Class 12 Sociology Chapter 2 Social Institutions: Continuity & Change

Class 12 Sociology Chapter 2 Social Institutions: Continuity & Change The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 2 Social Institutions: Continuity & Change and select needs one.

Class 12 Sociology Chapter 2 Social Institutions: Continuity & Change

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board/NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 2 Social Institutions: Continuity & Change Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Short type question and answer

Q.1. Give the social functions of family. 

Ans: Some important social functions of family are :- 

(1)It regularises sexual relationships. 

(2) It transforms culture from one generation to the next generation. 

(3)Family works as the prime agency of social control. 

Q.2.what is hierarchy? 

Ans: Generally hierarchy means classification of things according to their relative importance. In social science, hierarchy implies a system in which people are ranked one above the other according to status and authority. 

Q.3.What are the characteristics of a family? 

Ans: The chief characteristics of family are the followings :-

(1) Family is a universal institutions. 

(2) The basic of family is emotional attachment. 

(3)The size of the family is always limited. A married couple along with their children and grandchildren constitutes family. 

(4)Family is a primary unit. It is a basic unit of social control. 

Q.4. What are the changes that have come into the caste system? 

Ans: The institution of caste underwent major changes during the colonial period. The 1901 census, under the direction of Herbert Risley, was particularly important as it collected information on the social hierarchy of caste I.e.the position of each caste in the rank order. Scholars believe that this kind of direct attempt to count caste and to officially record caste status changed the institution itself. Before this kind of intervention, caste identities had been less rigid;  once they began to be counted and recorded, caste identities became more rigid. The land revenue settlement laws gave legal recognition to caste based rights of the upper castes. These castes now become landowners in the modern sense rather than feudal lords with claims on produce of the land. Thus, upper castes became land owners. 

Towards the end of the colonial period, the British administration took interest in the welfare of downtrodden castes, referred to as the ‘depressed classes ‘ at that time. The govt.of India Act 1935 gave legal recognition to the lists or schedules of caste and tribes to provide special treatment by the state. Thus, the term ‘scheduled Tribes’ and ‘Scheduled castes’ came into being. The present system of reservation for S.C., S.T. came into being in the colonial period. 

Q.5. Which are the restrictions related to caste? 

Ans: One important principle that the caste system imposed in India is the principle of inequality. Caste was a very unequal institution – some castes benefited greatly from the system, while others were condemned to a life of endless labour and subordination. Moreover, the institution of caste is hierarchical, where each caste occupies an ordered rank in a ladder Like arrangements arranging from highest to lowest. Thus, the caste system imposes the principle of inequality in our own society. 

Caste system also imposed the principle of ‘purity and pollution ‘ in our society. Purity is believed to be closer to the sacred, while pollution is something believed to be distant or opposed to the sacred, therefore considered ritually polluting. Castes that are considered ritually pure have high status, while those considered less pure, have low status. Thus, the caste system imposed the principle of ‘purity and pollution ‘ in our society. 

Caste system also imposed social division of labour, as the caste system is linked with occupation. In principle, except that caste system allows no mobility. Thus, the caste system strictly imposes social division of labour. 

Thus, the caste system imposes restrictions ranging from marriage to, food sharing and social interaction to occupation. 

Q.6. Which are the changes coming in the function of a family? 

Ans: One essential function of family is to regularise sexual relationships. Earlier elder members of the family choose their spouses. But now the young people choose their soonest. 

In India structures of family have changed from joint family to nuclear family. Now both the males as well as female members of the family do work outside home. At present in Indian IT hubs, work schedules are very tight which gives birth the practice of taking food outside the home. Now the working woman prefers to take packaged food instead of preparing food. 

At present, the structure of the family is also changing. Now we see an increasing number of grandparents moving in as care is given to their young grand children whose parents work in software industries. These are some of the changes that we see in the functions and structure of family. 

Q.7. What is the contribution of caste in increasing untouchability? 

Ans: One important principle that the caste system in India is the principle of inequality. Caste was a very unequal institution – some castes benefited greatly from the system, while others were condemned to a life of endless labour and subordination. Moreover, the institution of caste is hierarchical, where each caste occupies an ordered rank in a ladder like arrangements arranging from highest to lowest. Thus, the caste system imposes the principle of inequality in our own society. 

Caste system also imposed the principle of ‘purity and pollution ‘ in our society. 

Purity is believed to be closer to the sacred, while pollution is something believed to be distant or opposed to the sacred, therefore considered ritually polluting. Castes that are considered ritually pure have high status, while those considered less pure, have low status. Thus, the caste system imposes the principle of ‘purity and pollution ‘ in our society. 

