Class 12 Sociology Chapter 1 Structure of Indian Society

Class 12 Sociology Chapter 1 Structure of Indian Society The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 1 Structure of Indian Society and select needs one.

Class 12 Sociology Chapter 1 Structure of Indian Society

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board/NCERT Class 12 Sociology Chapter 1 Structure of Indian Society Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Long type question and answer

Q.1. Explain the main characteristic of urban society. 

Ans: Urban society is an industrial society  which is highly modernised, literate, complicated and heterogeneous. There are marked differentiations among the people in urban society. The following are some of the characteristics of urban society:

(1)Nuclear family :- In urban society we normally see nuclear family systems. In urban society women is equal to man in performing many duties like moving out, earning livelihood etc. 

(2) Industrial society :- Urban societies are mainly industrial societies. People are largely dependent on an industry, business and service sector rather than agriculture. 

(3)Social mobility :- In the industrial societies, an individual can raise or pull down his status with his effort or labour. Social mobility has enabled the society to move from status to contract. 

(4) Enhanced status of women :- In urban societies that status of women is higher than that of rural society. In urban society,the woman is not confined to household work but she is found at all the responsible places in society. 

Q.2. Describe the main characteristic of rural society. 

Ans: Some important features of rural society are as follows :

(1)Agrarian society :- In rural society, agriculture became the sole occupation of the people. There are some other occupations like animals husbandry, weaving, pottery making etc. 

(2)Simple division of labour :- There is no notable division of labour in rural societies. There are only a few specialised roles beyond the basic division an the basis of age and sex differentials. 

(3)Importance of family :- Rural society assigns a remarkable place to the family as a child bearing, reproductive as well as an economic unit. Entire family works as a unit in the field and seeks order from the head of the family. 

(4)Simple and uniform life :- Life of the people in rural society is simple and uniform. Unlike urban societies, people in villages lead simple and uniform lives. 

Q.3.What are the different characteristics of class systems?

Ans: Some characteristics of class system are :-

(1) A social class is distinguished from other classes by certain customary modes of behaviour, which are taken to be characteristics of the class and may be concerned with such things as dress, pattern, way of recreation and expenditure etc. 

(2)class system is an open system of social stratification. Individual is free to move in the hierarchical ladder depending upon his quality. 

(3)In social class, there exists a feeling of equality in relation to members of one ‘s own class, while there is a feeling of inferiority in relation to those who stand above in the social scale. 

(4)The sole basis of the caste system in the economy. Another noteworthy feature of the caste system is that a class possessing certain privileges would like not only to possess them exclusively but also to increase them. 

Q.4. Explain the personal troubles and social issue as stated by 

C. Writing mills. 

Ans: According to American sociologists C. Writing mills, sociology helps one to map the links and connections between ‘personal troubles and ‘social issues ‘. By ‘personal troubles ‘, Mills means the kinds of individual worries, problems or concerns that everyone has. As for example, one may be happy or unhappy about the way elders of his/her family treat or other such matters concerning job, individual identity etc. By ‘social issue’,Mills means about the issues of large groups and not about the troubles of individuals. 

Q.5. What do you know about demographic transition theory of population? 

Ans: The theory of demographic  transition Is a very significant theory in demography, which suggests that population growth is linked to overall levels of economic development and that every society follows a typical pattern of development related to population growth. There are three basic phases of population growth in a society that is underdeveloped and technologically backward. Here, growth rates are low, because both the death rate and birth rate are high, so the difference between the two I.e.net growth rate is low. The last stage is also one of low population growth in a developed society, where both birth rate and death rate have been reduced considerably and the difference between them again becomes small. Between these two stages, which is characterized by very high rates of growth of population. 

In the transitional period, population explosion happens, because death rates are brought down relatively quickly through advancement in science and technology. However, it takes longer time for society to adjust to change and alter it’s reproductive behavior, which evolved during the period of high death rates to suit the situation of longer life spans and low death rate. Hence, population explosion occurs. 

Q.6. Write the main features of Indian population. 

Ans: India is the second most populous country in the world after China. According to the census of 2011,India’s population stands at 103 crepes. 

However, the growth rate of India’s population has not always been very high. Between 1901 -1951, the average annual growth rate didn’t exceed 1.33%,modest rate of growth. 

The demographic dividend results from an increase in the proportion of workers relative to non-workers in the population. Presently, India is one of the youngest countries of the world. In 2020,the average Indian will be only 29 years old. This implies that a large and growing labour force can deliver unexpected benefits in terms of growth and prosperity. 

In India sex ratio is decling. Demographers and sociologists have offered several reasons  for the decline in the sex ratio in India. Severn neglect of girl babies in infancy leading to higher death rates, sex specific abortions that prevent girl babies from being born, female infanticide (killing of girl babies due to religious and cultural beliefs) etc. Are some of the main causes of declining child sex ratio in India. 

