**Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 1 Logic **The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters

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**Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 1 Logic****Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 1 ****Logic**

**Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 1**Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given **Assam Board Class 11 Logic And Philosophy Chapter 1 Logic** Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here…

**SHORT & LONG TYPES QUESTION ANSWERS**

**7. Distinguish between :**

**(a) Positive science and Normative science.**

Ans : A positive science deals with things as they are, while a normative science deals with things as they should be.There is destination between the ‘is’ and the ‘ought’.For example:A man knows that he ought to tell truth but often he does not tell the truth.A normative science deals with things as they ought to be. It sets before itself in norm or ideas.

**(b) Formal truth and material truth.**

Ans : Formal truth means freedom from self contract diction among thought themselves. For example, the expression ‘circular square’, is a self contradictory.Because it is unthinkable and in inconceivable in itself.

Material truth means correspondence of thought with things of the actual world.If the ideas in our mind do not correspond to anything actually existing in the world for them our ideas and thoughts are not materially true.

**(c) Science and Art.**

Ans : science is a systematic body of knowledge dealing with a particular department of nature police top and our teachers are how to apply knowledge to actual practice for the attainment of a certain end.A science teaches us to to know and an Arts Teaches us to do.In fact knowing is ultimately important it is so far as it helps doing.

**8. Answer the following :**

(a) Give three examples of positive science.

Ans : Physics,Botany and Psychology.

(b) Give two examples of normative science.

Ans : Ethics and Logic.

(c) State the differences of Science and Art.

Ans : Three differences between Science and Art are:

(i) A science is concerned with acquisition of knowledge, an art is concerned with practical skill to realise a definite end.

(ii) A science aims at knowledge, an art formulates rules to apply knowledge into actual practice.

(iii) A science teaches us to know, an art teaches us to do.

(d) State three points of difference traditional and symbolic logic.

Ans : The three points of difference between traditional and symbolic logic are :

(i) Symbolic logic has short history but the tradition logic has a long one.

(ii)The use of variables in symbolic logic is much wider than traditional logic.

(iii) The use of deductive method is one of the basic characteristics of symbolic logic. Traditional logicians also used this method.But symbolic logician used deductive method extensively.

**9. Write short notes on : **

**(a) Normative science.**

Ans : Science have been classified into positive and normative.Normative science deals with things as they should be.A normative science sets before itself a norm or an ideal.Logic is a normative science because it deals with thought and reasoning as they should be.The ideal or norm of logic is Truth. It seeks to know the condition which our thought must fulfill in order that the ideal of truth may be attained.

**(b) Utility of study of logic .**

Ans : The study of logic has sometimes disputed as useless.The first objection is that logic does not teach us to reason. But answer is that, it is not the function of logic to reach us to reason. We learn to reason or to think just as we learn to work or to talk by the use of our natural powers.Logic only teaches us to reason correctly and to detect errors in the reasoning and thoughts of other people. Another objection is that logic does not make reasons infallible.

But the answer to this objection we may say that deals with the principle of correct reasonings. The common people, unconsciously follows this principle. A study logic may make the application of this principle conscious and systematic.It may happened that people do reason correctly without the help of logic.But as soon as they fall into errors and confusion, a knowledge of logic is indispensable to detect the cause of errors and make their reasoning recorrect.

**(c) Positive science.**

Ans : A positive science deals with thing as they are- There is an obvious distinction between as they are and things as they should be between the Real and the Ideal. There is a distinction between the ‘is’ and ‘the ought’.For example: a man known that he ought to tell the truth but often he does not tell the truth. A normative science deal with things as they ‘ought to be’. But a positive science like Psychology, botany,chemistry etc. deal with things as they are.

**(d) Formal Truth.**

Ans : Truth is used in two senses-formal Truth and Material Truth Formal Truth means which is self consistent and free from self-contradiction. Formal logic aims merely at formal truth. It concerned merely with the forms of thought. But it should be remembered that formal truth and material truth are not two different kinds of truth. They are not only two aspects of the same thing. So, formal truth is concerned with the forms of truth not with its matter.

**(e) Material Truth.**

Ans : Material Truth means which agrees with actual facts of the world.It is concerned with the question whether the particular objects about which we are thinking actually corresponds to the real things of the world.

If the ideas in our mind do not correspond to anything actually existing in the world then our idea and thought are not materially true.

