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Class 12 Sociology Chapter 10 Social Movements
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Long type question and answer
Q.1. What are the various types of social movements. Discuss
Ans: Social movements can be classified as :-
(i) Redemptive or transformatory.
(ii) Reformist, and
(i) Redemptive or transformatory social movements :- Redemptive social movements aims to bring about a change in the personal consciousness and actions of its individual members.
(ii) Reformist :- Reformist social movements strive to change the existing social and political arrangements through gradual, incremental steps. Right to Information campaigns is an example of reformist social movements.
(iii) Revolutionary social involvement :- Revolutionary social movements attempt to radically transform social relations, often by capturing state power. The Bolshevik revolution of Russia the Naxalite movements of India are examples of of revolutionary social movements.
However, one must remember that most social movements have a mix of redemptive reformist and revolutionary elements.
Q.2. Do you believe that orientation of social involvements change time to time?
Ans: The orientation of a social movement may shift over time such that it may start with revolutionary objectives and become reformist. A movement may start from a phase of mass mobilization and collective protest to become more institutionalized. A social scientist named Owner, who studied the life cycles of social involvements call this move towards social movement organisations.
Q.3. What is new social movements?
Ans: In the 1960s and early 1970s another wave of social movements started. During this period strong protest the Vietnam War aroused in America and in different parts of the globe. In Europe, France became the nucleus of various student movements. The woman’s movement and the environmental movements also gained momentum during this period. These movements are known as new social involvements.
Q.4. What are the differences between Old and New social movements?
Ans: Firstly, the historical context between Old and New social movements are quite different. The old social movements were either class based such as working class or parents movements or anti colonial movements. Thus old social movements clearly saw reorganization of power relations as a central goal. On the other hand, new social movements are neither class based nor about reorganization of state power.
Secondly, the old social movements functioned within the framework of political parties. As for example, the Indian National congress led the Indian National movement. But new social movements are non-partisan character. New social movements like woman’s group, environmental movements and tribal activists are non-political and non-partisan in characters.
Moreover, old social movements were national in characters while a large number of new social movements are global in scope. As present problems like environmental and health problem, fears of nuclear warfare are global in nature, social movements have also acquired global character.
Q.5. What are the converse underlined the Chipko movement? Write a short notes on chipko movement. What are the intermingled interest and ideologies behind this movement?
Ans: The chipko movement is a good example of ecological movements in the Himalayan foothills. In this movement villagers allied together to some the oak and rhododendron forest near their villages. When the govt. forest contractors came to cut down the trees, villagers including large numbers of women hugged the trees to prevent their being felled. Actually the means of the Hindi word-chipko is long. Thus, the villagers saved the forest on which the villagers dependent for fire woods, fodder and other daily necessities. Thus, the question of cutting trees was actually a question of villagers substance.
Hence, chipko movement placed the livelihood needs of poor villagers against the government desire to generate revenues from selling timbers. This movement also raised the issue of ecological sustainability. Cutting down natural forest was a form of environmental destruction which resulted in devastating flood and landslide in the region. Moreover, this chipko movement also expressed the resentment of hills villagers against a distant government headquarter in the plains which is quite indifferent of their concerns. Thus, the chipko movement underlined the economical, ecological as well as political concerns.
Q.6. Distinguish between peasant and New farmer’s movements.
Ans: (i) Peasants movement have taken place in India from pre-colonial days, while the new farmers movement began only in the 1970.
(ii) The central problems of peasants have been land. The Zamindari system, sharecropping, land revenue have been some of the problems of the presents. On the other hand problem of the farmers are mainly related with the market both as commodity producer and purchasers. Hence, the demands of the former’s movements were price and related issues as for example price procurement, remuneration prices, taxation non-payment of loan etc.
(iii) The new farmers movement are non-party in characters and are regionally organized. While on the other hand peasants movements were localized and we’re organized by political parties. The Telangana movement was led by communist party of India. The CPT are supported the Telangana movement.
(iv) Peasants movement in India took violent tarn on various occasion. The naxalite movement is an example of violent straggle. On the other hand, new farmers movement are though mainly anti – state home used novel methods of agitation like blocking of roads and railways, refusing politicians and bureaucrats entry to villages and so on. Thus new farmers movement are relying monthly on democratic means of agitation.
Q.7. Write a short notes on workers movement in India.
Ans: Factory production started in India in early 1860’s. Factories were established in kolkata, Bombay,and Madras. Even before emergence of trade unions, workers protest started. There were around so recorded strikes in the textile mills of Bombay struck work on the just mills of Calcutta and in the Binny’s mills in Madras. The first trade union was established in April 1918 in madras by B. P. Wadia. Mahatma Gandhi founded the textile labour association in the same year. In 1920 All India Trade Union Congress was established in Bombay. The formation of AITUC made the colonial govt. more cautions in dealing with labour. In 1922,the govt. Passed the fourth factories act. which reduced the working day to 10 hours. In 1926 the trade union act was passed which provided for registration of trade unions and proposed same regulation. By 1920, AITUC had nearly 200 unions affiliated to it.
