Class 12 Education Chapter 1 Secondary Education in India and Assam

Class 12 Education Chapter 1 Secondary Education in India and Assam The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters SCERT Class 12 Sociology Class 12 Education Chapter 1 Secondary Education in India and Assam and select need one.

Class 12 Education Chapter 1 Secondary Education in India and Assam

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board/NCERT Class 12 Education Chapter 1 Secondary Education in India and Assam Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Questions for 3 mark each

1) Describe the development of citizenship as an aim of secondary education as suggested by the secondary education commission.

Ans:- The secondary education commission 1952-53 recommended one aim of secondary education as development of democratic citizenship. India can be a democratic republic if the citizens uphold and practice the values of discipline, tolerance, patriotism co – operation, equality in thought, speech and writing. The essence of the world citizenship is inculcated and developed through education. According to Mudaliar commission, school should maintain and develop all these qualities in the students. Citizens with these qualities can grow into ideal citizens capable of making the democracy a success.

2) Discuss about the importance of ‘Education for leadership’ in a democratic country as pointed out by Mudaliar Commission.

Ans:- The secondary education commission suggested education for leadership. Secondary education should be viewed as a stage complete in itself with its own end and purposes. On passing out of the secondary schools majority of the students enter the various walks of social life. So they should be able to give leadership at the intermediate level of society. Students should also be trained to be able to own the responsibilities of leadership in various fields of like namely social, cultural, political, industrial etc.

3) Discuss about ‘social and national integration’ as an objective of secondary education.

Ans:- Social and national integration is a major problem which our country is facing today. The forces of disintegration are raising their heads in all directions. One of the weapons by which these demonic forces can be crushed is education. Compulsory social and national service at every level must be stressed. Labour and social service camps should be organised and NCC should be made voluntary. Mother tongue and regional language should be the medium of instructions. English should be used as a link languages and Hindi should get the status of national language.

4) Discuss about the structure of primary stage as suggested by Education Commission 1964.

Ans:- a) One to three (0 to 3) years of primary or pro – school education.

b) Jen (10) years period of general education where the primary stage should be of seven to eight (7-8) years. This primary stage should again be devided into two stages i.e. lower primary stage of four to five years (4-5) years and higher primary stage of two to three (2-3) years. There should be lower secondary stage of three or two (3 or 2) years of general education or one to three (1-3) years of vocational education to provide work oriented education.

c) The entry age or admission age to class I of the primary stage should not be less than six (06) years.

5) What are the terms of reference of the appointment of secondary education commission ?

Ans:- Terms of reference of the appointment of secondary education commission are :- 

a) To enquire into and report on the present position of secondary education in India in all its aspects.

b) To suggests measures for its reorganisation and improvement with particular reference to :-

i) The aims, organisation and context of secondary education.

ii) Its relationship to primary task and higher education.

iii) The inter – relation of secondary schools of different types, and

iv) Other allied problems so that a sound and reasonable uniform system of secondary education suited to our needs and resources may be provided for the whole country.

6) What is the impact of New National Policy on Education, 1986 on secondary education in Assam ?

Ans:- The New National Education Policy formulated in 1986 wanted to bring newness in all the aspects of education. On the basis of this policy in each districts of Assam established one Navodaya Vidyalaya to develop the secondary education among the meritorious children of rural level. The Policy laid stress on the modernisation of the system of education and to eradicate illiteracy from the state.

7) Mention the aims of education as suggested by New National Policy on Education, 1986.

Ans:- The aims of education as suggested by 1986 New National Policy on Education are :-

i) In vocationalization of Education particularly at the secondary stage of education the curriculum should be job – oriented.

ii) To make aware the people about the various scientific and technological developments and to make the students at the various stages of education aware of the same in order that they may utilize them in their future life.

iii) To encourage government and non – government efforts for wiping out illiteracy and to emphasize the necessity of adult education, formal education, farmer’s education and ‘open’ school.

8) Describe the structural changes proposed in New National Policy on Education, 1986.