Caste system also imposed social division of labour, as the caste system is linked with occupation. In principle, except that caste system allows no mobility. Thus, the caste system strictly imposes social division of labour. 

Caste system also imposed the principle of ‘purity and pollution ‘ in our society. Purity is believed to be closer to the sacred, while pollution is something believed to be distant or opposed to the sacred, therefore considered ritually polluting. Castes that are considered ritually pure have high status, while those considered less pure, have low status. Thus, the caste system imposed the principle of ‘purity and pollution’ in our society. 

The principle of difference and separation has a close association with the caste system. Each caste is supposed to be different from and therefore strictly separated from every other caste. 

Thus, the principle of inequality, the principal of purity and pollution along with the principle of difference and separation leads to untouchability. According to Gandhi, it is ‘the hatefulness expression of caste. “

Q.8.Give the difference between caste and class as a form of social stratification. 

Ans: The prime difference between caste and class as a form of social stratification is that while the class is open, caste is closed. Caste is a closed system of social stratification where social mobility is almost zero. On the other hand, class is an open system of social stratification where social mobility is maximum. 

Secondly, caste is ascriptive, while class is something prescriptive. The stratification of the basis of caste is solely based on birth, while stratification on the basis of class is solely based on economic status. 

Q.9. What is the importance of kinship systems? 

Ans: The bond of blood or marriage which binds people together in a group is called kinship. The importance of kinship lies in the fact that it creates a group. Marriage assigns each mother a husband and makes her children his children and thus creates a family. Moreover, kinship governs the role relationship between kins that is how one kinsman should behave in a particular kinsman’s presence, or what one kinsman Owens to another. Kinship sassings guidelines for interactions  between persons. 

Q.10. What are the main objectives of liberalization? 

Ans: The prime objective of liberalisation is creation of a word market, which is free and fair. Liberalisation involves the policy of privatisation, de-licensing etc. To faster economic growth, liberalisation insists on foreign direct investment. Free flow of capital and technical know- how is also an important objective of liberalisation.

Q.11. Give some features of liberalisation policy? 

Ans: Some features of liberalisation policy are as under:

(1) Free market :- One feature of liberalisation is free market or laissez-faire. Laissez faire is an economic philosophy that advocates a free market system and minimal government intervention in economic matters. 

(2) Privatization :- Privatisation implies selling out governmental companies or the process of disinvestment, which is also a central feature of liberalisation. 

(3) Extension and integration of the market, which means that changes in a market in one part of the globe affects somewhere else farway. 

(4) Marketisation, which means use of market based processes to solve social, political and economic problems. 

Q.12. Give four principles of globalization? 

Ans: Globalization is that process in which the economy of one country is attached with the economics of other countries. It means that unrestricted exchange of things, services, capital and labour  of one country with other countries is known as globalization. There is an open and free exchange of trade between different countries. 

(1) The process of globalization is more economic than political and social. It actually implies growing economic interconnectedness all around the globe. 

(2) The social force behind the process of globalization is scientific and technological development that took place within a very short span of time. The faster means of communication like internet, Mobile phone, satellite TV game impetus to globalisation. 

(3) Globalisation demands liberalisation of national trade so that free flow if capital and goods and technical know-how can take place. So, Globalisation demands laissez faire policy. 

(4) Privatisation is another important characteristic of globalisation. Globalisation needs competition in the market which demands selling out of government companies to private firms in order to increase their economy and efficiency. Thus, globalisation involves the policy of disinvestment. 

Q.13. What kind of changes came into the tribal weekly market? 

Ans: Though the weekly market in tribal areas is a very old institution, it has changed its character over time. After these remote areas were brought under the control of the Britishers, they were gradually incorporated into the wider regional and national economy. Tribal  areas were opened up by building roads, so that the rich forest and Mineral resources of these areas could be exploited. This led to an influx of traders, moneylenders and other non-tribal people from plains to these areas. The local market transformed as forest produce was sold to outsiders and new kinds of goods entered the system. Tribals were also recruited and thus a market for tribal labour developed. 

These are some of the changes that took place in the tribal weekly market over the years. 

Q.14. What is meant by production? 

Ans: Production simply means creations of goods and services. Earlier production meant agricultural production. In the industrial era production implied both agricultural and industrial outputs. However at present time, production along with agricultural and industrial production includes creation of services also. 

Q.15. What do you mean by consumption? 

