Class 12 Sociology Chapter 4 The Challenges of Unity in Diversity

Class 12 Sociology Chapter 4 The Challenges of Unity in Diversity The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 4 The Challenges of Unity in Diversity and select needs one.

Class 12 Sociology Chapter 4 The Challenges of Unity in Diversity

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board/NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 4 The Challenges of Unity in Diversity Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Long type question and answer

Q.1. What was the impact of casteism in Indian society? 

Ans: One important principle that the caste system imposes in India is the principle of inequality. Caste was a very unequal institution – some castes benefited greatly from the system, while others were condemned to a life of endless labour and subordination. Moreover, the institution of caste is hierarchical, where each caste occupies an ordered rank in a ladder like arrangements arranging from highest to lowest. Thus, the caste system imposes the principle of inequality in our own society. 

Caste system also imposed the principle of purity and pollution in our society. 

Purity is believed to be closer to the sacred, while pollution is something believed to be distant or opposed to the sacred, therefore considered ritually polluting. Caste that are considered ritually pure have high status, while those considered less pure, have low status. Thus, the caste system imposes the principle of purity and pollution in our society. 

Caste system also imposed social division of labour ,as the caste system is linked with occupation. In principle, except that caste system allows no mobility. Thus, the caste system strictly imposes social division of labour. 

Q.2. What is the meaning of secularization? Explain its different elements. 

Ans: Secularisation implies the process of separation of religion from politics. It is the process of progressive retreat of religion from public life. Secularisation, as a process is related to the arrival of modernity and the rise of science and rationality as alternatives to religious ways of understanding the world. 

Secularisation is a  multifaceted concept which implies the following principles :-

(1) The doctrine by which state is kept strictly separate from religion i.e Separation of church and state in western sense. 

(2) The doctrine by which the state doesn’t discriminate between different religions and shows equal respect to all. 

(3) In the popular sense it is the antithesis of communalism I.e an attitude which is not based in favour or against any religion. 

Q.3. What is meant by communalism in the Indian context? 

Ans: Communalism refers to aggressive chauvinism based on religion identity. Communalism is a political ideology that believes that religion supersedes all other aspects of person or groups identity which is usually accompanied by an aggressive and hostile attitude towards person or groups of other religions identities. 

Communalism continues to be a sad and hard reality in Indian politics. Even after adoption of the principles of secularism, communalism continues to afflict our polity. Communalism in India has been present in several from but chiefly as communalism between the two largest Indian communities – Hindus and Muslims. The other forms of manifestations have been sectarian violence, religious riots, regional riots, tribal riots etc. 

Communalisation of political power struggle has also been an important factor in giving strength to communalism in India.

Q.4. What are community identities and why they are important? 

Ans: Community identity is based on birth  and ‘belonging ‘ community identity is determined by accidents of birth and doesn’t involve any choice on the part of the individual concerned. Community ties like family, kinship, caste, ethnicity, language etc.give a sense of identity to the people. This sense of identity is known as community identity. 

Community identity is formed mainly by the accidents of birth. When people are born in a particular family, religion or cultural pattern, they learn to speak a particular language, practice a particular religion or cultural pattern. Thus, a sense of community identity arises in their minds. 

As community identity is based on birth and belonging, rather than some form of acquired – qualifications, we are emotionally attached to our community identity. Expending and overlapping circles of community like family, kinship, castes, language, religion etc.give meaning to our world and give us a sense of identity. 

Another important feature of community identity is that they are universal. Everyone has a motherland, a mother tongue, a family etc. Hence, community identity is very important for human beings. 

Q.5. What do you know about minority commission? 

Ans: It was in 1978 that the union home ministry envisaged the need for setting up a special commission as an additional step for security among the minorities a sense of security and participation in national life. However, only in 1993, the National Commission for Minorities was constituted. It consists of a chairperson for Minorities. It consists of chairperson, vice chair chairperson and 5 members. They are nominated by the central Government. All the members, including the chairman and vice-chairman belong to minority communities. 

Functions of the minority commission includes the following :-

(1) To monitor and evaluate the progress of the development of minorities. 

(2) Monitor the operational safeguard for protecting the interest of minorities. 

(3) To make recommendations for an effective implementation of safe guard and laws. 

(4) To study the problems faced by minorities and to suggest remedial actions etc. On the basis of the reports and recommendations of the commission, the govt. takes necessary steps for securing the interest of minorities. Now,the National Commission for Minorities now enjoys a constitutional status. 

Q.6. What role minorities can play in maintaining – national unity

Ans: In a country like India, we have religious and linguistic minorities. The Muslim are the largest religious minority in India constituting 13.4%of the population in 2001. The minority’s weather based on religion or language, can play a big role in maintaining national unity. Dr. Ambedkar – once opened that minorities are an explosive force, which it erupts can blow up the whole – fabric of the state. 

In India we have seen that the feeling of alienation among some Muslims in India in the post-independence period has created a lot of tensions so far as national integration is – concerned. Other than Muslims, we have Christians. Sikhs and Buddhist as religious minorities. Dr. Ambedkar on protection of minorities once remarked that the minorities in India have agreed to place their existence in the hands of the majority. So tried to make string provision in the constitution to safeguard the right of the minorities. Religious or cultural minorities need special protection because of the demographic – dominance of the majority. If their rights and identities are well protected, they can do a lot in achieving national integration. 

Q.7. What are the basic characteristics of communalism

Ans: Communalism is described as a tool to mobile people for or against by raising an appeal on communal lines,  Following are the basic characteristics of communalism –

(1) Communalism is an ideological concept. 

(2) It mostly rests on prejudices, 

(3) It has a broader base which encompasses social, economic and political aspects, for its manifestations, 

(4) It causes rivalry and violence among masses, 

(5) It is used by the higher class people and elites as an instrument for divisions and exploitations. 

(6) It strikes at the roots of secularism and national integration. 

Q.8. What are the major challenges faced by UNITY IN DIVERSITY

Ans: Though many religious groups, cultures, languages, tribes etc.exists in India but they live with each other unitedly. But sometimes this unity in diversity faces many challenges due to some reasons. 

Following are some of the major challenges faced by unity in diversity :-

(1) Communalism :- Communalism is nothing but an ideology which tries to encourage religious ideas of one religion among the people and which are totally against the ideas of other religious groups. 

(2) Casteism :- The partial or extreme one side loyalty to one’s own caste may be termed as casteism. Casteism has led to many problems of society and became a major treat to national integration. 

(3) Regionalism :- When anyone starts to love his region other then this is known as regionalism. 

(4) Linguism :- Linguism is the extreme love and loyalty to one’s own language and hate for others. Linguism also create a major problem in the unity of our nation

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