Class 9 History Chapter 4 Russian Revolution

Class 9 History Chapter 4 Russian Revolution, Elective History class 9 SEBA Notes and Question Answer In English Medium The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SEBA Class 9 History Chapter 4 Russian Revolution and select need one.

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Class 9 History Chapter 4 Russian Revolution

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 9 History Chapter 4 Russian Revolution Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Russian Revolution

Lesson – 4

HISTORY

TEXSUAL TYPE QUESTIONS

(a) Who was Czar, the Liberator ? 

Ans : Czar Alexander ll came to be known as Czar’ the Liberator’.

(b) In which date and year did the ‘Bloody Sunday’ occur ? 

Ans : The ‘Bloody Sunday’ event occurred on 22nd Jan. 1905.

(c) Who was the Czar of Russia during the World War l ? 

Ans : Czar Nicholas ll was the Czar of Russia during the First World War.

(d) Who was the Bishop that influenced the last Czar ? 

Ans : A Bishop named Rajputin influenced the last Czar, Czar Nicholas ll.

(e) Whose reign is called the Augustan Era ? 

Ans : The reign of Czar Nicholas I is called the Augustan Era.

(f) In which year the Bolshevik party was formed ? 

Ans : The Bolshevik party was formed in the year 1903.

(g) Who wrote the ‘Das Capital’ ? 

Ans : ‘Das Capital’ was written by Karl Marx.

(h) In which year the Russo-Japanese war took place ? 

Ans : The Russo-Japanese war took place 1904-1905.

(i) What is Duma ?

Ans : The Russian parliament consisting of elected representatives is known as Duma.

(j) Who was in the leadership of the interim government of Russia ? 

Ans : The leadership or the Prime ministers of the interim government of Russia in 1917 was Prince George Lvov.

(k) What policy did Lenin adopt for the economic development of Russia ? 

Ans : Lenin adopted a policy called ‘New Economic policy’ for the economic development of Russia.

WRITE SHORT NOTES

(a)  Edict of Emancipation.

Ans : Edict of Emancipation :- The reign of Czar Alexander to be considered to be one of the important periods of Russian history. He is remembered for the abolition of serfdom from Russia in 1861. There were thousands of slaves or serfs  who were held along with the land. 

They were considered a part of the property that sold along with the property . They had no rights of the citizen . They were exploited and oppressed by the rich aristocrats and zamindars. Therefore by a historic by a edict named ‘Edit of emancipation’ of 1861, Czar Alexander to Freed the serfs from bondage and granted rights of the citizen to them. He arranged to rehabilitate the freed serfs in government lands brought from landed gentry and Zamindars. However ownership of the land was not granted to them. The edict must be viewed as a turning point in the history of Russia. It freed thousands of serfs who became Citizens of overnight. 

It it tremendous repercussions. Once they were freed from the bonded labour they began to participate actively in the social and political activities of the country. In fact, the freed serfs became one of the pillars of the revolution of 1905 and 1917 in Russia. Therefore the’ edict of Emancipation’ issued by Czar Alexander ll in 1861 is a landmark event of great significance in the history of Russia.

(b) Bloody Sunday.

Ans : Bloody Sunday :- Bloody Sunday event refers to an event which happened in Russia on a Sunday on January 22,  1905 When a mass of peaceful workers with their wives and children were fired at St. Petersburg while they were on the way to the winter palace of Czar  to submit a petition.  Thousands were killed and wounded as a result of this firing. Hence,the day came to be known a ‘Bloody Sunday‘. 

The event is a turning point in the history of Russia. It lighted the flame of revolution in Russia. The incident caused widespread riots and reaction all over the country. The revolutionaries destroyed the properties of the landed gentry and the zamindars. Many police officers, government officials and secret agents were killed. The Bloody Sunday event is considered to be a dress rehearsal for the real revolution which occurred in October, 1917.

(c)  Czar, the Liberator.

Ans : Czar, the Liberator :- The reign of Czar Alexander ll is one of the most significant periods of Russian history. He initiated a lot of reforms in the country. Alexander ll is remembered for the proclamation of an edict known as ‘Edict of Emancipation’ of 1861 by which he freed thousands of bonded serfs who had no rights of a citizen. They were treated like a piece of property which could be sold along with the piece of property which could be sold along with the property. Therefore, his edict is considered to be a landmark event in Russia. He not only freed them from bonded slavery but also provided government lands for them to settle and cultivate. They were allowed to hold the property given by the government for a period of 49 years during which they could purchase the property by paying the price of the land over the years. 

During this period, they could not sell it or move to another place. They were placed under the supervision of an agency  named ‘Mir’. Since Czar Alexander ll freed thousands of serfs from  bondage by his famous edict of emancipation  of 1861, he came to be known as ‘Czar, the Liberator’,

(d) Causes of dissidents between the Bolshevik and Menshevik party. 

Ans : Causes of dissidents between the Bolshevik and Menshevik party :- One of the major factors that contributed much for the outbreak of Russian Revolution was the emergence of numerous political parties in Russia during the last quarter of the 19th century. In 1883, a Russian named George Plekhanov formed a political party named ‘Russian Social  Democratic Party’ on the socialistic principles of Karl Marx. However, in 1903 this party broke up into two groups named the  ‘Menshevik Party’ and the ‘Bolshevik party’. The main reason for this division was the ideological differences between the members of the party. The liberals and the democrats who wanted certain constitutional changes formed the Menshevik party  while those who wanted radical reforms including the removal of monarchy and the establishment of the government by the workers came to be  known as the Bolsheviks. 

