Class 12 Education Chapter 3 Current Trends in Education The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Sociology Class 12 Education Chapter 3 Current Trends in Education and select need one.
Class 12 Education Chapter 3 Current Trends in Education
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Questions for 5 marks each
1) discuss the objectives of environmental education.
Ans:- The Environmental education aims at developing the child and awareness and understanding of the physical and social environment in its totality. Fortunately, Environmental education has been introduced in the curriculum from an early stage in our country. Kothari commission (1966) recommended – environmental activities will lead to study of natural sciences, physical sciences, geography, history and civics, construction and creative skills will provide the basis for the practice of simple arts and crafts and practice of healthy living will serve as the foundation for Environmental education.
A number of objectives of environmental education have been formulated for both formal and non formal education at all levels at the international conference of UNESCO (1997) held at Tbilisi.
This are as follows :–
a) to develop an awareness of the environment in sensitivity (feeling and attitudes) to the total environment in its allied problems.
b) to help in acquiring knowledge and variety of experiences of the environment and associated problems.
c) to develop a basic understanding of structure, processes and problems of environmental components.
d) to help in acquiring skills for identifying and solving environment problems.
e) to develop attitudes, is a set of values and feelings of concern for the environment and encouragement or motivation for active participation in protection and improvement of the environment.
f) to provide and opportunity for an active participation or practice at all level in working for the solution of environmental problems and
g) to develop an ability for evaluating environmental components and educational programmes in terms of ecological, economic, social, cultural aesthetic and educational factors.
The above objectives are related to all levels and both formal and non formal systems of education.
2) What is the importance of environmental education ?
Ans:- it is interesting to note that the complex association of man with nature changes geographically and evolutionary, exposes man to varied Environmental influences in the course of history. Today it is becoming increasingly important to combat the danger inherent in the growing deterioration of our environment pollution off air, water in soils, psychological and mental aberrations resulting from the mechanizations of life, the artificial and violet stimuli as noise, depletion of nonrenewable resources, increasing contents of chemicals in human and animal food and their lethal effects, deterioration of natural conditions and ecological balance and the life activities, detrimental to natural environment.
Environmental education is the first and foremost step in saving the environment from further deterioration. As such, the real task of the day is to make the people aware, create interest and involvement in them to provide basic knowledge about man nature interaction and its effects to adopt the recommended measure for maintaining the ecological balance. No programme of rational environmental management can be successful until and unless the common people are familiar with the theory, principles and practical methods of safeguarding and using rationally the National resources and improving man’s environmental conditions.
Hence, EE has the most important role to play in solving the major problems of environmental deterioration and of nature conservation.EE is essentially interdisciplinary approach and is expressive of appreciation of interrelatedness of social, cultural, political, economic and technological awareness in man with the geological, atmosphere and biological systems of nature.
However, it is desirable to have a conscious learning of this relatedness at all stages of formal education. Thus, the traditional faculties of a university have it grouped together in a school system for importing environmental education. It has to be an interfaculty or a super faculty programme.
3) what areas are covered within the scope of environmental education.
Ans:- the scope of environmental education is so wide that it covers various aspects of nature, ecological, cultural, technologies, economical, legal, educational and commercial.
a) a lot of teaching learning can be carried out through the environment. Natural environments like flowers, insects, breeze, birds and many other historical, cultural and social places fascinate man day in and day out. Instead of teaching the topic in the classroom, children can be taught through the environment.
ii) Man has to tackle his Environment everyday for his survival, sustenance and prosperity. He can not escape it under any circumstances, right from birth to death. He is born in a family and is brought up by the family which is a primary group for him . After infancy, he attains the stage of childhood adolescence, adulthood.
It is therefore, in one’s own interest that one should learn about the environment, more so the immediate one. It is very necessary to know about several other features of the natural environment which affect man’s health and hygiene.
Scope of environmental education may be highlighted as follows :-
Scope :- a) Effect of science and technology.
b) Population Explosion.
c) problems of pollution.
d) Environmental degradation.
e) Depletion of environmental resources.
4) Mention the characteristics of the environment.