In India literacy rate is increasing. While in 1951,literacy rate was only 18.3,in 2001 it reached 65.4. In India, female literacy has been rising faster than male literacy. Between 1991 and 2001, female literacy rose by almost 15%while rise in male literacy was little less than 12%.

In India, people are preferring urban life. The 2001 census reveals that 28% of our population lives in cities compared with only 11% in 1901. Thus, statistics show that urban population is increasing nearly about two and half times in a century. 

Q.7. Which two checks of population control are given by Malthus? 

Ans: According to Malthus, human population tends to grow at a much faster rate than the rate at which the means of human subsistence, especially food, I.e.agriculture production can grow. Hence, imbalance arises between food supply and increasing population. According to Malthus ,as humanity has only a limited ability to voluntarily reduce the growth of its population,catastrophic events like famines and epidemics that cause mass deaths were necessary to reduce the imbalance between food supply and increasing population. 

Q.8. Which subjects are included in the subject matter of social demography?

Ans: Demography is the systematic study of population. Demography studies the trends and processes associated with population, including changes in population size, patterns of births, deaths and migration, the structure and composition of the population such as the relative proportions of women, men and different age groups. 

Formal demography is primarily concerned with the measurements and analysis of the components of population change. Its focus is on quantitative analysis for which it has a highly developed mathematical methodology suitable for forecasting population growth and changes in the composition of population. On the other hand, population studies or social demography enquires into the wider causes and consequences of population structures and change. Social demographers believe that social processes and structure regulate demographic processes. Like sociologists, social demographers seek to trace the social reasons that account for  population trends. 

Q.9.Explain briefly the scope of social demography. 

Ans: Social demography studies all those social processes and structures which regulate demographic processes. Actually, social demography tries to explain the social causes of demographic change. Thus, it includes the wide areas which actually fall within the subject matter of sociology. 

Q.10. Analyse the success and failure of the family planning programme? 

Ans: The following are some of the demographic achievements of India :-

(1) India reduced birth rate from 40.8 in 1951,to 24.1 in 2004.

(2) India reduced the infant mortality rate from 146 per 1000 live births in 1951 to 58 per 1000 live births in 2004.

(3) Reduced crude death rate from 25 in 1951 to 7.5 in 2004.

(4)Life expectancy increased from 37 years to 62 years. 

(5)Total fertility rate dropped from 6.0 in 1951 to 3.0 in 2004.

The declining sex ratio is a prime causes of concern for India. Demographers and sociologists have offered several reasons for the decline in the sex ratio India. Severe neglect of girl babies in infancy leading to higher death rates, sex specific abortions that prevents girl babies from being born, female  infanticide (killing of girl babies due to religious and cultural beliefs) etc. Are some of the main causes of declining child sex ratio in India. 

Q.11. Highlight the main features of age structure of the Indian population. 

Ans: Age structure of population refers to the proportions of people in different age groups relative to the total population. 

The demographic dividend results from an increase in the proportion of workers relative to non-workers in the  population. Presently, India is one of the youngest countries of the world. In 2020,the average Indian will be only 29 years old. This implies that a large and growing labour force can deliver unexpected benefits in terms of growth and prosperity. 

But this potential can be converted into actual growth only, if the rise in the working age group is accompanied by increasing levels of education and employment. If the new entrants to the labour force are not educated, then their  productivity will remain low and if they remain unemployed, they will remain dependent rather than earners. Thus, changing age structure by itself can not guarantee any benefits, unless it is properly utilised through planned development. In India, the rear problem is unemployment. Data from census of India 2001 shows a sharp fall in the rate of employment generation. The rate growth of employment in the 15-30age group, which stood at around 2.4%year between 1987-1994 fell to 0.7% for rural men and 0.3%for urban men during 1994-2004. This suggests that India perhaps is missing out the potential benefits that the country’s changing age structure temporarily offers. 

Q.12. What would be some of the reasons for the declining sex rations? 

Ans: The sex ratio for the 0-6 years age groups is known as juvenile or child sex ratio. Age specific sex ratios began to be computed in 1961.Demographers and sociologists have offered several reasons for the decline in the sex ratio in India. Severe neglect of girls babies in infancy leading to higher death rates, sex specific abortions that prevent girl babies from being born, female infanticide (killing of girl babies due to religious and cultural beliefs) etc. Are some of the main causes of declining child sex ratio in India. 

Q.13. Explain briefly the achievements of India’s population policy. 

Ans: The following are some of the demographic achievements of india :-

(1)India reduced birth rate from 40.8 in 1951, to 24.1 in 2004.

(2)India reduced the infant mortality rate from 146per 1000 live births in 1951 to 58 per 1000 live births in 2004.

(3)Reduced crude death rate from 25 in 1951 to 7.5 in 2004.

(4)Life expectancy increased from 37years to 62 years. 

(5)Total fertility rate dropped from 6.0 in 1951 to 3.0 in 2004.

Leave a Reply

error: Content is protected !!
Scroll to Top