of agricultural products at international level and domestic level depends on what policies other countries follow. For example, developed countries are not willing to reduce subsidies on their agricultural products, to keep these Steel cheaper to benefit their farmers.
(iii) Due to liberalizations, MMC’s engaged in agro-business would operate freely in India. For their strong financial background, they could produce hybrid varieties of seeds and the specialised agra-chemicals, using advance biotechnology. These hybrid seeds cannot be regrown or reproduced by the farmers as they are genetically modified to terminate after first use.
(iv) There would be uneven distribution of income across social classes and geographical region due to effect of globalisation on agricultural practices and trade. Rich regions or social groups will be richer in the country.