Ans:- the review of the definitions of environmental education indicates the following main characteristics :-
i) it is a process of recognising the interrelatedness among man, his cultural and biological surroundings.
ii) it appears to be a process that equips human beings with awareness, skills, attitudes, values and commitment to improve the environment.
iii) it refers to the knowledge and understanding of the physical, biological, cultural and psychological environment and to perceive its relevance for real life situations.
iv) it identifies the imbalances of the environment and tries to improve it in view of sustainable development.
v) it entails practice in decision making and self formation of a cade of behaviour about problems and issues concerning Environmental quality.
vi) it develops skills, attitudes, feelings and values needed to play a productive role in improving life and values.
5) Why is physical education important in school ?
Ans:- the importance of physical education are :-
i) physical education is helpful in developing the alertness of mind, because alertness and concentration are essential in various programmes of physical education such as wrestling, kabaddi, cricket etc. One becomes alert by participation in the activities of physical education.
ii) physical education is a good source of knowledge about health, its hazards and disease.
iii) physical education plays a vital role in the enhancement of national integration. Games and sports provide sample opportunities to work together, which ultimately enhance national integration.
iv) proper utilisation of leisure time can be made possible with the help of physical activities stress and tension can be avoided by participating in physical activities including recreational activities.
v) physical education helps in developing good relations among human beings. Qualities like cooperation, sympathy, coventry etc are developed through it.
vi) physical education helps in promoting emotional development. Aggressiveness, stress, tension can be controlled through physical activities. It provides a number of opportunities to enhance the power of tolerance.
6) what are the objectives of physical education ?
Ans:- the main objectives of physical education are :-
i) Development of neuro – muscular coordination.
ii) Development of leadership qualities.
iii) Development of ability to control stress and strain in day – to – day life.
iv) Development of self – control and fearlessness.
v) Development of qualities like discipline, dedication and devotion.
vi) To develop work efficiency.
vii) To develop a healthy outlook of life.
7) how physical education can be imparted in school ?
Ans:- it is said that physical education should be included in the first ten years of school education. For the proper development of body, mind and spirit, health and physical education including games and sports should be included in both the causes and evaluation of performance of the students.
At the upper primary stage, exercises, gymnastics, athletics, judo, yoga, drill, scouting and guiding etc. Should be introduced. These options should be made available subject to the facilities available and the learners performance. In health education, provision should be made for creation among learners of awareness related to common health problems, safety measures, nutritional problems, first aid, sanitation and pollution.
At the high school stage, athletics, gymnastics, yoga, meditation, swimming etc are to be included in the course of physical education camping and various team games and competitions should be introduced in both upper primary and high school stages. NCC, guiding, scouting, social service should be added to the compulsory programmes of physical education.
In health education stress should be given on maintenance of proper health, impact of environmental pollution on health, food and nutrition, control and prevention of diseases and so on.
8) Discuss about the importance of value education in present society.
Ans:- need and importance of value education can be highlighted as follows :-
i) It can develop a healthy and balanced personality.
ii) it develops vocational efficiency.
iii) it helps in the development of character and morality of children.
iv) enables the child to adjust to his Environment.
v) it promotes social efficiency.
vi) inculcate ideas about national integration.
vii) develops cultural values.
viii) helps the child in passing his leisure time properly.
9) what measures can we take for imparting value education in school ?
Ans:- there are two distinct ways of importing value education, such as :-
i) direct and
The systematic and deliberate instruction on values provided in the school time table is known as a direct way of important values. In some states moral education is imported in this manner. Here, values to be inculcated are explained, discussed and illustrated through stories, moral dilemmas and real life events. Indirectly value education can be imparted through the regular co curricular activities.
10) mention the objectives of women empowerment.
Ans:- the objectives of women empowerment are the following :-
i) to enhance self respect and self confidence in women.
ii) build a positive image of women by reorganizing their contribution to the society, polity and economy.
iii) to develop in them an ability to think critically.
iv) foster decision making and action through collective process.
v) to enable them to make informed choices in areas like education, employment and health.
vi) ensure equal participation in the developmental process.
11) discuss the role of education in women empowerment.
Ans:- women empowerment emphasizes the importance of increasing their power and taking control over decisions and issues that shape their lives. Women’s empowerment addresses power and relationships in society intertwined with gender, class, race, ethnicity, age, culture and history. Power is identified with equity and equality for women and men in access to resources, participation in decision making and control over distribution of resources and benefits.
