Class 12 Education Chapter 5 (A) Memory and Forgetting

Class 12 Education Chapter 5 (A) Memory and Forgetting The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Sociology Class 12 Education Chapter 5 (A) Memory and Forgetting and select need one.

Class 12 Education Chapter 5 (A) Memory and Forgetting

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board/NCERT Class 12 Education Chapter 5 (A) Memory and Forgetting Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…


Q.1. What is memory? Give a comprehensive definition of memory .       

Ans :-  Memory is defined as the power of reproduction or recollection of past events. It is also defined as a special ability through which learning can be retained and reproduced if and when necessary. A witness giving evidence in a court is a typical example of memory. The witness recalls the past events he had witnessed and reproduces it before the judge. Modern psychologists maintain that memory is a three fold function of mind that involves learning, retaining and remembering.

According to Woodworth, “Memory consists in remembering what has previously been learned. It consists in learning and remembering what has previously been learned.” According to Stout, ” Memory is the ideal revival of past experiences, as far as possible, in the manner and order in which they originally occurred. “

Q.2. What is sensory memory? 

Ans :- Memory derived directly out of the sensory experience may be known as sensory memory. This type of memory involves five different types of our sensory experiences such as visual, auditory, tactual, olfactory and gustatory senses. It is possible to know and tell anything after testing it, smelling it, hearing it or touching it. Very often we make use of visual and auditory senses in forming our memory images. So, the memory derived out of the five sense experiences may be known as sensory experiences. The little children very often make use of this type of sensory memory in their day today life. 

Q.3. What is the relationship between memory and image? 

Ans :- True memory involves images or mental pictures of past events. Image memory is regarded as a pure type of memory and is used widely by all. 

Q.4. Give psychological analysis of the following.

Ans :- The rate of forgetting is more in day than night because during day time we attend to a number of things necessary or unnecessary. So remembering all is not possible. The day time is also filled with mussels and tiredness comes which is opposite at night. 

Q.5. Explain the followings : 

( i ) Forgetting is a condition of memorization . 

( ii ) Forgetting is a blessing . 

( iii ) Forgetting is a defense mechanism 

Ans :- ( i ) Forgetting is a condition of memorization :- Forgetting is regarded as a condition of memory because retentive capacity which is so essential for memory is an inherited ability and hence it is limited . Forgetting helps the mind to push necessary and old ideas into unconsciousness and thus make space to learn and retain new experiences . 

( ii ) Forgetting is a blessing :- Forgetting though unwanted is essential because it indirectly helps in learning and acquiring experiences . Forgetting helps in removing unnecessary things from mind and making space to retain the essential one . Forgetting is necessary for memory as well as a person’s good mental health . 

( iii ) Forgetting is a defence mechanism :- Frued the great psychoanalyst regarded forgetting as a very necessary condition for good mental health . According to him it is a defence mechanism of the human mind . Because it helps to forget the sorrows and painful experiences of life and to lead a normal life with normal mental conditions . 

Q.6 . Explain how the law of association helps in memorization.

Ans :- The principle of association is very helpful in remembering and recall . Items should be made to connect learning with previous learning on one hand and with so many related things on the other . Sometimes special techniques and devices are to be used that facilitate learning and recall . For eg . – VIBGYOR has proved us an effective aid in remembering the colours of rainbow . 

Q.7 . What are the different stages involved in the memory process ? 

Ans :- The different stages in the process of memory are- 

( a ) Learning or acquisition of experience : – This is the first stage in the process of memory . Without learning or acquisition of knowledge the mind is like a white sheet of paper . Memory cannot occur without prior learning or acquisition of knowledge . 

( b ) Retention or Retaining :- Whatever one learns , effort must be made to store their images in mind . Without this retaining function , nobody can have memory . The stored images of learning and experiences can be recalled whenever necessary . As it is inherited , the power of retention is limited and cannot be changed . 

( C ) Recall or Remembering :- This is the third stage where images stored are brought back to the conscious part of the mind . Efforts are made to revive and reproduce past experiences in the present context without making any change of the images . 

( d ) Recognition :- It is the fourth stage . Recognition is the act of mentally verifying the correctness or otherwise of the remembered factor . 

Q.8 . What is memory training ? 

Ans :- This is a highly debatable question . The experts are divided in their opinion on this question . Some believe that memory can be improved while others think that there is no way to improve memory . 

William James believes that retentiveness is a physiological ability and hence unchangeable . It is the power of learning , not the power of retention , that is improved by practice . 

Stout , on the other hand , argues that memory can be improved but only in a special direction . By long practice the actors remember their parts well . The postman can remember the name and address of people because of special practise and training . 

