Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Geography of India

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Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Geography of India The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters Assam Board Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Geography of India and select needs one.

Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Geography of India

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board SEBA Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Geography of India Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here.

Geography of India

Chapter: 3


Additional Questions And Answers


1. The Brahmaputra river meets the river ______ before falling into the Bay of Bengal.

(a) Ganga.

(b) Tapti.

(c) Godavari.

(d) Mahanadi.

Ans. (a) Ganga.

2. In summer, ______ monsoon winds blows over India.

(a) south-west.

(b) south-east.

(c) north-east.

(d) north-west.

Ans. (a) south-west.

3. ______ extends from the mouth of Godavari river to the mouth of the Ganges.

(a) Konkan coast.

(b) Malabar coast.

(c) Northern circars.

(d) Coromandel coast.

Ans. (c) Northern circars.

4. According to 2011 census, the average density of population of India is ______ persons per

(a) 224

(b) 282

(c) 382

(d) 324

Ans. (c) 382.

5. The area in India that has the highest density of population is _______.

(a) Delhi.

(b) Uttar Pradesh.

(d) Andhra Pradesh.

(c) Kerala.

Ans. (a) Delhi.

6. The most populated state in India is _______.

(a) Madhya Pradesh.

(b) Uttar Pradesh.

(c) Rajasthan.

(d) West Bengal.

Ans. (b) Uttar Pradesh.

7. The most thinly populated state of India is ________.

(a) Arunachal Pradesh.

(b) Meghalaya.

(c) Haryana.

(d) Jammu and Kashmir.

Ans. (a) Arunachal Pradesh.

8. The Andaman and Nicobar islands group consist of ______ islands.

(a) 115

(b) 204

(c) 195

(d) 215

Ans. (d) 215

9. The Wular lake is situated in _______.

(a) Rajasthan.

(b) Tamil Nadu.

(c) Manipur.

(d) Jammu and Kashmir.

Ans. (d) Jammu and Kashmir.

10. ______ plain is also known as Thar desert.

(a) Brahmaputra.

(b) Rajasthan.

(c) Ganga.

(d) Punjab Haryana.

Ans. (b) Rajasthan.


Q.1: Write about the geographical location of India.

Ans: India is situated in the southern part of the continent of Asia. The country is surrounded by the Himalayas and China in the north,the Indian ocean and Sri Lanka in the south,the Bay of Bengal and Myanmar in the east and the Arabian Sea and Pakistani in the West. It extends from Kashmir in the north to cape Comorin in the south and from Arunachal Pradesh in the east to Saurashtra in the West. India lies between 8°4’28″N and 37°17’53″N lines of latitudes and 68°7’33” E and 97°24’47” lines of longitudes. The Tropic of cancer (23°30’N) divides the country into northern and southern halves. 

The northern part lies in the temperate climate zone while the southern part falls under tropical zone. The north-south length of India is 3,214 km while the east-west length is about 2,933 km. It has a total coastline of 6,100 km while its landline boundary length is over 15,200 km. It shares a common boundary with Pakistan,China, Nepal,Bhutan,Myanmar and Bangladesh. The total geographical area of India is 3,287,263 million sq km which makes it the seventh largest country in the world. The country is referred to as subcontinent because of its large size and vast extension. India’s share in the total land area of the world is only 2.2%. Today,India consists of 29 states and 7union territories.

Q.2: What is the total length of Indian coastlines ?

Ans: The total length of Indian coastline is about 6,100km.

Q.3: What is the total length of the land boundaries of India ?

Ans: The total length of the land boundaries of  India is 15,200km.

Q.4: Write a short note on Indian landmass.

Ans: Indian physiography is composed of diversified landforms,viz.mountains,hills, plateaus,plains,etc.

(i) Mountains and hills : The mountains cover 10.7% and the hills and hillocks cover 18.6% of the total area of the country. The Himalayan mountain system extends over the entire north and north-eastern boundary of the country. The mountain system consists of high mountains peaks, glaciers,steep gorges,waterfalls,etc. Moreover,the Aravallis,Vindhya,Satpura, Mahadev and Mahakal ranges and the Eastern and Western Ghats,etc.are found in southern India.

(ii) Plateaus: The plateaus cover 27.7% the area of the country. The Deccan plateau extends extensively over southern India.

(iii) Plains: The plains cover 43.3% of the area of the country. Vast fertile plains are created by the rivers,viz. Ganga, Brahmaputra and Indus. The plains created by these rivers include western plain,Punjab-Haryana plain,Ganga plains,north Bengal plain and Brahmaputra plain. Besides,narrow coastal plains are also seen in the eastern and western coasts of India.

(iv) Rivers: India is regarded as the land of rivers. The major rivers of the northern India are the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. Narmada,Tapti, Mahanadi,Godavari,Krishna and Kaveri are some of the South Indian rivers.

