Class 12 Sociology Chapter 3 Social Inequality & Exclusion The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 3 Social Inequality & Exclusion and select needs one.
Class 12 Sociology Chapter 3 Social Inequality & Exclusion
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Long type question and answer
Q.1. Who started reform movement amongcmuslim and how?
Ans: Sir Syed Ahmed Khan led the social reform movements among Muslims. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan’s efforts to reforms Muslim society was based upon the trend of drawing upon both modern western ideas as well as the sacred texts. Khan wanted girls to be educated at their homes. Though he stood for women’s education but sought for a curriculum that included instructions in religious principles, training in the arts of housekeeping and handicrafts and rearing of children.
Q.2. Which are the problems faced by the scheduled castes?
Ans: The inferior castes which ranked in the lower strata of caste hierarchy were enlisted by the British administration as scheduled castes; these castes were exploited by the higher castes. Castes at the bottom of the hierarchy suffered serious discrimination. The so called untouchable castes were also included among the scheduled castes. The scheduled castes faced exclusion, subordination, humiliation and exploitation. Dalits were being prohibited from sharing drinking water sources, or participating in collections of religious worship, social ceremonies and festivals. Moreover the imposition of gestures of deference such as taking off headgear, carrying footwear in the hand, standing with bowed head etc. Thus scheduled castes faced various socio economic problems.
Q.3. What are the changes coming in the status of women?
Ans: In India, women’s movements started with the campaign against ‘sati’ After Rammohan Roy’s campaign against ‘sati ‘ other issues like child marriage, windows remarriage, right to education of women etc. We’re taken up by social reformers like Ranade, Phule, Sayed Ahmed Khan etc. During 1970s issues like rape of women in police custody, dowry murders etc. Were the main issue around which women’s movements took place. In the twenty first century India, gender injustice like declining sex ratio, sharp fall of child sex ratio, social biases against girl child are the core issue of women’s movements.
As a result of the 19th century social movements various important legislation were made to uplift the status of women. ‘sati’ was banned and the right to education of women got popular support. Educational institutions, exclusively for women were opened up in various parts of the country. Educated young women came out to participate in the freedom struggle. As a result of women transformed from merely housekeeper to freedom fighter. After independence ,the government of India passed various acts for the well-being of the woman. The 73rd constitutional amendment act reserved 33% seat for women in the Panchayati Raj Institution. As a result of this act lakes of women, at one stroke, entered the political process of the country. Thus, status of women changed in India within a few decades.
Q.4. Which are the type of change taking place in the status of scheduled castes? Explain.
Ans:The Indian state has had special programmes for the scheduled tribes and scheduled castes since even before independence. The schedules listing of castes and tribes recognised as deserving special treatment. After independence, some policies have been continued and many new ones added. Particularly as a result of the policy or reservation I.e. reservation of seats in state and central legislatures, reservation of jobs in governments sectors and reservation of seats in educational institution, the status of schedule castes have risen. People belonging to lower castes are now occupies top position in governmental sectors. Emergence of explicitly caste based political parties have consolidated caste structure in Indian society. Now, caste identity has become a matter of pride and sources of getting privileges.
Q.5. Which efforts have been made to remove tribal problems?
Ans: To address the main problem of the tribal people, the government followed the policy of protective discrimination I.e the policy of reservation. The reservation policy provided for reservations of seats in state and central legislatures, reservation of jobs in government sectors as well as reservations of seats in educational institutions. Moreover,various acts were passed to uplift the socio-economic status of tribal people. In the tribal states of the North East India, the policy of interline permits is being practiced, so as the outsiders cannot settle there permanently. To remove the problem of illiteracy, the government have introduced scheme like free distribution of uniform, book and other materials to the students to attract them. Thus, the government is making various steps to remove the problem faced by the tribal people.
Q.6. What is meant by other Backward Class? What are their problems?
Ans: In India, there were a large group of castes that were of low status and we’re subjected to varying levels of discrimination. The constitution of India also recognised the possibility that there may be groups other than the schedule Tribes and Scheduled castes who suffer social disadvantages. These groups were described as ‘socially’ and educationally backwards classes’. This is the constitutional basis of the popular term ‘Other Backward Classes ‘ (OBCs).
