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NIOS Class 12 Geography Chapter 10 Insolation And Temperature
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Insolation And Temperature
TEXTUAL QUESTION & ANSWER
INTEXT QUESTION 10.1
Q.1. Answer the following questions in one or two words:
(a) By which process heat energy travels from the sun to the earth?
(b) What part of solar radiation is received by the earth’s surface?
Ans. Two billionsths part.
(c) Name the process in which heat is transferred by winds.
(d) Name the three factors influencing the amount of insolation received at a place.
Ans. (i) Angle of incidence.
(ii) Duration of the day.
(iii) Transparency of the atmosphere.
Q.2. Select correct alternative for each of the following and mark (✓) on it.
(a) Insolation comes to the earth’s surface in.
(i) Short waves.
(ii) Long waves.
(iii) Both of them.
(iv) None of them.
Ans. (i) Short waves.
(b) Atmosphere is heated by:
(ii) Heat radiation from the earth.
(iii) Both of them.
(iv) None of them.
Ans. (ii) Heat radiation from the earth.
(c) Even after the sunset the air near the earth’s surface continuous to receive heat by:
Ans. (ii) Terrestrial radiation.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 10.2
Q.1. Define the following terms:
(a) Heat Budget.
Ans. Heat budget is the balance between insolation and terrestrial radiation.
(b) Latitudinal Heat Balance.
Ans. Latitudinal Heat balance is the transfer of heat from lower to higher latitudes by winds and ocean currents to counter the imbalance and created by insolation at different latitudes.
(c) Global Warming.
Ans. Global warming is the worldwide increase of atmospheric temperature due to depletion of ozone layer and in the increase of carbon dioxide content.
Q.2. Answer the following questions very briefly:
(a) What percentage of insolation is received by the earth?
(b) What part of the incoming solar radiation is reflected back to space from the top of the atmosphere?
(c) Name the regions of surplus heat.
Ans. Tropical regions.
(d) Which is the region of deficit heat?
Ans. Polar region.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 10.3
Q.1. Select the correct alternative and mark tick(✓) on it.
(a) Terrestrial radiation is the amount of heat radiated by the:
Ans. (i) earth.
(b) Quito has lower temperature than that of guayaquil because Quito is situated at:
(i) higher latitude.
(ii) higher altitude.
(iii) lower latitude.
(iv) lower altitude.
Ans. (ii) higher altitude.
(c) Verkhoyansk has very high annual range of temperature because it is located:
(i) in the equatorial region.
(ii) on the sea coast.
(iii) in the interior parts of Asia.
(iv) on mountain.
Ans. (iii) in the interior parts of Asia.
Q.2. Give a geographical term for each of the following statements:
(a) The process of horizontal transport of heat by winds.
(b) Imaginary lines on a map joining the places of equal temperature reduces to sea level.
(c) Difference between the mean temperatures of the hottest and that of the coldest months.
Ans. (a) Advection.
(c) Annual range of temperature.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 10.4
Q.1. Select the correct alternative for each of the following and mark tick (✓) on it.
(a) Temperatures decrease with increase in:
(iv) both altitude and depth.
Ans. (i) altitude.
(b) The normal lapse rate is 6°C per.
(i) 561 metres.
(ii) 1000 m.
(iii) 651 m.
(iv) 156 m.
Ans. (ii) 1000 m.
(c) The phenomena in which temperature increases with increasing height is known as:
(i) temperature anomaly.
(ii) inversion of temperature.
(iii) lapse rate.
Ans. (ii) inversion of temperature.
Q.2. Tick (✓) the true statements and (X) cross on the false one:
(a) Cold air is light.
(b) Cold air is dense.
(c) Clear sky, dry air and absence of winds causes rapid radiation leading to the phenomena of inversion of temperature.
(d) Inversion of temperature occurs very frequently in plains.
(e) Apple growers of the Himachal Pradesh avoid lower slopes.
(f) The cool and dense air sliding down the mountain slopes pushes the comparatively warm and light air of valleys of world.
(g) Inversion of temperature occurs locally and temporarily.
Q.1. Answer the following questions at the most in one sentence:
(a) What is meant by normal lapse rate?
Ans. It is normal rate at which temperature decreases with the increase in altitude.
(b) What is insolation?
Ans. The portion of solar radiation that reaches the surface of the earth is called insolation.
(c) Define terrestrial radiation.
Ans. Heat radiated from the earth’s surface is called terrestrial radiation.
(d) At which rate does temperature decrease with increase in altitude?
Ans. The temperature decrease 6°C at every 1000 m altitude.
Q.2. Write in about 50 words on each of the following:
(a) Distribution of temperature in the world in January.
Ans. In January the sun shines vertically overhead near the Tropic of Capricorn. Hence it is summer in the southern hemisphere. High temperature is found over the land masses mainly in three regions of the southern hemisphere. These regions are north west Argentina, east central Africa and central America and central Australia. Isotherm of 30°C enclosed them. In northern hemisphere land masses cooler than oceans. During this time north east Asia experiences lowest temperatures.
(b) Heat Budget.
Ans. The insolation is made up of energy transmitted directly through the atmosphere and scattered energy. Insolation is the amount of solar radiation that reaches the earth’s surface through short waves. The earth also radiates heat energy like all other hot objects. This is known as terrestrial radiations. The annual mean temperatures on the surface of the earth is always constant. It has been possible because of the balance between insolation and terrestrial radiation. This balance is termed as heat budget of the earth.