Ans:- The recommendations are :-

i) 1-3 years of pre – primary education.

ii) 10 years of general education where 7-8 years of primary stage.

iii) The entry age to class I of the primary stage should not be less than 6 years.

iv) For higher secondary stage 2 years for general education or 1-3 years for vocational education.

v) The secondary schools should be of two types – high schools to provide 10 years course and higher secondary schools for eleven or twelve years course.

vi) Specialization should begin after class X and the process of upgradation should be specific.

vii) Pre – university courses should be transferred from universities as well as from affiliated colleges to secondary schools.

viii) Secondary Education Boards should he reconstituted.

ix) Higher education i.e. degree education should be of 3 years.

x) First public external examination should be held in the end of first ten years of school education.

Sl. No.Contents
Chapter 1Secondary Education in India and Assam
Chapter 2Non-Formal Education
Chapter 3Current Trends in Education
Chapter 4Learning
Chapter 5(A) Memory and Forgetting
Chapter 5(B) Attention and Interest
Chapter 6Mental Health & Hygiene
Chapter 7Educational Statistics

Write short notes

a) Structure of secondary education suggested by Kothari Commission.

Ans:- The Education Commission was appointed by the Government of India in 1964 to advise the government on the national pattern of education and the general principles and policies for the development of education at the stages and in all aspects. Professor Dawlat Singh Kothari, Chairman of the U. G. C. was the chairman of this commission. So, this commission is also known as Kothari Commission. The commission submitted its report on 30th June, 1966. The report is a voluminous one and contained a detailed analysis of all aspects of education at various stages.In regard to the educational structure and standards the committee recommended that :-

i) i) General education should fast for a period of 10 years – 4 years of lower primary, 3 years of higher primary and 3 years of lower secondary education.

ii) One to three years of pre school education (classes A-B-C).

iii) Four to five years of lower primary education (class I – IV).

iv) Three or two years of higher primary education (classV – VII).

v) Three or two years of lower secondary stage (classesVIII – X).

vii) Two years of Higher Secondary.

viii) Three years of degree courses followed by courses of varying durations for higher studies.

b) Integrated child development programme.

Ans:- The national Policy of Education has used the term Early childhood care and Education in place of pre – primary or nursery Education. National Policy of Education lays tress on the holistic nature of child development viz., nutrition, health and social, mental, physical, moral and emotional development. Early childhood care and Education will receive high priority and be suitably integrated with the Integrated Child Development Services Programme wherever possible. Day care centers will be provided as a support service for universalisation of primary education. Programmes of ECCE will be child oriented, focused around play and the individuality of the child. Formal methods and instruction of 3R’s will be discouraged at this stage.

c) Assam Higher Secondary Education Council.

Ans:- On the basis of the recommendations of Kothari Commission Government of Assam Constituted Assam Higher Secondary Education council in 1984. As a result of this all the responsibilities of higher secondary education (management, control and administration) transferred from Secondary Education Board of Assam to Assam Higher Secondary Education Council. With these council have the power of preparation and publication of text books, curriculum construction and management of examinations.

10) Under what conditions New National Policy on Education, 1986 prepared ?

Ans:- A new government was formed under the leadership of Rajiv Gandhi as the prime minister of India in 1985 at the central level. This government has announced that it is needed to from a new education policy keeping view towards the development economic and science and technology of the country. Regarding this aspect many intellectually expert had provided their opinion and suggestion. On the basis of various discussion, debating, suggestions the education department minister of India govt. decided to form a new education policy in 1986 and it was announced at parliament also. This education policy determines necessary principle on the basis of all important aspect of the education of the country. It was the condition on which NPE, in 1986 was prepared.

11) Sum up the suggestions forwarded by N. P. C. regarding equality in education.

Ans:- The National Policy on Education proposes to lay emphasis on the removal of disparities and to equalise education opportunity by attending to the specific needs of those who have been deprived of equality so far. The area which are given more importance for equalizing educational opportunities are as follows :-

i) Education for woman’s equality.

ii) Education for scheduled castes.

iii) Education for Minorities.

iv) Education for Handicapped.

v) Education for Adult.

12) What are the suggestions made by Kothari Commission to accelerate the process of modernization ?

Ans:- Due to progress in science and technology India is on the road to modernisation. Education should help in accelarating the process of modernisation, so in the educational reconstruction for – the modernisation some aspect should be given importance which are as follows:-

i) Education should keep pace with it, otherwise India will be lagging behind in the process of modernisation.

ii) Education should not only impart knowledge but also aim at awake of curiousity towards significant social changes.

iii) Education must be oriented to meet the social economic, cultural and political problems of new social order.

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