Class 11 Environment Chapter 6 Social Issues and Environment

Class 11 Environment Chapter 6 Social Issues and Environment The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse through different chapters Assam Board HS 1st Year Environmental Studies Chapter 6 Social Issues and Environment Question Answer.

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Class 11 Environment Chapter 6 Social Issues and Environment

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 11 Environment Chapter 6 Social Issues and Environment Notes for All Subjects, You can practice these here.

Social Issues and Environment

UNIT – 6

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

Textual Questions and Answers

1. What do mean by sustainable development? 2014, 16

Ans: Sustainable development is defined as meeting the needs of present without compromising the ability of further generations to meet their own needs:

2. What are renewable and non-renewable energy resources? Give examples.

Ans: Renewable energy resources: These energy resources are generated continuously in nature and are in-exhaustible. For example solar energy, wind energy, hydropower energy, geothermal energy, ocean thermal energy, tidal energy, wood, biomass energy, bio-fuels, hydrogen etc. They can be used again and again. They are the non-conventional or alternative sources of energy.

Non-renewable energy resources: These energy sources, accumulated in nature, have been in use for a long time and are exhaustible. Once these sources are finished, they can not be replenished quickly. For cuample fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, natural gas), nuclear fuels like tranium, thorium etc. These are used conventionally to meet the energy demands of human society.

3. What is energy conservation? Mention some measures for energy conservations.

Ans: As stated above, development in every sector depends largely etgy. The rate of energy consumption today is a nation has direct correlation with economic growth and prosperity. The stage of development is well reflected by the per capita energy consumption of a country. The energy crisis has led to the formulation of an energy policy framework within which the rate of growth and pattern of an energy consumption can be regulated and energy conservation strategies are to be adopted.

Energy conservation refers to efforts made to reduce energy consumption, can be regulated and energy conservation strategies are to be adopted. Energy conservation refers to efforts made to reduce energy consumption Energy conservation can be achieved through efficient energy use, in conjunction with decreased energy consumption and or reduced consumption from conventional energy sources. Energy conservation can result in increased financial capital, environmental quality, national security, personal security and human comfort. Individuals and organizations that are direct consumers of energy choose to conserve energy to reduce energy costs and promote economic security. Industrial and commercial users can increase energy use efficiency to maximize profit. Energy, which saves money, and at the same time saves the earth. When we decrease the amount of energy we automatically make efforts to reduce global warming.

The following measures for energy conservation can be adopted as initial steps

(a) Shiftgig from the use of fossil fuels and non renewable energy resources such as petroleum, coal, natural gas, uranium etc to renewable energy resources such as solar energy, wind energy, biogas etc.

(b) More technological innovation contributing efficient energy saving

(c) Unnecessary use of electricity should be prohibited. Street lights should be suntched off early in the morning

(d) Domestic consumers can curtail energy consumption on many household goods.

(e) Industries should develop a mechanism for judicious use of raw materials for their energy needs.

4. What is rain water harvesting? What are the objectives of rain waer harvesting?

Ans: Rainwater harvesting is a technique of collection of rainwater from paved or Gl. corrugated roofs and paved courtyard of houses. It also involves increasing the recharge of ground water by capturing and storing rainwater. This is done by constructing special water harvesting structures like dug wells, percolation pits, lagoons, check dams etc. Rainwater harvesting is now being increasingly used for meeting domestic water needs in the rural as well as urban areas, particularly during the dry period.

Rainwater harvesting has the following objectives:

(i) To reduce run off loss

(ii) To meet increasing demands of water

(iii) To reduce pressure on ground water resource

(iv) To raise ground water table by the process of recharging

5. Describe the different steps involved in rain water harvesting.

Ans: Rainwater harvesting system consists of four basic elements:

(i) A collection area or a catchment

(ii) A conveyance system

(iii) Storage facilities (water tank)

(iv) Delivery or distribution system.