Sl. No. | Contents |

Unit – 1 | Logic |

Unit – 2 | Proposition |

Terms | |

Proposition | |

Transformation of Ordinary Sentences to Logical Proposition | |

Distribution of a term is a logical Proposition | |

Modern Classification of Proposition | |

Unit – 3 | Inference, Categorical Syllogism |

Inference | |

Categorical Syllogism | |

Unit – 4 | Symbolic Logic |

Unit – 5 | Philosophy |

Unit – 6 | Indian Philosophy |

Unit – 7 | Theory of Knowledge |

Rationalism & Empiricism | |

Pramāna: Pratyaksa and Anumana | |

Unit – 8 | Realism and Idealism |

Realism | |

Idealism |

**(f) Subject matter of Logic.**

Ans : The subject matter of logic means which it deals within which is confines its investigations.Logic is the science of the regulative principle of valid,it carries on his enquiries in ‘Valid thinking’. Thus valid thinking constitute the scope of logic.The world “thought” means both the process and the products of singing.The process of thinking are conception, judgement and reasoning. Again the product of thinking are concepts, judgements and Reasonings.

Therefore,both the processes and the products of thinking are included is the scope of logic. Validity or truth may be formal and material. Logic is concerned both with formal and material truth. Formal Logic includes all forms of Deductive Reasonings and other formal processes such as Rules of formal definition and division and forms in which propositions should be expressed in logic. Material logic included all Inductive Reasoning as well as the material conditions of Divisions, classification and Naming. So, all these fall withing the subject matter of logic.

**(g) Scope of logic.**

Ans : The scope of logic means the problems of range of its subject matter with which it concerned itself.Logic is known as a science of thought.In logic the word thought is taken in its narrow scenes that is only reasoning. As logic is concerned with the problem of proof so immediate which does not require proof for taste is outside the scope of Logic. Only mediate knowledge is within the the scope of Logic. Logic is concerned with reasoning which is correct or valid.It is not concerned with the origin and development of reasonings.

Again logic is not concerned with the processes of thinking because it is to the scope of psychology. Logic is concerned primarily with the products of thinking. Judgement is regarded as a unit of thoughtful.A concept is a general ideas.Reasoning is the process of passing from one or more judgements to another which is justified by them and product is called a reasoning. So,concept, Judgement and Reasoning which expressed in language are respectively called term, proposition and argument.

An argument consists of proposition. A proposition may be analyzed into terms. Thus- terms, propositions and argument come within the scope of logic. Reasoning is of two kinds- Deductive and Inductive. The scope of logic included both these two types of reasoning. Logic is concerned with valid reasoning with its auxiliary processes like definition, devision, naming, classification etc. Logic is concerned with both formal and material truth. Logic assumes certain fundamental principles of thought : Law of Identity, Law of contradiction, Law of Excluded Middle Logic takes for granted these fundamental principles without proof. Logic includes the discussion of these fundamental law of thought within its scope. Logic also discusses some deductive and inductive fallacies.

**10. What is logic? Discuss its nature.**

Ans : Logic is the science of reasoning as expressed in language and with certain subsidiary processes.

Logic is a science. Its subject matter is reasoning. It proceeds to investigate in a methodical and systematic manner in order that thoughts may be correct and errors may be detected. But it is a normative science. Because it deals with reasonings as they ought to be. Logic has both a theoretical and a practical side. So, it is both a science and an art. Logic lays down principles of valid thinking. It furnishes rules for avoiding and detecting false and erroneous reasonings.Hence logic is also called a practical science.

**11. Determine the nature of logic?**

Ans : The nature of logic are :

(i) Logic is concerned with Mediate knowledge, not with immediate knowledge. Because Logic is primarily concerned with the problem of proof. Immediate knowledge does not require any proof. But mediate knowledge requires proof for establishing it validity. Thus Logic is concerned with mediate knowledge.

(ii) Logic is concerned with both Formal and Material Truth. Formal Truth means self consistency or freedom self contradiction amongst thought themselves. Material Truth means correspondence of thoughts with things of the actual world. The divisions of logic as formal and material have been recognized on the basis of this destination between formal truth and material truth. Formal logic is known as Pure logic or logic of consistency. On the other hand Material Logic is known as Applied Logic or logic of Truth.

Logic is concerned both with formal and material truth. So, Logic is both Formal and Material. Logic determines the regulative principles of correct thinking and prescribes those principles to be observed in order that thinking may be correct and errors may be avoided. In case of argument, if in drawing the conclusion from the premise or premises the rules of the particular form of the argument have been properly observed, then the argument is formally true. On the other hand, an argument is materially true if the propositions constituting it agree with actual facts of the world. As truth implies both formal and material truth, so, Logic is concerned both with formal and material truth.

