NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 14 Biosphere, Solutions to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 14 Biosphere and select need one. NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 14 Biosphere Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Study Material of Class 12 Geography Notes Paper 316.
NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 14 Biosphere
Also, you can read the NIOS book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of NIOS All Subject Solutions. Here we have given NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 14 Biosphere, NIOS Senior Secondary Course Geography Solutions for All Chapter, You can practice these here.
TEXTUAL QUESTION & ANSWER
INTEXT QUESTION 14.1
Q.1. Give one word for each of the following:
(a) The narrow zone in which life exists ________.
(b) The non-living components of the biosphere ________.
(c) The living components of the biosphere __________.
(d) The organisms which decompose plant, animal and organic matters ________.
Q.2. Fill in the blanks:
(a) ________ is the primary source of energy for the biosphere.
(b) ________ are those who take their food through their mouth.
(c) The biotic components of the biosphere mainly consist ______ and _______.
Ans. plants, animal and micro organisms.
(d) Biosphere is a narrow zone where _______, ______ and _______ meet which made life.
Ans. lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 14.2
Q.1. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:
(a) _______are those who is manufacture their own foods.
(b) Plant eating animals are known as ________.
(c) On the basis of food habits human beings belongs to which category________.
(d) Several interconnected and overlapping food chains present a complicated pattern which is known as ________.
Ans. food web.
(e) ________ is considerate as the largest ecosystem.
Q.2. Answer the following questions are briefly:
(a) Define ecology.
Ans. Ecology is the study of interactions between the organisms and their environment.
(b) What is a food chain?
Ans. Food chain can be defined as the sequence of transfer of energy from organisms in tropic level to those in another trophic level.
(c) What is a food pyramid?
Ans. When does numbers of successive levels are plotted their assume the shape of a pyramid, hence it is called food pyramid.
(d) What is a biogeochemical cycle?
Ans. Biogeochemical cycles are not in but the movement and circulation of soluble inorganic substances derived from sedimentary and atmospheric process of inorganic substances through organic pass of various biotique components and finally their return to inorganic state.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 14.3
Q.1. Answer the following questions briefly:
(a) Name any two factors that are responsible for irreparable damage to the biosphere.
Ans. (i) Rapid growth of human population.
(ii) Alarming rate of consumption.
(iii) Extravagant life styles.
(b) Name any two major green house gases?
Ans. (i) Carbon dioxide.
(iii) Nitrous oxide and
(iv) Chlorofluoro carbons (CFC).
(c) Which order two leading nations in the world that produced carbon dioxide gases?
Ans. (i) United States.
(d) Where do we generally find ozone layer in the atmosphere?
(e) Name any two major chemical substances that are responsible for ozone layer depletion.
Ans. (i) CFCs.
(ii) Halons, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride.
(f) What order two main agents that are responsible for acid rain?
Ans. (i) Sulphur acid.
(ii) Nitric acid.
(g) Name any two major effects of acid rain.
Ans. Effects of acid rain are as under:
(i) Several affects biomass and aquatic life in the legs and streams.
(ii) Death and decline of forests.
(iii) Destroy buildings and monuments.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 14.4
Answer the following questions briefly:
(a) Under whose chairpersonship the United Nations Commission on environment and development (UNCED) was formed?
Ans. Gro-Harlem Brundtland.
(b) What is the title of the report submitted by UNCED?
Ans. Our common future.
(c) Define sustainable development.
Ans. Meeting the needs of the present generation without commission the ability of future generation to meet their own needs.
(d) Name any three strategies to be adopted for sustainable development.
Ans. (i) Reviving growth.
(ii) Meeting essential human needs.
(iii) Ensuring a sustainable development level of population.
(iv) Changing the equality of growth.
(v) Conserving and enhancing the resource base.
(vi) Reorienting technology.
Q.1. What is biosphere? Describe various components of Biosphere with suitable examples.
Ans. The biosphere consist of all the living components of the earth plants, animals, micro organisms and their interactions with the surrounding environment. Biosphere has three basic components.
(i) Abiotic components: These components broughtly consists of all non-living elements which are essential for the survival of all living organisms. Mineral nutrients, certain gases and water are the three basic requirements of organic life.
(ii) Biotic components: Plants, animals and human beings including microorganisms constitute the three biotic components of environment.
(iii) Energy: This is that heart and betal components of the biosphere without which life could not have been possible on this plant.