Education for women empowerment :-
i) every girl should get free and compulsory primary education.
ii) removal of illiteracy among women folk.
iii) encouraging girls for all kinds of vocational, technical in professional education as per their needs, interest and attitudes.
iv) inculcating the values of gender equality and gender justice through education should get priority in the educational system.
v) to use education as an agent of basic change in the status of women.
vi) women should be made aware of their constitutional and legal rights both in the work and social life.
vii) value based education for women should be emphasised to bring self confidence among them.
12) discuss the status of women in Indian society.
Ans:- i) women are generally found to be economically weak in our country. Only an insignificant number of women die too in the urban areas, all economically dependent on men and this fact has made them weaker. They require economic independence to be on par with men.
ii) most of the underdeveloped and developing countries, women are found to be less literate than men and this has forced them to become dependent and subordinate to men. According to the 2001 census, rate of literacy among men in India is 76% whereas it is only 64% among women. The rate of school – dropouts is also found to be comparatively higher in case of women. Lack of education is the main cause of all their exploitation and negligence. Only literacy can help them to understand the constitutional and legislative provisions that are made to strengthen them.
iii) according to gangrade, “women’s empowerment mean, equal status to women, opportunity and freedom to develop oneself.” Gandhi’s idea of women’s empowerment was ‘Sarvodaya’ the welfare of all through cooperation and trusteeship in the economic sphere, equal participation in the political sphere, and mutual and in the social sphere without regard to cast or class or gender.
iv) Kiran Devendra said that “empowerment of women would mean equipping women to be economically independent, self – reliant, HIV positive self esteem to enable them to face any difficult situation and they should be able to participate in the process of decision making.
v) the international Women’s conference of 1985 defined ‘women empowerment’ as a redistribution of social power and control of resources in favour of women.
13) describe some general measures that a school can adopt for women empowerment.
Ans:- national education policy has adopted certain steps for women empowerment.
They are :-
i) provide opportunities to poor illiterate women insetting themselves by promoting self help groups.
ii) reserve 30% of Govt. Jobs and contract jobs for women.
iii) to ensure and to make arrangements for all women to take part in schemes…… Operation black board, total literacy mission sarva Shiksha Abhijan etc.
iv) increase in maternity leave to 135 days instead of 90 days.
v) To pass a women reservation bill in the lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha ensuring politics protection and empowerment.
vi) establishment of women banks where they will have the privileged to get engaged in all types of activities.
vii) 33% seats are reserved for women.
14) what are the characteristics of population education.
Ans:- following are the main characteristics of population education :-
i) population education is included in the policy of human resource development.
ii) it helps in the quantitative and qualitative development of a country.
iii) it is part of an Environmental education.
iv) the scope of population education is is broader than the sex education.
15) describe some measures of imparting population education in educational institutions.
Ans:- population education in educational institutions :-
i) in 1971, NCERT declared that population education should be started at the primary school stage and continued till the secondary stage.
ii) at the primary stage concept of small family should be given to the children.
iii) at the secondary stage, historical background of increasing population along with the data of population growth of different countries should be given.
iv) at the college levels, knowledge on different parts of the body should be given. Concept of the reproductive system should be included in the courses of study.
v) research scholars can be research work on population.
vi) population education can be included in essay subjects in different training centres.
16) discuss the areas of population education as outlined by NCERT.
Ans:- the National council of educational research ine training organised a workshop on population education at New Delhi in July 1970. The workshop recommended five areas which should form the curricular content for population education.
i) population growth.
ii) economic development and population.
iii) social development and population.
iv) health, nutrition and population.
v) biological factors, family life and population.
17) What are the views of the Education commission (1964-66) on physical education ?
Ans:- the view of education commission (1964-66) on physical education are as follows :-
a) a physical education programme should be prepared keeping in view the interest and abilities the students.
b) keeping in view the economic sides, the programme of physical education should be prepared.
c) physical education should be provided to all.
d) Guidance and counseling should be given to the students keeping in view their ability and attitude.
e) traditional plays, National plays and physical words should be included in the programme of physical education.