(iii) A Science is a systematic body of knowledge relating to a particular department of nature. Scientific knowledge is method is methodical, general, rational, verifiable, exact, accurate and certain. An art, on the other hand is body of practical rules of techniques for the attainment of a certain end. It teaches us how to apply knowledge into actual practice to realise some definite purpose. For example, Psychology is a science. It gives us knowledge of the position, structure, function etc. of the different part of the body. But surgery is an art. Here the knowledge obtained from physiology is applied in actual practice in order to cure the patients.

Logic determines in a systematic manner the general principles of correct thinking. So, logic is a science. At the same time it teaches how to apply the principles formulated by it is actual practice for the realisation of truth. So, Logic is an art also. Logic is thus both a science and an art. Every science, in order to attain systematic knowledge must conform to the general principles of correct thinking. Logic deals with of general principles of correct thinking.

Though different science deal with different departments of nature, yet a knowledge of the general principles of correct thinking in general is indispensable to all of them. There is a common basis of all sciences in which they are similar. The function of logic is to deal with this common basis of all sciences, So every science must depend upon logic. An art must be based on scientific knowledge. Logic is the art of correct thinking. As such it underlines and directs all others arts. So, Logic is the basis of all sciences and all arts. Logic is Normative science. Logic sets before itself the ideal of truth. It seeks to know the principles and conditions which our thinking must observe order that the ideal Truth may be attained.

**12. Is logic a science or an art or both?**

Ans : A science is a systematic body of knowledge relating to a particular department of nature. Logic determines in a systematic manner the general principles of correct thinking. So, logic also gives us the knowledge of the general principles of correct thinking. Thus, logic is science. But, logic also teaches us how to apply the principles formulated by it actual practice for the realisation of truth. So, logic is an art also. Because an art is a body of practical rules of techniques for the attainment of a certain end. It teaches us how to apply knowledge into actual practice to realise some definite purpose. Logic has both systematic study of the general principles of correct thinking with a view to applying them into actual practice for the attainment of truth. So, Logic is both a science and an art.

**13. Is logic a positive or normative science?**

Ans : A positive science is one which deals with things as they actually are. A normative science is one which deals with things as they should be. It sets before itself a norm or an ideal and things are judged from the stand point of that ideal. Logic is a normative science. Because it is concerned with the question as to how we ought to think and not how we do actually think. Logic sets before itself the ideal of truth. Logic seeks to know the principles and conditions which thinking must observe in order that the ideal Truth may be attained. Thus, Logic refers to the ideal of truth and judges the correctness of our thinking with reference to this ideal of truth.

**14. What is your idea of the scope of logic?**

Ans : The scope of logic means the province of range of its subject matter with which it concerned itself. Logic is known as a science of thought. In logic the word thought is taken in its narrower sense, i.e. only reasoning. As logic is concerned with the problem of proof, so immediate, which does not require proof or test is outside the scope of Logic. Only mediate knowledge is within the scope of Logic. Logic is concerned with reasoning which is correct or valid.

It is not concerned with the origin and development of reasoning. Again Logic is not concerned with the processes of thinking because it to the scope of Psychology. Logic is concerned primarily with the products of thinking. Judgement is regarded as a unit of thought. A concept is a general ideas. Reasoning is the process of passing from one or more judgements to another which is justified by them and the product is called a reasoning. So, concept, Judgement and Reasoning which expressed in language are respectively called term, proposition and argument. An argument consists of proposition.

A proposition may be analyzed into terms. Thus- terms, propositions and argument come within the scope of logic. Reasoning is of two kinds- Deductive and Inductive. The scope of logic included both these two types of reasoning. Logic is concerned with valid reasoning with its auxiliary processes like definition, devision, naming, classification etc. Logic is concerned with both formal and material truth. Logic assumes certain fundamental principles of thought : Law of Identity, Law of contradiction, Law of Excluded Middle Logic takes for granted these fundamental principles without proof. Logic includes the discussion of these fundamental law of thought within its scope. Logic also discusses some deductive and inductive fallacies.

**15. Is logic concerned with formal truth or material truth or both?**

Ans : Logic is concerned with both Formal Truth and Material Truth. Truth has two aspects-Formal Truth and Material Truth. Formal Truth means self consistency or freedom from self contradiction amongst thoughts with things of the actual world. Formal logio aims at the attainment of formal truth. Material logic, on the other hand, aims at the attainment of material truth.