Although some hold the view that memory is hereditary and fixed at birth , through suitable methods and practice memory can be improved . So the teacher should help the child make the best use of what little memory he has . It must also be remembered that the teacher must be able to arouse interest in the class . When the child finds the teaching interesting he pays more attention which helps in memorisation . Suitable method of teaching helps memorisation . 

Q.9 . ” There is no place for creativity in memory . ” – explain . 

Ans : ” There is no place for creativity in memory . ” – A person may have more memory power , but he may not be intellectually sound . A person of good memory can memorise the content only but if his intelligence is not so good then he cannot find the content in the proper place .

Q.10. Mention three factors which help in retention . 

Ans :- Learning , Retaining , Remembering . 

Q.11. Identify which types of memory seems to operate in the following cases –

( a ) Playing a musical instrument . 

( b ) Using a telephone number from a telephone diary . 

( c ) Writing dictation . 

Ans :- ( a ) Habit memory . 

( b ) Rote memory .

( c ) Immediate memory . 

Q.12 . What is the opinion of stout regarding memory improvement ? 

Ans :- Stout contends that memory can be improved , but only in special directions , by long practice the actors come to remember and recall their dialogue or part . But effects of practice are strictly confined to the special field and do not spread to other fields of work . 

Q.13 . ‘ We forget because we do not want to remember something’ Discuss . 

Ans :- We forget because we don’t want to remember someone because only those incidents or experiences remain in our mind which are needed for us moreover inactive learning experiences and we don’t give importance on needless experiences . 

Q.14 . ” To remember well , we must forget a great deal ” -explain . 

Ans :- To remember well , it is necessary to forget unnecessary things. If a person continues to remember unpleasant incidents and unnecessary things there is likelihood of his working capacity getting slack and weak . 

Q.15. Why closure is considered as a cause of forgetting ? 

Ans :- When our learning is going on or half completed , then in our mind a mental tension is also happening for the later part of learning . For which memory remains in an active mood . But when our learning becomes and then our mind feels a tension free mood , as a result the impact of forgetting is seen . 

Q.16. ” Nita has learnt a poem from her book , after learning the second poem she forgot the first one ‘ — Give reason

Ans :- It is occured due to retroactive inhibition . If immediately after learning a lesson we are born a new lesson, the new learning inhibits the retention of the previous learning . 

Q.17. We forget more in day than night . 

Ans :- In our life both memory and forgetting are equally important . Forgetting is an important condition of memory . Memory depends upon forgetting . Forgetting helps the mind to push necessary and old ideas into unconsciousness and thus makes space to learn & retain new experiences . 

In day time we can mix up with the various peoples , situations , environment , etc conditions, so it is not possible to memorize all things which are around as in day time . But at night we can stay at home and relax our minds from the above conditions . That is why we forget more in day than night . 


Q.1 . Distinguish between : 

( a ) True memory and habit memory.

Ans :- Following are the differences that exist between habit , memory and true memory . Habit can be described as an automatic behaviour . It takes place without thinking or volition . 

On the other hand memory is the capacity to conserve the past experience . It means , it is the ideal revival of an object or event or experience . 

True memory is a type of memory . It involves mental activity and it never depends on bodily mechanism . 

( b ) Recall and recognition. 

Ans :- The difference between recall and recognition are:- In recall an individual is to revive the past experience in mind purely on the basis of the images . Here the individual needs a better mental ability of keeping images in mind . Recall may be described as reviving the past experiences in mind without any distortion . Hence , recall is comparatively a difficult form of remembering . 

On the other hand recognition is an act of identification or verification of the given experiences on the basis of the past image . In recognising the objects are clearly present before the senses . The individual is to select, identify and verify the given object depending on his past images . 

The difference between recall and recognition may be clearly understood with the following examples . 

Test of Recall :- Name the capital city of Assam . 

Test of recognition :- Underline the correct answer . The capital city of Assam is Chandrapur , Sonitpur , Dispur . 

( c ) Immediate memory and prolonged memory.

Ans :- The differences that exists between immediate memory and prolonged memory may be summarized as under :-

( i ) For immediate memory intensive study is necessary for a short period but for prolonged memory a long duration of study is required . 

( ii ) Immediate memory is not long lasting . Students hardly remember more than half after six months of their examination . But prolonger memory is everlasting . 

( iii ) Immediate memory has no permanent value but prolonged memory has permanent value . 

( iv ) Immediate memory is a good form of memory but prolonged memory is the best form of memory . 

( d ) Rote memory and logical memory . 

Ans :- Rote memory may be defined as a physical memory which involves verbal repetition of something in mouth . It does not require mental ability in the formation of image , thinking and reasoning . 