Ans: Consumption means final use of goods and services by people who have purchased them. Consumption is an important feature of capitalist society not just for economics season, but because of its symbolic meaning. In modern societies, social distinctions are created and communicated by way of consumption. The consumer conveys a message about his or her social economic status or cultural preference by buying certain goods, while the companies also try to sell their goods by appealing to symbols of status or culture. 

Q.16. What is distribution? 

Ans: In simple sense, distribution means the action of distributing. In social science it refers to the process of allocation of resources to different stakeholders of society, which normally carry an impression of uneven distribution of wealth and services. 

Q.17. Write the characteristics of capitalism. 

Ans: Capitalism is a mode of production based on generalized commodity production or a social system where 

(1) Private property and market have penetrated all sectors and

(2) Two main classes exist – capitalism and labourers. 

The following are the chief characteristics of capitalism :

(1) The chief motive of capitalist mode of production is profit making. 

(2) In the capitalism system of production, generally two classes exist – capitalist and labourers. Capitalist class is the owner of means of production and distribution whereas the labour class don’t have any property. 

(3) In a capitalist system the capitalist exploits the labourers. 

Q.18. What are the main two criteria of the classification of tribes based on acquired traits? 

Ans: The main two criteria of the classification of tribe based on acquired traits are – mode of livelihood and extent of incorporation into Hindu society or a combination of the two. 

Q.19. What is the dominant caste? Give e.g.of any two dominant castes of India. 

Ans: The concept of ‘dominant caste was contributed by M. N. Srinivas. The term ‘dominant caste’ refers to those castes, which had a large population and we’re granted land rights after independence. In the era of electoral democracy based on universal adult franchise their large number gave them political power, while land reform emerged in Indian society. Examples of such dominant castes include Yadavs of Bihar and Reddys of Andhra  Pradesh. 

Q.20. What are the major changes taking place in the caste system during the colonial period? 

Ans: The institution of caste underwent major changes during the colonial period. The 1901 census, under the direction of Herbert Risley, was particularly important as it collected information on the social hierarchy of caste. Before this kind of intervention, caste identities had been less rigid, once they began to be counted and recorded, caste identities became more rigid. 

The land revenue settlement laws gave legal recognition to caste based rights of the upper castes. These castes now become landowners in the modern sense rather than feudal lords with claims on produce of the land. Thus, upper castes became land owners. 

Towards the end of the colonial period, the British administration took interest in the welfare of downtrodden castes, referred to as the ‘depressed classes’ at that time. The govt.of India Act. 1935 gave legal recognition to the lists or schedules of caste and tribes to provide special treatment by the state. Thus, the term, ‘scheduled Tribes’ and ‘Scheduled castes’ came into being. The present system of reservation for S. C and S. T came into being in the colonial period. 

Q.21. What is tribalism ?

Ans: Tribalism is a way of thinking or behaving in which people are more loyal to their tribe than to their friends, their country, or any other social group, Tribalism is that type of ideology by which the tribal groups begin to define themselves as tribal in order to distinguish themselves from the newly encountered others. 

Q.22. Explain the market as a social institution? 

Ans: Sociologists view markets as social institutions that are constructed in culturally specific ways. For example, markets are often controlled or organized by particular social groups or classes and have specific connections to other institutions, social processes and structures. 

Thus, the market is a social institution. 

Q.23. What did Adam Smith try to explain by ‘invisible hand’ ?

Ans: Adam Smith argued the capitalist economy is driven by individual self interest and works best when individual buyers and sellers take rational decisions that serve their own interests. Adam Smith believed that when each person will look after his own self interest, the interest of the entire society will be looked after. In this sense, there seems to be some sort of an unseen force at work that converts  what is good for each individual into what is good for the society. This unseen force was called ‘the invisible hand by Adam smith. 

Q.24. What is a status symbol? 

Ans: Max Weber pointed that the goods that people buy and use are closely related to their status in society. Weber coined the term ‘status symbol’ to describe this relationship. 

Q.25. Give two eg.of commodification of things or services which were not a part of market exchange earlier. 

Ans: Following are two examples of commodification of things or services which were not a part of market exchange earlier. 

  1. Marriages were arranged by families before, but now, there are professional marriage bureaus and websites that keep people to find brides and grooms. 
  1. Packaged drinking water marketed by a wide variety of companies in sales plastic bottles. 

Q.26. What are the negative social effects of commodification? 

Ans: There are negative social effects of commodification also. The commodification of labour is one example. Another example of negative effects of commodification is that the sale of kidneys by the poor to cater to rich patients who need kidney transplant According to many people, human organs should not become commodities.

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