Logic determines the regulative principles of correct thinking and prescribes those principles to be observed in order that thinking may be correct and error may be avoided. In argument if in drawing the conclusion from the premise or premises the rules of the particular form of the argument have been properly observed, then the argument is formally true. Again if the propositions constituting an argument agree with actual facts of the world, then the argument is materially true. Truth implies both formal and material truth. They are two aspects of truth. So, logic is concerned both with formal truth and material truth.

**16. Is there any utility of the study of logic?**

Ans : The study of logic has sometimes disputed as useless. The first objection is that logic does not teach us to reason. But the answer is that, it is not the function of logic to reach us to reason. We learn to reason or to think just as we learn to walk or to talk by the use of our natural powers. Logic only teaches us to reason correctly and to detect errors in the reasonings and thoughts of other people.

Another objection is that logic does not make reading infallible. But the answer to this objection we may say that logic deals with the principle of correct reasonings. The common people, unconsciously follows these principle. A study logic make the application of these principle conscious and systematic. It may happen that men do reason correctly without the help of logic. But as soon as they fall into error and confusion, a knowledge of logic is indispensable to detect the cause of error and make their reasoning recorrect.

**17. Which of immediate and mediate knowledge constitute the proper subject matter of Logic?**

Ans : Mediate Knowledge constitute the proper subject-matter of Logic.. Immediate knowledge derived form Immediate Apprehension. But Mediate Knowledge derived from Inference, Testimony an Authority. Logic is primarily concerned with the problem of proof. As immediate knowledge does not requires proof or test for establishing its validity. Hence, Logic deals with mediate knowledge only.

**18. What do you mean by Traditional Logic? Is there any fundamental difference between Traditional logic and Symbolic logic? Discuss.**

Ans : The system of logic which is founded by Greek philosopher Aristotle has been known as Traditional Logic. So this system has also been referred as classical logic or Aristotelian Logic. Traditional Logic dominated the thinking of the western world till the middle of the nineteenth century. But in course of time, it has been realised that Aristotle’s treatment though important covered only a small part of logic and demands further improvement and development.

**Difference : **Symbolic logic has a short history but the traditional classical logic has a long one. Yet the difference between them is only that of different stages of development. Classical logic is related to symbolic logic as embryo to adult organism. Philosophical logicians, trained in the classical logic have sometimes criticised that symbolic logic is involved in misconceptions about the nature of logic.

And symbolic logicians have sometimes criticised the defects of the traditional logic as though they were quite out moded.But now it is agreed that modern symbolic logic is a of concepts and techniques which was implicit in the work of Aristotle. The foundation of logic was so brilliantly and thoroughly laid by Aristotle in the fourth century B.C. that it seemed to most of Aristotle’s successors to be a finished science. It is now realised that his treatment covered only a small branch of logic. Aristotle used variables restrictedly, but the use of in symbolic logic is much wider than this.

**19. Discuss the relation and difference between symbolic logic and classical logic.**

Ans : The system of logic which is founded by Greek philosopher Aristotle has been known as Traditional Logic. So this system has also been referred as classical logic or Aristotelian Logic. Traditional Logic dominated the thinking of the western world till the middle of the nineteenth century. But in course of time, it has been realised that Aristotle’s treatment though important covered only a small part of logic and demands further improvement and development.

**Difference : **Symbolic logic has a short history but the traditional classical logic has a long one. Yet the difference between them is only that of different stages of development. Classical logic is related to symbolic logic as embryo to adult organism. Philosophical logicians, trained in the classical logic have sometimes criticised that symbolic logic is involved in misconceptions about the nature of logic.

And symbolic logicians have sometimes criticised the defects of the traditional logic as though they were quile out moded.

But now it is agreed that modern symbolic logic is a development of concepts and techniques which was implicit in the work of Aristotle. The foundation of logic was so brilliantly and thoroughly laid by Aristotle in the fourth century B.C. that it seemed to most of Aristotle’s successors to be a finished science. It is now realised that his treatment covered only a small branch of logic. Aristotle used variables restrictedly, but the use of variables in symbolic logic is much wider than this.

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Dev KirtoniaImmediate knowledge is divided into Avadhi, Manahparyaya, and Kevala; and mediate knowledge into Mati and Shruta.

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