Class 12 Sociology Chapter 2 Social Institutions: Continuity & Change

Class 12 Sociology Chapter 2 Social Institutions: Continuity & Change The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 2 Social Institutions: Continuity & Change and select needs one.

Class 12 Sociology Chapter 2 Social Institutions: Continuity & Change

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board/NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 2 Social Institutions: Continuity & Change Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Long type Question and answer

Q.1. What have been some of the difficulties with defining ‘tribes’ in the Indian context? 

Ans: Tribe is a modern term, which refers to communities that are very old, being among the oldest inhabitants of the sub-continent. The tribal communities didn’t practice a religion with a written text, didn’t have state class divisions and they didn’t have caste and we’re neither Hindus nor peasants. The term tribe was used in the colonial era mainly for administrative convenience to refer to very disparate set communities. 

Tribe has been classified according to their permanent and acquired traits. 

Permanent traits :- Permanent traits include region, language, physical characteristics and ecological habitats. About 8.5% of the tribal population lives in middle India I.e. Gujarat, Rajasthan, WB, Orissa, MP, Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Maharashtra, and Andhra Pradesh. Out of remaining 15%,11% live in the North Eastern state, leaving only 3% living in the rest of India. 

In terms of language, tribes are categorized into four categories  – Indo -Aryan, Dravidian, Austric and Tibeto-Burman. In physical racial terms.tribes are classified under the Negrito, Australoid, Mongoloid, Dravidian and Aryan categories. 

Acquired traits :- Classification based on acquired traits use two main criteria-mode of livelihood and extent of incorporation into Hindu society or a combination of the two. 

On the basis of livelihood, tribes can be categorized into fishermen, food gatherers and hunters, shifting cultivators, peasants, industrial workers etc. So far as the extent of incorporation into Hindu society is concerned, it can be. Seen from the point of view of the tribes or from the point of view of the Hindu mainstream. From a tribe’s point of view, there are mainly two types of tribes, that are inclined towards Hinduism and those who resist or oppose it. 

Q.2. Discuss in brief the major characteristics of joint family? 

Ans: The following are the major characteristics of joint family :

(1)Large size :- A joint family has a large size. It consists of parents, children, grand children and other near relatives with their wives. 

(2) Common residence :- The members of the joint family usually live under the same roof. 

(3) A producing unit :- Joint family works as a producing unit. Joint family is helpful in agriculture and business work. 

(4) Joint property :- The ownership, production and consumption of wealth takes place on joint basis. The head of the family is like a trustee who manages the property of the family for welfare of the family members. 

Q.3. Explain the role of the caste system in the modern age? 

Ans: In the contemporary period, caste has tended to become invisible for the  upper castes, urban middle and upper castes. These groups have benefited the most from the development policies taken by the govt. Of independent India. Getting benefits from subsidised public education and taking advantage of the expansion of state sector jobs in the early decades after independence, such groups became leaders of the entire society. 

As their privileged status got consolidated in the second and third generations, these groups began to believe that their advancement had little to do with caste. For these groups, it now seems that caste plays no part in their public lives, being limited to the personal sphere of religious practice, marriage and kinship. In this sense, caste became relatively invisible for the urban upper castes. 

For the scheduled castes, tribes and the backward castes, caste identity has tended to eclipses the other dimension of their identity. As these backward castes had no inherited educational and social capital and as they have to compete with an already entrenched upper castes group, they have to be ready for their caste identity, because caste is one of few collective assets they have. Thus, caste identity has become all important, often the only aspect of their identity. 

Q.4. Explain in brief the different characteristics of tribes? 

Ans:(1)The tribal people didn’t practice a religion with a written text. 

(2) The tribals didn’t have a state or political organisation of the normal kind. 

(3) Tribals didn’t have caste and were neither Hindus nor peasants. 

(4) Tribals lived in isolated geographical locations and followed a natural lifestyle in keeping compliance with the geographical location. 

(5) Every tribal group has their own dialect. 