(v) Lakes: The main lakes found in India are wular (Kashmir),puskar and Sambhar (Rajputana),Chilka(Orissa),Kolar and Pulicat(Tamil Nadu) and Loktak(Manipur).

Q.5: Write down four points of differences between the north and the south Indian rivers.

Ans: The differences between the north and the south Indian rivers are :

[Note: Here we have provided eight points of differences. You can write only as many as asked for in the question.]

Q.6: What are the physiographic divisions of India ?

Ans: India is marked by several physiographic diversities. The physiography of India consists of mountains,hills,river valleys,plains,plateaus,etc.About 10.7% of India’s total land area is covered by mountains,18.6% by hills and hillocks,27.7% by plateaus and 43.3%by plains. On the basis of physiographic characteristics and structure, India can be divided into four main divisions :

(i) The northern Himalayas. 

(ii) The northern plains.

(iii) The Deccan plateau.

(iv) The coastal region.Besides,the two island groups the Lakshadweep islands and the Andaman and Nicobar islands form an essential physiographic division of India.

Q.7: What are the characteristics of the Northern Himalayan mountain region of India ?

Ans: The Himalayas are the highest mountain ranges of the  world. The Himalayan region of India lies in the northern part of India and it extends from Nanga Parbat in Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh in the east covering a distance of 2,500 km. It has an average width of 240km to 500km. The total geographical area of the Himalayan region is around 5,00,000 Its height from the sea level is more than 8,000 m on an average. The Himalayas were formed during the Tertiary period and are a result of nearly 7million years of mountain building process. The Himalayas consist of three parallel ranges running from east to west,namely the higher Himalayas,the Lesser Himalayas and the Outer Himalayas in the east-west direction. Among these three ranges,the Higher Himalayas have an average height of about 6,000m. These steep ranges slope towards north and merge with the Tibetian plateau of China. Just to the south of the higher Himalayas stands the Lesser Himalayas whose average height is 4,000m. Its width varies from 60 to 80km. The ranges adjacent to the Lesser Himalayas are the Outer Himalayas,also known as Siwaliks. The average height of these ranges is 1,000m. These ranges decrease southwards and merge with the Ganga-Brahmaputra plains. They cover the foothill regions and have an average width of 15km to 50km. Moreover,the eastern and southern parts of the north-eastern regions are included in the Himalayan region as they are covered with hills and mountain ranges.

Q.8: Describe the characteristics of the North Indian plain.

Ans: The North Indian plain covers a total area of about 7,00,000 It lies between the Himalayas in the north and the Deccan Plateau in the south. It extends from Assam in the east to the indo-Pakistan border in the West with a length of 2,400km. This vast plain is known as Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra plain. The width of Indo-Ganga plain ranges from 240km to 320km and the average width of Brahmaputra plain is 80km. The northern plain can be divided into five parts: 

(a)Western plain: Created by the river Tapti.

(b)Punjab-Haryana : Created by the rivers Sutla,Beas and Ravi.

(c) Ganga plain: Created by the rivers Ganga and Jamuna and covers the plain areas of Uttar Pradesh,Bihar and West Bengal.

(d) North Bengal plain: Created by the Northern Himalayas.

(e) Brahmaputra plain: created by the Brahmaputra and its tributaries. The three main rivers,viz. the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra with their innumerable tributaries together created this vast plain. Among these rivers,the most important river is the Ganga which originated from the Gangotri glacier of the higher Himalayas while the river Brahmaputra originated from a glacier called Chema-yu-Dung located in the Tibetan plateau of China. The most important tributaries of the Ganga are Alakananda, Jumuna,Ram Ganga,Gomti,Ghagra,Gandak, Son,Koshi,etc.while the main tributaries of the Brahmaputra in the North bank are Subansiri, Jia-Bharali, Dhansri (north), Puthimari, Pagladia, Manas, Champabati, etc. and in the south bank are Burhi Dihing, Disang, Dhansiri(south), Dikhow, Kapili, Champabati, etc. The important tributaries of Indus are Sultaj,Beas and Ravi rivers. Towards the west of the central plain,there lies the dry, sandy and desertic plains of Rajasthan which includes a part of the Thar desert. The entire North Indian plain is very fertile and highly suitable for agriculture. Hence,this North Indian region is thickly populated.

Q.9: Describe the characteristics of the Deccan Platean.