On the other hand , logical memory may be defined as quite opposite to the rote memory . Here an individual is to exercise his power of reasoning , understanding and appreciation in order to remember something . 

The brilliant students with superior mental ability usually make use of the logical type of memory . Again , students who are unable to exercise logical memory and understanding in the examination hall often make use of rote memory .

Q.2 . Write four characteristics of good memory . 

Ans :- Four characteristics of good memory are :- 

( i ) Rapid Registration of learning .

( ii ) Longer Retentive power . 

( iii ) Easy and Accurate Recall and 

( iv ) Proper Recognition . 

( i ) Rapid Registration of Learning :- Good memory facilitates learning and not much time is wasted . This involves aspects like concentration , attention , interest etc. 

( ii ) Longer Retentive Power :- Another important mark of good memory is longer retention power . Good memory helps a person retain the learnt material for a longer time . 

( iii ) Easy and Accurate Recall :- Easy and accurate recall is an effective characteristic of good memory . Some of the people cannot recall the right thing at the right moment . Good memory facilitates easy and accurate recall when a certain occasion demands it so . 

( iv ) Proper Recognition :- Accurate recall must be accompanied by quick and proper recognition . A good memory helps in recalling the required details with ease , speed , accuracy and promptness . 

Q.3 . Discuss about the factors involved in the memory process .

Ans :- The following are the major factors of memory :-

( i ) Registration : – Registration of an experience or learning is the first factor of memory . First we learn . This learning leaves a record or impression on our mind. This recording of the event or learning is registration.

( ii ) Retention :- The second or next factor of memory is retention .This means anything learnt is retained in the mind . Retention is the resting state of impressions received by the mind . Retention is dependent upon several factors like frequency of impression or repetition of the event , recency and interest . If an event is repeated frequently its impression becomes deeper and is retained most . Similarly if an event has occurred recently its impressions remain fresh in our mind and the event is remembered well . With the passage of time the event is slowly forgotten . 

The most important factor of retention is interest . We remember the things better in which we are interested .

( iii ) Recall :- The third factor of memory is recall . Recall is the reproduction of the past experience retained in the mind . Recall is the revival of past events. Recall may be denied as a learned response to stimulus. What one can recall depends upon his power of retention . Two other factors influence recall — the formation of associative links among ideas and experiences and the presence of the stimulus . Association of ideas depends upon three factors – time of occurrence , similarly and contrast . If two events take place together or one after another , association ( link ) is formed between the two . When one event is recalled and another event is also recalled . Similar events are associated with each other and one easily reminds the other . If a man’s face is similar to another person’s one face reminds the other face . Again if the things are totally different ( contrast ) , one reminds the other . The riches of America reminds the poor of India . 

Recall may be ( i ) Spontaneous in which we recall the past events without any effort . 

( ii ) Deliberate Recalls involve efforts to recall the past event . The power to recall differs from individual to individual . Some people can easily recall past events . Some can recall with a little difficulty , some with great difficulty . Again some people can recall most what they see and some when they hear . 

( iv ) Recognition :- Simply speaking , recognition is knowing the object again . It is the mental process of identifying or localising what is recalled . A person’s power of recognition is greater than his power of recall . We may recognise a person but fail to recall his name . 

Q.4 . Describe four physical causes of forgetting.

Ans : – Four physical causes of forgetting :-

Old age :- Forgetting is generally more in senior people . Nervous system of the body along with the brain function generally declines due to age . 

( b ) Brain injury :- The cerebrum region of the human brain is primarily responsible for memory work . If that part is injured due to some accident or serve ailment , forgetting may occur . 

( c ) Tiredness or Fatigue :-  Working very hard continuously for a long time makes you physically exhausted. As a result the nervous system including the brain becomes tired and weak . Such a situation induced forgetting .

( d ) Lack of repetition :- To keep in mind the process of an activity learnt by us its repetition is very essential . Otherwise forgetting may occur rapidly . 

Q.5 . Explain the concept of associative memory with example .

Ans :- It is a general tendency of mind to use association while remembering past experience and learning . We remember something in association with some other thing . Associative factors like sameness , difference and nearness are aid to remembering . There are three laws of association that operate in memory relating to these factors called the law of similarity , the law of contrast and the law of contiguity respectively . 

Associative factors also help the students in exercise of memory effectively in examinations . The Daughter’s fare remains one of the mother owing to the law of similarity. The days of hardship reminds one of the days of glory owing to the law of contrast . Similarly , the name of Rama reminds one of the name of Label name owing to the law of contiguity . 

Q.6 . Describe any two economical methods of memorizing . 