Q.5. How have the living conditions of tribal communities changed after independence? 

Ans: Immediately after independence ,the govt. of India followed the policy of reservation. In conjunction with the policy of reservation, education is creating an urbanised professional class. Gradual emergence of an educated middle class among tribal communities helped in raising their living standards. However, after independence, government policies also created huge problems for the tribal communities. 

National development during the Nehruian era disposed of their land. During this period, many big dams, factories and mine were set up. Thus, this kind of development benefitted the mainstream at the expense of the tribes. 

The loss of forest was a major blow for the tribal communities. Forests started to be systematically exploited in British times and this trend continues after independence. The governmental decision making land a private property also adversely affected tribal people. 

Many tribal regions have also experienced the problems of heavy migration of non-tribals. This threatens to disrupt and overwhelm tribal communities and cultures, besides accelerating the process of exploitation of tribals. As for example, a state like Tripura had the tribal share of its population halted within a single decade, reducing the tribal to a minority. 

Q.6. Explain the ways in which tribal communities have been classified on the basis of permanent traits. 

Ans: Tribe has been classified according to their permanent and acquired traits. Permanent traits: permanent traits included regions, language, physical characteristics and ecological habitats. About 8.5% of the tribal population lives in middle India I.e. Gujarat, Rajasthan, WB, Orissa, MP, Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh. Out of remaining 15%,11% live in the North Eastern state, leaving only 3% living in the rest of India. 

In terms of language, tribes are categorized into four categories -indo-Aryan, Dravidian, Austric, and Tibeto-Burman. In physical racial terms, tribes are classified under the Negrito,Australoid, mongoloid, Dravidian and Aryan categories. 

Acquired traits :- Classification based on acquired traits use two main criteria -mode of livelihood and extent of incorporation into Hindu society or a combination of the two. 

On the basis of livelihood, tribes can be categorized into fishermen, food gatherers and hunters, shifting cultivators, peasants, industrial  workers etc. From the mainstream point of view, tribes may be viewed in terms of the status accorded to them in Hindu society, ranging from high status given to some and generally low status accorded to most. 

Q.7. Discuss the main factors influencing the formation of tribal identity in recent times. 

Ans: Tribal identities today are formed mainly by the interaction process of the tribes with the mainstream, because the interaction with the mainstream has generally been unfavorable to the tribal communities. Many tribal identities today are centred on ideas of resistance and opposition to the overwhelming force of the non-tribal world. 

Assertion of tribal identities are rising with the emergence of an educated middle class within the tribal society. In conjunction with policies of reservation, education is creating an urbanised professional class among tribal communities. With the emergence of this class, issues of culture, tradition, livelihood, even control over land and resources as well as demands for a share in the benefits of the modern projects have become integral part of the articulation of identity among the tribes. 

Q.8. Explain briefly the different characteristics of globalization. 

Ans: Globalization is that process in which the economy of one country is attached with the economics of other countries. It means that unrestricted exchange of things, service, capital and labour of one country with other countries is known as globalization. There is an open and free exchange of trade between different countries. 

(1) The process of globalisation is more economic than political and social. It actually implies growing economic interconnectedness all around the globe. 

(2) The sole force behind the process of globalization is scientific and technological development that took place within a very short time span of time. The fastest means of communication like internet, mobile phone, satellite TV game impetus to globalisation. 

(3) Globalisation demands liberalisation of national trade so that free flow of capital and goods and technical known how can take place so, Globalisation demands laissez fair policy. 

(4)Privatisation is another important characteristic of globalisation. Globalisation needs competition in the market which demands selling out of government companies to private firms in order to increase their economy and efficiency. Thus, globalisation involves the policy of disinvestment. 

(5)Globalization is a period in which the world is becoming increasingly interconnected not only economically, but culturally and politically too. Globalization includes a number of trends, especially the increase in international movement of commodities, money, information etc. Under globalization, not only money and goods, but also people, cultural products and images circulate rapidly around the world. 