18) describe some general measures that a school can adopt for imparting Environmental education.
Ans:- some general measures that a school can adopt for imparting Environmental education are as follows :-
a) organising an exhibition on the environment.
b) organising educational tours or trips concerning the environment.
c) discussion, lecture, Kavi sammelan etc should be organised for the environment.
d) celebrating Environment Day and organising ‘Van Mahotsava’ in school and colleges.
e) telling stories and singing songs in an environment.
19) enumerate some general measures that a school can adopt for imparting population education.
Ans:- some general measures that a school can adopt for imparting population education are as follows :-
a) concept of small family and its good effects on family life may be suitably and adequately explained to children at the primary stage.
b) at the secondary stage history of population explosion and its comparative study may be presented before the students.
c) effect of rapid growth of population on economic, social, political and cultural life of the individual may be discussed and analysed clearly.
d) at the secondary stage sex education should be presented as a part of science education.
e) the rapid growth of population which is responsible for moving down the standard of our personal and social life need to be discussed clearly.
20) enumerate the guiding principles of environmental education.
Ans:- the guiding principles of environmental education are as follows :-
a) environment education helps in programming learning experiences from simple to complex.For e.g. children look at a bird, see it eating figs or insects or watch it flying. All this gives them some awareness of the eating and climbing habits of birds.
b) Environmental education helps children to proceed from indefinite ideas to definite ones. An infant for e.g. is not able to distinguish between colours, but as it grows, Eid learns to discriminate among different shades.
c) Environmental education helps children to proceed from concrete to abstract. Since the environment is full of concrete things which children may examine and classify and interpret and then draw their own conclusions and inferences about them.
d) Environmental education has social relevance :- relevance to men’s interaction with his physical and social environment, it’s relevance to changing human attitudes which cause man to hate man and beget hatred on one or the other ground namely caste, creed, colour of religion etc.
e) Environmental education should be a continuous and never ending process.
21) explain the concept of population education.
Ans:- population education is an educational programme through which students and individuals can acquire knowledge about the meaning and characteristics of population, causes of explosion and decline of population, consequence of the problem of population explosion etc. It gives importance on the improvement of standard of life and impart knowledge about the impact of population explosion on individuals and on society.
Dr. Slawan, professor of Columbia university, first brought out the concept of population education. Burleson, professor, Harvard university, first used the term population education.
According to him population education impart knowledge about the nature of burden or problem of population explosion. The concept of population education was developed and popularized by the American sociologist and noble peace award winner ‘Alva Myrdal’ in the year 1982.
22) discuss the need and importance of population education.
Ans:- the need and importance of population education are as follows :-
i) it helps for improving the quality of general education.
ii) it is very necessary to create awareness among the students about the impact of rapid growth of population on socio economic condition, on social life on human and environment.
iii) it is essential for creating a responsible citizen.
iv) It helps in removing the superstitions in the village from the minds of people.
v) it is very essential for maintaining quality and standards of life.
23) state the broad objectives of population education.
Ans:-: the broad objectives of population education are as follows :-
i) to create an understanding among the younger generation about the problem of rapid growth of population, it’s causes, trends & factors affecting it and ways of regulating it.
ii) to develop an understanding about the impact of rapid growth of population on socio economic condition of the society as well as on the nation.
iii) to enable the students to understand that family size is controllable.
vi) to provide knowledge about control of an planned birth.
v) to provide preliminary knowledge of reproduction.
24) explain the concept of physical education ? What are the principles suggested by kothari communication regarding physical education ?
Ans:- the true concept of physical education is that it is an integral part of the total education process. It is “a field of endeavour which has as its aim, the development of physically, mentally, emotionally and socially fit citizens through the medium of physical activities, which have been selected with a view to realise these outcome.”
the principles suggested by kothari commission regarding physical education are as follows :-
i) physical education programmes should be prepared keeping in view the interest and abilities of the students.
ii) keeping in view the economic sides, the programme of physical education should be prepared.
iii) physical education should be provided to all.
iv) Guidance and counselling should be given to the students keeping in view their ability and aptitude.
v) traditional plays, National plays and physical works should be included in the programme of physical education.
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