Ans: The Deccan plateau is situated to the south of the North Indian plain. This plateau mostly consists of old hard rocks and is triangular in shape. The Vindhya,Satpura,Mahadev and Mahakal mountain ranges divide the whole  region into northern and southern parts. The northern part is less extensive and includes Malwa plateau,Chota Nagpur plateau and Vindhya mountains.The southern part is quite extensive and extends from the Satpura,Mahadev and Mahakal maintains to Cape Comorin. The plateau is surrounded by the eastern ghats and western ghats in the east and west respectively. The Deccan plateau on the whole slopes towards the east and so most of the rivers of this region such as Mahanadi,Godavari,Krishna, Pennar and Kaveri flow eastwards into the Bay of Bengal while Narmada and Tapti flow towards west and empty themselves in the Gulf of Combay(Khambhat) as  the region lying between the Satpura and Vindhya mountains has its slope from east to west.

Q.10: Mention the characteristics of the Coastal Region of India.

Ans: There is a  strip of coastal region situated on the eastern and western coasts of India. The narrow strip of flat land lying between the western Ghats and Arabian sea is known as the Western coastal plain. This narrow land extends from the Gulf of Combay in the north to cape Comorin in the south. The coast is long having a length of 1500km and width ranging between 10km and 15km. Its northern part from Mumbai to Mangalore is called Konkan Coast while the southern part from Mangalore to cape Comorin is known as Malabar Coast. The area lying between the Eastern ghats and the Bay of Bengal is known as the Eastern Coastal plain,which extends from the mouth of the Godavari river to cape Comorin is called Coromandal coast. The coast is long and has a height between 30m and 50m from the mean sea level. It is 1100km long with an average width of 120km. The northern part extending from the mouth of the Ganges river to that of the Godavari river is known as Northern Circars. The eastern coastal region is watered by rivers such as Godavari,Mahanadi,Krishna and Kaveri. The area is more fertile than western coastal plains as these rivers create deltas in the region.

Q.11: Write down the characteristics of the climate of India. 

Ans: The climate of India is greatly influenced by various factors such as the size of the country,distance from the equator,nearness to the sea, differences in elevation, natural vegetation,winds,etc. The climatic conditions of India are characterised by the following features:

(i) Varied climate: India is a very vast country with varied physiographic features such as mountains,hills,river valleys,plains,plateaus,coastal regions,etc. India has snow-capped mountainous regions,regions with desert conditions,places receiving very high amount of rain,etc. Thus,India is marked by various types of climate.

(ii) Different climate situation between north and south: The Tropic of Cancer divides the country into northern and southern parts. The northern part falls in the temperate climate zone while the southern part has tropical climate. Hence,the southern part of India is relatively warmer than the northern part.

(iii) Difference in altitude: Different places in India are situated at different levels from the sea level. Since altitude greatly influence the climate of a place. Agra and Darjeeling enjoy different types of climate although both are located on the same latitude.

(iv) Effect of monsoon: India gets most of its rains due to the south-west monsoon winds that blow from the Arabian sea during summer. These are moisture laden winds and so they bring  heavy rainfall to most parts of India. In winter,north-east monsoon winds bring rain to some parts of India.

(v) Effect of Himalayas : The climate of India is greatly influenced by the presence of the Himalayas on the northern side. The Himalayas block the cold winds from Central Asia which has insulated India from the extreme cold weather.

(iv) Nearness to sea: A place situated near the sea has a mild summer and moderate winter and voice versa. This is the main reason for the pleasant climate of Mumbai.

Q.12: Write a note on the impact of monsoons in India .

Ans:. One of the unique features of the climate of India is the influence of the monsoons in India. In fact,it is considered to be the most significant factor that determines the climatic conditions of India. The monsoon winds named south-west monsoon winds bring rain to India during summer.These winds from the Arabian sea move towards the Indian subcontinent during summer. Since they blow over the oceans,they carry enormous amount of moisture. As their flow is blocked by the western ghats situated on the western side of the country,these winds rise up,condense and then fall down as rain in the areas facing the western coast. That is why,the Konkan and then Malabar coasts receive over 300 cm of rainfall annually. 

After crossing the western ghats,these winds blow over the Bay of Bengal and then move towards Assam and the north-east. Since there are no mountain ranges here,these winds come directly to the Meghalaya plateau which force them to rise up and condense. As a result,this region gets heavy rainfall during summer. The Cherrajpunji region of Meghalaya gets the highest rainfall in the world (1250 cm of rainfall annually). Thereafter,the winds cross the Meghalaya plateau and enter Assam bringing huge amount of rain to the plains of Assam and its neighbouring states.

Thereafter,these winds move further north and get obstructed by the foothills of the Himalayas. 

Therefore,this region too gets abundant rain.

During winter,the north-east monsoon winds coming from Central Asia enter India through the mountain gaps of the Himalayan ranges. Since these winds come from the north-east direction, they are called the north-east monsoons. These winds are dry and cold as they come from Central Asia, they do not bring rain to North-eastern states. As these winds move towards the south, they fly over the Bay of Bengal carrying in the process a bit of moisture that falls down like rain over the Coromandal coast.

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