Compared with the Dalits or scheduled castes, the OBCs are much more diverse. While the upper OBCs are largely landed castes and enjoy dominance in rural society in many regions of India, the lower OBCs are very poor and disadvantaged and one not very different from Dalits in socio-economics terms.
The problems faced by Other Backward Classes are by and large similar with that of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. They are neither part of the ‘forward’ castes at the upper end of the status spectrum, nor of the Dalits at the lower end. So, they never experienced rude social exclusion like untouchability. Although the upper OBCs are dominant in the rural sector, the situation of urban OBCs is much worse, being much closer to that of the scheduled castes and tribes than to the upper castes.
Q.7. State in brief about working of mandal commission.
Ans: After the emergency janta party government came to power in the centre. This government on November 30,1978 established a Backward Class Commission under the chairmanship of vindheshwari Prasad Mandal which is popularly known as mandal commission. This commission consisted of one chairman and 5 other members and was given the responsibility to identify socially and educationally backward classes and to make recommendations for securing their uplift and development.
The commission in its report said that in all 3743 Backward castes are there which constitutes 52% of the population. The commission recommended that OBCs should get 27% reservation in respect of the governmental jobs and seats in educational institutions. It laid down 11 standards 4social, 3 educational 4 economic standards for determining the basis of social and economic backwardness.
Q.8. Explain the concept of social exclusion with examples.
Ans: Social exclusion is the outcome of deprivation and discrimination, which present individuals or groups from participating fully in the economic, social and political life of the society in which they live. Social exclusion is structural I.e.the result of social processes and institutions rather than individuals action. ‘untouchability’ also involves forced inclusion in a subordinate role- which means compelling to do some sort of work, for instance, being compelled to play the drums at a religious event.
‘untouchability’ also involves forced inclusion in a subordinate role – which means compelling to do some sort of work, for instance, being compelled to play the drums at a religious event.
Q.9. Explain briefly the caste system as a discriminatory system.
Ans: The caste system is a distinct Indian social institutions that legitimizes and enforces practices of discrimination against people born into particular castes. These practices of discrimination are humiliating, exclusionary and exploitative. Historically, the caste system classifieds people by their occupation and status. Every caste was associated with an occupation, which mean that person born into a particular caste were also ‘born into’ the occupation associated with their caste-they had no choice. In strict scriptural terms, social and economics status were supposed to be sharply separated. For example, the ritually highest caste-the Brahmins-were not supposed to amass wealth, and we’re subordination to the secular power of kings and rulers wealth, and we’re subordinate to the secular power of kings and rulers belonging to Kshatriya castes. On the other hand, despite having the highest secular status and power, the king was subordinate to the Brahmin in the ritual-religious sphere. However, in actual historical practices economic and social status tended to coincide. The ‘high’ castes were almost invariably of high economics status while ‘low’ castes were almost always of low economic status.
Q.10. Write briefly about untouchability.
Ans: Untouchability is an extreme and particularly vicious aspect of the caste system that prescribes stringent social sanctions against members of castes located at the bottom of the purity-pollution scale. Strictly speaking, the untouchable castes are outside the caste hierarchy they are considered to be so ‘impure’ that their mete touch several pollutes members of all castes, bringing terrible punishment for the former and foreign the latter to perform elaborate purification rituals. Despite the limited literal meaning of the word, the institution of ‘untouchability’ refers not just to the avoidance or prohibition of physical contact but to a much broader set of social sanctions.
There are three main dimensions of untouchability -namely, exclusion, humiliation – subordination and exploitation are equally important defining the phenomenon. Dalits experience forms of exclusion that are unique and not practised against other groups for instance, being prohibited from sharing drinking water sources or participating in collective religious worship, social ceremonies and festivals. Finally ,untouchability is a pan Indian phenomenon, although it’s specific forms and intensity vary considerably across regions and socio-historical contexts.
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