Q.2. Define ecosystem. Explain the energy flow in the ecosystem with appropriate diagrams and examples.
Ans. Ecosystem can be defined as a system of regularly interacting and interdependent components forming a unified whole. In another words, any segment of the landscape that includes biotic and abiotic components known as ecosystem, if all it’s components are integrated with each other.
Flow of energy: The interaction between components and sub components involve the flow of energy and cycling of mineral nutrients. In this process transfer of energy take place from one level to another. This is known as trophic level. Therefore trophic level is the level or the stage at which food energy passes from one group to another. On the basis of food habits the heterotrophs are further subdivided into three categories. They are herbivores, carnivores and omnivores. Herbivores are plant eating animals. Carnivores are flash eating animals and omnivores are both plant and animal eaters organisms.
Q.3. What are biogeochemical cycles? Explain hydrological cycles with suitable diagram.
Ans. Biogeochemical cycles: (biological, geological and chemical interaction) are nothing but the movement of circulation of soluble inorganic substances (nutrients) derived from soil and atmospheric phases of inorganic substances through organic phase of various biotic components. Similarly a return circulation and movement of organic substances takes place in favour of inorganic objects such as soil and atmosphere. Thus these two systems are supplementary to each other and complete the cycle.
Hydrological cycle: This cycle helps the exchange of water between air, land, sea, living plants and animals. Solar energy is used to bring the hydrological cycle. Massive evaporation of water from the oceans, cloud formation and rainfall gives us our supply and reserve of fresh water.
Q.4. Describe various causes and consequences of global warming.
Ans. Global warming refers to a great well rise of atmospheric temperature and consequent changes in the radiation balance mainly due to human action leading to climate change at different levels-local, regional and global. The causes of global warming are deforestation and industrialisation and greenhouse gases. These guesses are CO2, Methane, Nitrous oxide and CFCs.
Consequences of Global Warming:
1. If the present rate of increasing in CO2 level continuous it will result in rise of atmospheric temperature by 2° or 3°C by end of 21st century. This will result in reveding many glaciers, melting of ice caps in the polar regions and disappearance of deposits of ice on the other parts of world in large scale.
2. Because of concentration of CO2 and due too much warmer tropical oceans there may occur more cyclones and hurricanes.
3. The global temperature can adversely affect the world food production.
4. The biological productivity of the ocean would also decreases due to warming of the surface layer which in turn reduces the transport of nutrients from deeper layer today surface by vertical circulation.
Q.5. Define sustainable development. Suggest measures to be adopted for a achieving sustainable development.
Ans. Human being with the help of technological advancement and consumption of energy resources have made many inventions and discoveries to make their life more and more comfortable. At present without technology and mineral power resources we cannot think about the life. It has entered in a large scale in almost every sector be it agriculture, industries, transport and domestic. The following are the measures to achieve sustainable development:
(i) Reviving drowth: Sustainable development must address the issue of poverty. Poverty increases pressure of the environment buy following lifestyle that degrade environment. Efforts should be made to provide them certain alternatives like skill training, education etc. So that they can earn livelihood and come out of poverty. Otherwise the very purpose of sustainability or sustainable development will be forfeited. Because as long as poverty will be there, poor people will dependent upon nature for their survival.
(ii) Meeting is ential human needs: This is a prerequisite for reviving growth. It is evident that unless the basic needs are satisfied the individual cannot participate in the growth process. More food and quality food should be provided because this is not just to feed people but to attack under nourishment and to develop immune system for preventing diseases.
(iv) Changing and enhancing the resource base: There are moral as well as economic arguments for this. The moral argument is that we have to preserve resources for the sustenance of next generation. The economic argument is that we cannot say to the poor people that they must remain in poverty to protect environment. Does challenge in sustainability is that how we should conserve resources without jeopardising the growth and equal access to resources for livelihood. Simultaneously there is a need to find out alternative to non-renewable resources-more efficient use of resources-discovery of new resources and discovery of low waste technology.
(vi) Reorienting technology and managing risk: The implications of above five strategies are for the orientation of technology. All the technological developments must pay greater attention to environmental factors. This is closely linked to the issue of risk management wherein environmental impacts has to be effectively minimised.
(vii) Merging environment and economies in decision making: Economies an ecology should not be seen opposition but as interlocking. Sustainable development requires the unification of economies and ecology in international relation.