As the communists gained considerable control over the AITUC the Indian National congress formed another union named Indian National Trade Union Congress (AITUC) in 1947. This split paned the for farther splits in AITUC on party lines.
In 1947, there was a major railway workers strikes. In this strike two confrontation between state and trade unions become acute. During two emergency in 1975-77 the govt. curbed all trade union activation. However it was Short lived. The workers movement was may much part of the wider struggle for civil liberties.
Q.8. Write short notes an Dalit Movement.
Ans: Dalit movement is a struggle for recognition as fellow human beings. It is struggle for self confidence and a space for self-determination. There has not been a single, unified. Dalit movement in the country. Different movements have highlighted different issues related to Dalits. However all of them assert a Dalit identity which is not identical or precise for everyone. In spite of differences in the nature of Dalit movements and the meaning of identity the core all the Dalit movements have been the quest for equality, self dignity and eradication of untouchability. This can be seen in the Satnami movements of the chamarras. Dharma movement in Punjab, the mahar movement in Maharashtra etc. In the contemporary period, Dalit movement have been accompanied by a growing body of Dalit literature.
Q.9. What was the root cause of rise of ethnically in N. E India.
Ans: The tribes were isolated from the Indian mainstream for a very long time and thus maintained their own world view and socio-cultural institution. However in the pre as well as post independent period the tribal people came to the contact with powerful alien system. Ethnicity arose an a response to cope with the new situation.
Q.10. Explain in brief about dalit movement.
Ans: Dalit movement is a struggle for recognition as fellow human beings. It is struggle for self confidence and a self for self-determination. There has not been a single, unified. Dalit movements in the country. Different movements have highlighted different issues related to Dalits. However all of them assert a Dalit identity which is not identical or precise for everyone. In spite of difference in the nature of Dalit movement and the meaning of identify the core all the Dalit movements have been the quest for equality, self dignity and eradication of untouchability. This can be seen in the satnami movement of the chamarras. Dharma movement in Punjab, the mahar movement in Maharashtra etc. In the contemporary period, Dalit movement have been accompanied by a growing body of Dalit literature.
Q.11. Describe the main features of women’s movement since the 1970s.
Ans: Some important features of second generation women’s movements are as follows :-
(i) From the mid 1970s women movements tried to become autonomous. Earlier women’s movements were controlled by political parties. But during this period women organisation come out from the clutch of political parties. It was felt that political parties tended to marginalise women issues.
(ii) A part organisational changes, many new issues came up. Violence against women, dowry related issues, issues of land rights for women, sexual harassment in work place representation of women in politics etc. were the new issues which picked up momentum during this period.
Q.12. Write a short essay on women’s movements in India after independence.
Ans: The early 20th century saw the growth of women’s organization at national and local level. The women’s Indian Association (WIA, 1917), All Indian women’s conference (AIWC, 1926) National Council for women in India (NCWI 1925) etc. are some of the prominent women organizations of that period. Though initially the fours of many of these organizations were limited, their scope extended over time. However, many sociologists believe that this period of activity didn’t constitute a social movement,
It is often assumed that only middle class educated women are involved in social movement. Women took part along with men various agrarian travels like the Tebhaga and the Telangana movements. Thus before independence women took active role various movements.
In the mid 1970s there was a renewal of the woman’s movement in India. Some call it us the second phase of the India women’s movement. One feature of the women movements of this period was that these movements were autonomous or independent from political parties. It is worth mentioning here is that previous women movements had links with political parties. There new movements focussed new issues like violence against women, issues of land rights, sexual harassment and dowry etc.
Q.13. Describe the main features of social reforms movements before independence.
Ans: The main features of social reforms movements before independence are :-
(i) The social reform movements, which started in India in the 19th and early 20th century was a direct outcome of the British colonialism. Introduction of new means of transport and communication like the printing helped quick movement of new ideas. Thus, it was a direct outcome of British rule in India.
(ii) The social reform movements of 19th and early 20th century were basically related with religious reforms. Social reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Dayananda Saraswsti, Keshav Chandra Sen etc. tried to remove religious orthodoxies and evils like sati, caste discrimination etc. On the other hand, social reformers like Sir Syed Ahmed Khan tried to remove religious evils of from Islam religion. Christian Missionaries Also tried to remove evils from the society. They reached the remote corners of present day Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya etc.
(iii) Another aspects of social reform movements of 19th and early 20th century India was the growth of modern organisations like the Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj, All India Muslim ladies conference etc. These new type of democratic organisation spread scientific and rational thinking style among the Indians.
(iv) As a result of the social reform movements new ideas of liberalism and freedom, new ideas of homemaking and marriage, new roles for mothers and daughters, new ideas of self-conscious pride in culture and tradition emerged. The value of education became very important.
(v) The central theme of the various social reform movements during that period was the injustice suffered by the lower castes due to caste discrimination.
(vi) Women issues were also discussed and highly debated during that period. The idea of female education was debated intensely. Social reformers like Jyotiba phule opened the first school for women in pune. Attempts were made to justify female education were made by resources to both traditional and modern ideas. Social reformers actively debated the meaning of tradition and modernity. Thus, 19th century reform initiated a period of questioning, reinterpretations and both intellectual and social growth
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