Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 2 Growth of Indian Nationalism

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Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 2 Growth of Indian Nationalism The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters Assam Board Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 2 Growth of Indian Nationalism and select needs one.

Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 2 Growth of Indian Nationalism

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board SEBA Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 2 Growth of Indian Nationalism Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Q.10: Discuss the contribution of Anne Besant in the growth of Indian nationalism.

Ans: Mrs Anne Besant(1847-1933),was an Irish women who came to india in 1893 and loved India like her motherland. Her contribution in the growth of Indian nationalism is remarkable.

(i) She revived among the Indians,a sense of self- respect and pride for India’s glorious history through social service.

(ii) She propagated Indian philosophy and urged Indians to take pride in their culture.

(iii) She stood for the revival of ancient Indian philosophy, culture and heritage.

(iv) She helped the people to regain their lost faith and overcome their inferiority complex.

Mrs Anne Besant was the central figure of the Theosophical Society and helped the movement to become a great social force for Indians. She was the founder of the Central Hindu school in Banaras in 1898 which later came to be known as the Banaras Hindu university in 1916. In 1916,she started the Home Rule League and spread the message of self-rule among the Indians. She played a prominent role in Indian politics and was elected as the first lady president of the Indian National Congress in 1917.

Q.11: What is Aligarh Movement ? To what extent did it modern outlook and thinking among the Indian Muslims ?

Ans: The most important socio-religious movement among the Muslims centering around the Aligarh College came to be known as the Aligarh Movement. This movement was organised by Sir s Syed Ahmed Khan to spread modern education and develop nationalism among the Indian Muslims.

The movement helped develop a modern outlook and thinking among Indian Muslims. Syed Ahmed Khan realised that the best means of social awakening was through education,so he advised Muslims to embrace western education. He believed that the interest of the Muslims would be best served through western education and western ideas. In 1864 established an English medium school at Gazipur,in 1865 he set up a Science Society at Aligarh that translated noted English books into Urdu; and in 1875 he established the Mohammedan Anglo Oriental College which was second only to the Indian National Congress in its contribution to the growth of nationalism(in 1920 this college was raised and renamed as Aligarh Muslim University). 

Thus the Aligarh movement played a great role in developing modern outlook and thinking among the Indian Muslims and brought in them the following changes:

(i) The movement raised political consciousness among the Indian Muslims.

(ii) It inspired Indian Muslims to embrace western education.

(iii) It campaigned against social abuses within the Muslim community.

(iv) It opened the gates of new world of western literature and culture to the Indian Muslims.

Q.12: How did the printing press in India lead to the growth of Indian nationalism ? Discuss.

Ans: The printing press played a major role in bringing about national consciousness and in the growth of nationalism in the country. The Europeans introduced the printing press in India to fulfill their own intellectual needs,and their first newspaper named Bengal Gazette was published in 1780. The newly educated Indians appreciated the power of this means of communication and the latter half of the 19th century saw a boom of vernacular newspapers. These helped the growth of Indian nationalism in the following ways:

(i) The vernacular papers brought unity against the British powers by voicing the sufferings of the native Indian people. 

(ii) They brought to the fore the imperialistic exploitation of the British.

(iii) The early nationalists used this medium to express their ideas of freedom and democracy to bring to the notice of the authorities,their demands and problems.

(iv) The newspapers ensured that the ideas of nationalism were not confined to the newly educated Indians, but reached the common man all over the country.

(v)The papers greatly roused political consciousness and built up public opinion against the colonial rulers.

(vi) The reactionary policies of the British to exercise its control over the vernacular press served only to further unite the Indians against them.

(vii) Vernacular newspapers criticized British failure during the British only succeeded in the growth of nationalism.

Some of the newspapers in the second half of the 19th century that are noteworthy in building public opinion against the British were Bangadarshan,Sanjivani, Aryadarshan and Amrita Bazar Patrika from Bengal,Hindu from Madras,Kesari from Bombay,etc. It was through the medium of newspapers and periodicals that the Indian nationalist leaders popularised among the people,ideas of representative government election,party system,democratic institutions,home rule, independence,etc.

Q.13: Discuss briefly the factors that led to the birth of Indian National Congress.

Ans: The policy of repression and racial discrimination that was followed by the British in India,was instrumental in making Indians turn against them. The vernacular 

press Act of 1878,the Arms Act of 1878 and Ilbert Bill of 1883 created great discontentment among the people. Most educated Indians realised that Indians were not getting fair justice from the British. Under these circumstances,the need of an all India organisation was felt to bring to the notice of the British government authorities,the problems and demands of the Indian people.

The Indian National Congress was founded in 1885 during the tenure of Lord Dufferin at the initiative of Mr Allan Octavian Hume,a retired English civil servant. He suggested the formation of an all India organisation for the mental,moral,social and political regeneration of the people of India. He invited graduates of the Calcutta University through an open letter on 1march 1883 to participate in the progress of the nation. Under the banner of Indian  National Union,a meeting was held with the active support of 50 students and Lord Dufferin. Thus,A.O. Hume succeeded in giving effect to his plan. The first congregation of the Indian National Congress was held at Gokul Das Tejpal Sanskrit College Hall, Bombay on 28 December 1885 under the presidentship of Womesh Chandra Banerjee, a leading barrister of Calcutta. The first session of the Indian National Congress was attended by 72 representatives from different parts of the country. 

Q.14: Give a brief account of the working of the Indian National Congress during the early years of its formation.

Ans: The working of the Indian National Congress during the early years of its formation are discussed as: 

(i) Moderate policies of the Congress : The early leaders of the Congress had great faith in Constitutional methods to achieve their goals. They followed the moderate policy of prayer and petition and maintained friendly relations with the government. They criticised the government through peaceful means.

(ii) Indian Council Act of 1892: The Congress leaders aimed at securing Indian representation in the British administration,so they sent an Indian team under S.N. Banerjee’s leadership to England in 1890. But the British government refused to give concession to the Indians and the Congress leaders for the first time were disappointed by the Indian Council Act of 1892.

(iii) Partition plan of Lord Curzon: The faith of Congress leaders in constitutional methods of the British weakened after the partition plan of Lord Curzon in 1905, It bought some enmity between the British government and the Indian National Congress. Disappointed Congress leaders lost their faith in the policies of the party and decided to take firm steps against the British government. Moreover,the defeat of powerful Russia by a small Asiatic country like Japan encouraged the fighting spirit in Indians.

(iv) Swadeshi Movement: In the Surat Session of the Congress held in 1907,the Congress was divided into 

two groups- the extremists and the moderates. The extremists spread the concept of Swaraj,Swadeshi and National education. They remained out of Congress till 1916. The moderates followed the previous policies of the Congress Party.

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