Q.9. What do you know about capitalism? 

Ans: Capitalism is a mode of production based on generalized commodity production or a social system where :

(1) private property and market have penetrated all sectors and 

(2) Two main classes exist – capitalism and labourers. 

The following are the chief characteristics of capitalism :

(i) The chief motive of capitalist mode of production is profit making. 

(ii)In the capitalist system of production, generally two classes exist -capitalist and labourers. Capitalist class is the owner of means of production and distribution whereas the labour class don’t have any property. 

(iii) In capitalist systems the capitalist exploits the labourers. 

Q.10. Explain with examples the meaning of the term ‘commodification’? 

Ans: Commoditization of commodification is the process by which, something which was earlier not a commodity is made into a commodity and becomes a part of market economy. 

For example, marriages were arranged by families, but now, there are professional marriage bureaus and websites that keep people to find brides and grooms for a fee. Another example of commoditization is the example of packaged drinking water marketed by a wide variety of companies in sales plastic bottles. It is a new phenomenon not more than ten or fifteen years old. 

Q.11. What was the impact of globalisation on Indian economy? 

Ans: In India the policy of liberalization started in the late 1980s. Under the liberalization programme, Indian markets were opened up to foreign companies. Now, many foreign branded goods are sold in India, which were not previously available. Under the liberalization programme privatisation of public companies  started in India. Earlier, Indian agriculture was protected from the world market by support prices and subsidies. But after liberalisation, such support prices and subsidies are reduced or withdrawn. 

Similarly, after liberalization, as foreign multinationals entered the Indian market, the small manufacturer had to face tremendous competition from foreign firms. Moreover, liberalization programmes have stimulated economic growth in India. After liberalization, employment avenues for Indian youth multiplied as foreign big firms started outsourcing in India.These are the changes that took place in Indian economy after liberalization. 

Q.12. What are the main arguments for and against globalisation?  Which portion will you take in this debate and why? 

Ans: Arguments in favour of globalization :

(1) After globalization foreign firms and multinational companies entered the Indian market. As a result of this process, employment avenues multiplied. New production unit, selling point, customary care, office and mainly outsourcing started in India which are multiplying employment opportunities. 

(2) After globalisation foreign direct investment are coming to India, which is really boosting Indian economy. Moreover, after following the disinvestment process, economic growth in India accelerated. 

Arguments against globalisation :

(i) Prior to globalisation, Indian agriculture was protected from the world market by support prices and subsidies. But after liberalisation such support prices and subsidies were either reduced or withdrawn. Hence, Indian formers now facing hard challenges and as a result suicide cases of farmers increased after globalisation. 

(ii) As a result of following liberalisation policy, foreign multinationals entered the Indian market. As a result, the small manufacturer had to face tremendous competition from such foreign firms. Now, globalisation is unstoppable. So, are have to move with globalisation. But, we have to make necessary safeguard to protect our farmers and small traders and general people. 

Q.13. What has been the role of colonialism in the emergence of new markets? 

Ans: The advent of colonialism in India produced major upheaval in the economy, causing disruptions, trade and agriculture. A fine example is the demise of the handloom industry, due to the flooding of the market with cheap manufactured textiles from England. Before colonized by the British. India was a major supplier of manufacturer goods to the market. But after colonization, India became a source of raw materials and instead of supplier, she became a consumer of manufacturer goods, largely for the benefit of industrializing England. 

During the colonial period, many new merchant communities emerged by taking advantage of the changing economics scenario and continued to hold economic power even after independence. A good example of this process is the Marwari community. The marwaris  became a successful business community only during the colonial period. Above all, we shouldn’t forget that Indian economy was fully monetized during the colonial period. 

These are the changes colonialism brought to Indian economy. Moreover, colonialism created business cities like Calcutta, Mumbai etc. The Britishers settled in coastal cities and carry on trade and business all over India. The some of the modern Indian cities were erected by the Britishers mainly due to business intentions.

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