Though both believed in bringing about socialism in the country, the Bolshevik wanted the establishment of dictatorship of the proletariat while  the Menshevik wanted establishment of democratic institutions through peaceful means. The leader of Menshevik party, Alexander Kerensky, was a man of democratic ideals while Lenin, the leader of Bolshevik group, was communist to the core and wanted the establishment of the  government of the ‘Soviets’ or the workers.

(e) The Communist Manifesto.

Ans :- The Communist Manifesto :- Karl Marx is considered to be the father of modern communism. He is famous for the publication of two famous books titled ‘The Communist Manifesto’ and ‘Das Capital’. Karl Marx was a German but his revolutionary activities in Germany caused him to be expelled from the country. Therefore, he spent much of his time in Europe particularly in France and England. While in Brussels Karl Marx in association with Frederick Engles published a book named ‘The Communist Manifesto’. The very first line of the  book  states ‘History of mankind is the history of class struggle’. The book highlights the theory of the class struggle for the possession of economic means. In Karl Marx’s view, economy is the foundation of society and therefore,  the struggle between bourgeoisie class or the capitalist and the labour class is inevitable. Therefore, he proposed the establishment of a classless society where everyone gets his share of wealth according to the labour he/she puts in. The book is the gospel of communist principles. The layer work ‘Das Capital’ is actually a continuation of his first work, ‘Communist Manifesto’. 

(f) Brest-Litovsk Treaty.

Ans :- Brest-Litovsk Treaty :- The Bolshevik party and come to power in Russia as a result of the October revolutions wanted  immediate withdrawal of Russia from the First World War. More than 10 lakh Russian soldiers had died and over a lakh and half were taken prisoners. Over one crore of Russian soldiers had been despatched for the war. This resulted in acute food shortage in the fields.  The Russian people were alarmed at the defeat of the Russian army and blamed it on the efficient government of Czar Nicholas ll. 

Therefore , the Bolshevik party which came to power in October 1917 immediately negotiated a peace treaty with Germany and signed a peace treaty named Breast-Litovsk on March 3, 1918 withdrawing from the war. However,  Russia had to pay a heavy price to buy peace and had surrender to German a huge area of territory including Eastern Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Latvia, and Esthonia. The treaty was later annulled after collapse of Germany.

(g) Causes of failure of Kerensky government.

Ans : Causes of failure of Kerensky government :- After the  abdication of power by Czar Nicholas ll in March, 1917, an interim government led by Prince George Lvov was constituted. In August , 1917 Prince George Lvov resigned and Alexander Kerensky who was the leader of the Menshevik party became the new minister. However, in October, 1917 the government led by Kerensky fell and the Bolsheviks came to power. 

This is known as the October Revolution. There were  several reasons as the October Revolution. There were several reasons for the failure or for the downfall of Kerensky’s government. Firstly, there was a serious difference of opinion between the two major parties named Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks regarding the continuation of war and reforms required for the country. The Mensheviks who formed the moderate minority under Kerensky favoured liberal democracy and gradual changes in the country . 

The Bolsheviks led by Lenin wished to have radical reforms and wanted to withdraw from the war. The Mensheviks wanted continuation of war. Thus, a civil war broke out between the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks cried for ‘Peace, Bread and land’. The second reason for the failure of Kerensky government was the support of the people Bolshevik party. The people who were alarmed and shocked at the defeat of the Russian army during the first world supported the Bolsheviks. They were totally dissatisfied with the autocratic rule of Czar Nicholas ll, who was controlled by a notorious priest called Rajputin. Thirdly, the army which wanted the withdrawal from the war also supported the Bolsheviks. They therefore, refused to obey the order of the Kerensky government leading to its downfall.

(h)  New Economic Policy.

Ans :- New Economic Policy :- The credit of transforming  Russia into a major economic power  in the world goes to Lenin. After capturing power in 1917, the Bolsheviks government led by Lenin withdrew from the First World War. Thereafter he concentrated his attention to the economic transformation of the country. 

He did no stick to the communist principles but adapted them to the conditions prevailing in Russia. For this Lenin initiated a new policy called ‘New Economic Policy’ (NEP) in 1921 which lasted up to to 1928. It totally transformed the face of Russia and made her one of the leading industrialized countries of the world. Some of the important aspects of this policy were the following: 

(i) Revenue was to be collected from the peasants instead of crops.

(ii) Sale of surplus production was allowed. 

(iii) Right to private trading was permitted. 

(iv) Foreign loans were arranged to boost trade. The concept of five-year plan was introduced in Russia in 1928 and it brought a great deal of changes in the economic scenario of the country. As a result, of these economic changes initiated by Lenin, Russia came to be recognised as one of the most developed countries of the world. Therefore, it is not wrong to say that Lenin should be considered as the ‘father of modem Russia.’

(i) October Revolution :- The fall monarchy headed Czar Nicholas ll in March, 1917 came to be known as the February/March revolution. After the fall of monarchy an interim government headed by Prince George Lvov was constituted. However he was forced to resign and the Mensheviks headed by Alexander Kerensky came to power in August, 1917. However , the Mensheviks were a minority and the Bolsheviks formed a minority . 

The Bolshevik party headed by Lenin wanted racial reforms and immediate withdrawal of Russia from First World War. They demanded ‘Peace, Bread and Land’. The vast majority of the people supported the Bolshevik as they promised a better government. The Bolshevik party with the help of the army captured powers in October,1917 from the Menshevik party headed by Alexander Kerensky. The capture of the power by the Bolshevik in October/ November 1917 came to be known as of the world October revolution as it occurred in the month of October according to the Russian calendar. This event took place on 6th November, 1917 according to the English calendars and so it is also known as November Revolution.

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