(i) Collection area or catchments: Catchments determine the quantity and to some extent the quality of water that enters the storage tank, Catchments are of two types

(a) Roof: The roof of a house of a building is the most prominent catchment of water for domestic purposes. An impermeable roof will yield high runoff of good quality water for all household purposes. There are several types of roof such an concrete roofs, GI Sheets, asbestos, tiles etc.

(b) Ground catchments: A ground water catchment has a lower runoff coefficient than a hard roof. Since it is usually much larger, it can yield a high runoff. Ground water is prone to contamination from many sources including human and other animal excreta, rotten vegetation etc: The water from these catchment is not usually of high quality. However, it can be used for secondary purposes like gardening, washing etc.

(ii) Conveyance system: The water collected in the catchment must be stored in the storage tank by some means. The system, which delivers the collected water to the storage tank, is the conveyance system. The conveyance is usually done by way of guttering. Other systems such as roof slide or ground slide can be used, but these are less popular for rainwater harvesting as they either spill water or may be contaminated.

(iii) Storage tank: The water collected is ultimately stored in storage tanks. They should be constructed of an inert material such as reinforced concrete, fibre glasses or stainless steel. The storage tank may be constructed as a part of the catchments or may be built as a separate unit. It should include the following as a minimum requirement

(a) A solid cover

(b) A course inlet filter

(c) An overflow pipe

(d) A manhole or drain to facilitate cleaning

(iv) Delivery system: This is an extension system connected to the storage tank. Through this system water is distributed to the households, to the cultivable lands or to the small scale industries. A filtering system should be involved in the process to prevent contamination of water. All catchments surfaces, conveyance systems, storage thanks and delivery systems should be made of non-toxic, non-corrosive materials, Painted surfaces should be avoided it possible, No lead, chromium or zine based paints should be used.

6. What are the advantages of rain water harvesting? 

Ans: The advantages of rain water harvesting:

(i) It provides a source of water at the point where it is needed.

(ii) It involves little cost and every household can easily accommodate the simple mechanism required for recycling rainwater

(iii) Rainwater is free from the contamination of fluoride, arsenic, iron ete.

(iv) Recycling of rainwater for domestic and other uses of significantly reduce the pressure on ground water as ground water depletion has become a serious problem in many cities of the world.

(v) it provides an essential reserve in times of emergency or breakdown of public water supply systems.

(vi) The technologies are simple and common people can easily be trained to build one storage tank to rainwater with a minimum cost

7. How health may be affected by the environment?

Ans: According to World Health Organization (WHO) health is state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. Human health is effected by the environment, Many factors like nutritional, chemical, physical, biological, psychological, poor living conditions etc are correlated, with human health.

Access to safe drinking water is essential to health, a basic human right and a component of water, sanitation and hygiene for health and development has been reflected in the outcomes of a series of international and national policy forums.

More than 80% diseases in India are water related, and include typhoid, cholera, hepatitis,polio, gastro-enteritis, amoebiasis, giardiasis etc. Over four lakh children die annually in india due to water borne diseases. The most common and widespread health risk associated with drinking water is microbial contamination. Many toxic chemicals, pesticides, heavy metals (mercury, cadmium, lead etc) are released into the water bodies and soil. These may ultimately enter the human body through the food chain causing adverse impacts on health Industries and transportation systems also release a number of gases into the atmosphere. Some of these gases (c.g. sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, hydrocarbons and suspended particulate matter)

can cause different health effects at different levels (see units). Solid waste has the potential to degrade the air, water and the soil. There are potential risks to health and to the environment. Sometimes improper housing with poor hygienic condition may cause serious health effects. This is generally seen among the slum dwellers in urban areas. Illiteracy and lack of awareness about their health and environment, poverty and large family size, poor drainage and sanitation system and absence of proper medical facilities are the main reasons for the poor health conditions of the people.

8. What are disasters ?

Ans: Disaster is a catastrophic situation disrupting the normal life creating chaos, loss of lives and property, degrading the environment necessitating large scale rescue, evacuation and relief efforts to bring life and business back to normal.