Ans :- Any two economical method of memorization are:- 

( i ) Interest :- one needs to learn when the mind is interested . Things can be readily remembered that have touched our mind . Interest is the primary condition of learning and remembering . In the absence of it learning appears to be a fruitful exercise . 

( ii ) Motive :- Motive purpose or utility of learning should be clear in mind if maximum output of learning is to be derived . Aimless or imaginary learning gives the discouraging result . Motive gives incentive to learning and remembering . 

Q.7 . ” Recall is impossible without retention and retention is useless without recall . ” – Discuss . 

Ans :- Retention is the ability or capacity of the mind to retain the facts learnt in the past . It is the function of the brain . It is the storage of material brought up by learning.So retention depends on learning. Retention makes our experiences more efficient and clear . Again coming to the consciousness the past experiences is called recall. Recall is learned response to a stimulus . This recall is based on retention because it is on the basis of it that we are able to remember old things and what we will retain is easily recalled . Therefore it is said that recall is impossible without retention and retention is useless without recall . 

Q.8 . ‘ Forgetting may be considered as a boon to us ‘ .- Discuss.

Ans :- Forgetting is the opposite direction of memory . Forgetting means failure to recall to mind an idea or group of idea . When an individual try to recall the past experiences , but is not able to bring it to his mind is forgetting . we have to unable to recall or reproduce the past experiences from our mind due to forgetting . As a result or for it we have to loss facts , knowledge etc. from the mind . Therefore it is considered as a boon to us . 

Q.9 . Explain how forgetting protects our mental health as a defense mechanism . 

Ans :- Forgetting refers to the failure or loss of information already stored in our brain . It is gradual , spontaneous and universal process in which we are unable to memories our past experiences from memory storage . Though this condition is unbearable ful for us yet from some other point of view we can Judged it as a defense mechanism . Because , we have to store new learning in our mind in our daily life . So for the storage of new learning we have to forget some unnecessary experience of our mind . Moreover our life circle we have to face some too sorrowful experience and it hits our mind , if it his hit is running continuously then it may stand as a hindrance in our life . In that situation also forgetting helps to protect our mind . therefore forgetting protect our mental health as defense mechanism . 

Q.10. Distinguish between : 

( a ) Proactive inhibition and retroactive inhibition.

Ans :- If one subject is learnt immediately after another subject the learning impression of the later one is inhibited by the previous one is known as proactive inhibition . On the other hand when one subject is learnt immediately after another subject without any break , the learning impression or image of the previous one is inhibited by the later one is known as retroactive inhibition .

( b ) Short term memory and long term memory . 

Ans :- Short term memory relates to a situation in which any memorized element has to be recalled or expressed at once . This memory is also called immediate memory. For example , pupils study just before the exams and then reproduce the learnt material , but only a part of it is remembered after a long period of time . Some special qualities are mental alertness , concentration , sharp receptivity of the sense organs and nervous system are required to develop and apply short term memory . 

Prolonged memory is an ability to remember past retained experiences after a long lapse of time . It means one has learnt something in the past and reproduced it in the present after a long interval of time . It requires liveliness of mental image received and better capacity to retain in mind for a long period of time . Prolonged memory is also known as long term memory . For example if an adult can recall some events or experiences or incidents happened in his early life , he has long term memory . 

Q.11 . What are the different stages involved in the memory process ? 

Ans :- The different stages involves in memory process are given below :-

( i ) Registration :- This is the first stage in memory . Whenever something is heard , seen or learnt , its impression is registered in our mind in the form of memory traces . 

( ii ) Retention :- Every experience leaves behind traces which are retained in the mind , first in short – term memory and then passed on to long – term memory . 

( iii ) Recall :- Recall is the reproduction of the material learnt and retained in the mind . Recall may be spontaneous or deliberate . 

( iv ) Recognition :- An experience must be recognised as the same which had been registered and retained . 

Q.12. ” Nature of learning material is a condition of forgetting ?” Discuss . 

Ans :- As learning occurs universally to all human beings , so also forgetting , occurs to all . There are certain theories which explain the occurrence of forgetting . One the theory of decay , it emphasizes that the impression created in the mind fades away after a period of time due to disuse . However there are certain activities like cycling , swimming etc. When a material is learnt , memorisation occurs keeping the whole situation in mind . But when drastic changes are made in the learning situation , forgetting occurs . 

Q.13. Explain the concept of logical and rote memory with example.

Ans :- Rote memory is verbal repetition of a learnt material mechanically, it is similar to habit memory and it is possible without understanding the learnt material, for example, learning the multiplication labels or a poem. But on the other hand , logical memory involves a proper understanding of the material learnt. For example, when the content of a lesson is understood by a student, then he can retain it in his mind for a longer period and reproduce it , whenever required in future.

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