Disasters are broadly categorized as:

(a) Natural Disasters: Disasters resulting from natural phenomena like earthquake, volcanic eruption, storm surges, cyclones, floods, landslides, forest fires, tsunamis, droughts, famines etc are under this category.

(b) Artificial disasters: Disasters arising out of human activities such as armed conflicts sabotage, industrial accidents, oil and gas structural collapses, bomb blasts, road accidents etc are under the category.

9. What do you mean by disaster management? What management strategy you can adopt during flood?

Ans: Geological processes like earthquakes, volcanoes, floods and andfladies are normal natural events which have resulted in the formation of the earth that we have today. They are, however, disastrous in their impacts when they affect human settlements. Human societies have witnessed a large number of such natural hazards in different parts of the world and have tried to learn to control these processes, to some extent.

Following are the management of flood control: 

(i) The construction of embankments on lower beaches of rivers to divert flood water is one of the major methods of flood control.

(ii) One of an important method of flood control is reforestation. 

(iii) Construction of spars which control both flood and bank erosion is one of the most mentionable method of flood control. 

(iv) To provide sufficient protection against flood dams help very friendly. River dams is also a method of control.

(v) By restoring vegetation and institution efficient methods of soil management and conservation flood can be control,

10. Population explosion is the root cause of environmental degradation- Explain the statement.

Ans: The population in our country is the single most serious problem being faced by us. It is the mother problem which breeds many other problems. Due to population explosion, the per capita land area declined from 0.82 hectare in 1951 to 0.48 hectare in 1981. The ever increasing growth of population, low man-land ratio and poverty have put a pressure on our resources and environment. This has led to the destruction of forests, encroachment upon the reserve forests and migration to the big cities in search of livelihood. Due to congestion in cities the quality of air and water is greatly affected becoming unfit for human consumption. Migration of rural people mostly wage earners to the urban areas led to the formation of slums. The slums areas have no civic amenities of water supply, drainage, roads, transport etc. That leads to many social problems. Slum dwellers face environmental, social, economic, health, educational and cultural problems.

So, it is apparent that sustainable development of a nation is possible only with preservation of the environment and preservation of environment is only possible if population growth is brought under control.

VERY SHORT TYPES QUESTION & ANSWER MARKS

1. Which was the first country to enact a Wild Life Protection Act.”?

Ans: India was probably the first country to enact a “Wild Life Protection Act. 

2. When was the Wild Birds and Animals Protection Act repealed? 

Ans: The Wild Birds and Animals Protection Act was repealed in 1912.

3. When and where was the United Nations Conference on Human Development held? 

Ans:The United Nations Conference on Human Development was held at Stockholm (Sweden) in June 1972.

4. What is the aim of the Wildlife Protection Act? 

Ans: The Wildlife Protection Act aims at providing protection to wild animals, birds and plants.

5. When did the Parliament pass Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act and from when did it become effective? 

Ans: The parliament passed the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act in 1973 which became effective from 23rd March 1974.

6. What is the full form of CB PCWP?

Ans: The Central Board for Preservation and Control of Water Pollution.

7. Who look after the matters related with air pollution?

Ans: CBPCWP look after the matter related with air pollution.

8. When was the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1981 amended? 

Ans: The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1981 was amended in 1987.

9. What power was given to CPCB after changing its name from CBPCWP?

Ans: The Boards were given powers to close or stop supply of water and electricity to offending establishments.

10. What was the aim of the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988? 

Ans: The main aim of the Motor Vehicle Act, 1988 was at issue of permits, rather than controlling the emissions.

11. Mention one of the factors that disturb the balance of nature. 

Ans: Population explosion.

12. Give one consequence of modern development of science and medical sciences.

Ans : Life expectancy of man has increased as a result of modern development of science and medical science.

13. Mention one consequence of deforestation. 

Ans: Global warming.

14. Name some instances of human tragedy caused by environmental pollution. 

Ans: Minamata Disease, Bhopal Gas disaster and Chernobyl nuclear tragedy.

15. How is the behaviour of the people of the developed countries towards the environment? 

Ans: The behaviour of the people of the developed countries towards the environment has always been unethical.

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