Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NCERT Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes and select need one.
Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes
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Textual Questions and Answers
Q.1. How ae fats digested in our bodies ? Where does the process take place ?
Ans :- The food coming from the stomach is acidic and has to be made alkaline for the pancreatic enzymes to act . Bile juice from the cover accomplishes this in addition to acting on fats . Fats are present in the intestine in the form of large . globules which makes it difficult for enzymes to act on them . Bile salts break them down into smaller globules increasing the efficiency of enzyme action . The pancreas secretes pancreatic juice which contains enzymes like trypsin for digesting proteins and lipase for breaking down emulsified fats .
The walls of the small intestine contain glands which secrete intestinal juice . The enzymes present in it finally convert the fats into fatty acids and glycerol . Digestion of fat takes place in the small intestine.
Q.2. What is the role of saliva in the digestion of food ?
Ans :- The saliva contains an enzyme called salivary amylase that breaks down starch which is a complex molecule to give sugar . The food is mined thoroughly with saliva and moved around the mouth which chewing by the muscular tongue .
Q.3. What are the necessary conditions for autotrophic nutrition and what are its by – products ?
Ans :- Necessary conditions for autotrophic nutrition : –
( i ) Presence of chlorophyll in the living cells .
( ii ) Co₂ is necessary.
( iii ) Sunlight is necessary .
( iv ) Water is required .
By – products :- Molecular oxygen is liberated as a byproduct .
Q.4. What are the differences between aerobic and an but aerobic respiration ? Name some organisms that use the anaerobic mode of respiration .
|Aerobic respiration||Anaerobic respiration|
|1. It takes place in the presence of oxygen.||1. It takes place in the absence of oxygen.|
|2. Complete oxidation of glucose takes place.||2. Glucose molecule is incompletely broken down.|
|3. Large amount of energy is released.||3. Small amount of energy is released.|
An aerobic respiration take place in bacteria , yeast and Muscle cells .
Q.5. How are the alveoli designed to maximise the exchange of gases ?
Ans :- The alveoli are thin walled and richly supplied with a network of blood vessels to facilitate exchange of gases between blood and the air filled in alveoli . Alveoli have balloon like structure . Thus provides maximum surface for exchange of gases .
Q.6. What would be consequences of a deficiency of haemoglobin in our bodies ?
Ans :- Haemoglobin is a respiratory pigment present in RBC of Blood . Haemoglobin has high affinity for oxygen. One molecule of haemoglobin carries 4 molecules of oxygen . If simple diffusion were to move oxygen in our body , it is estimated that it would take 3 years for a molecule of oxygen to reach tip of toes from lungs.
Q.7. Describe double circulation in human beings . Why is it necessary ?
Ans :- Double circulation :- In human beings the blood goes through the heart twice during each cycle . i.e. , the blood passes through the human heart two times to supply once to the whole body . So , it is called the double circulation of blood .
The double circulation of blood includes
( i ) Systemic circulation and
( ii ) Pulmonary circulation.
( i ) Systemic circulation :- It supplies oxygenated blood from left auricle to left ventricle there by pumped to various body parts . The deoxygenated blood is collected from the various body organs by the veins to pour into vena cava and finally into right atrium . Right atrium transfers the blood in to the right ventricle .
( ii ) Pulmonary circulation :- The deoxygenated blood is pushed by the right ventricle into the lungs for oxygenation . The oxygenated blood is brought back to left atrium of the human heart . From left atrium the oxygenated blood is pushed into the left ventricle . The left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into aosta for systemic circulation .
( iii ) Necessity of double circulation :- The right side and the left side of the human heart is useful to keep deoxygenated and oxygenated blood from mining . This type of separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood ensures a highly efficient supply of oxygen to the body . This is useful in case of humans which constantly require energy to maintain their body temperature .
Q.8. What are the differences between the transport of materials in xylem and phloem ?
|1. Water and minerals are transported through xylem from soil.||1. Sucrose , amino acids and other substances are transported through phloem.|
|2. In xylem , upward , movement of water and dissolved minerals transferred into phloem tissue is mainly achieved by transpiration pull .It is caused due to suction , created by evaporation of water molecules from the cells of leaves.||2. In translocation , material is transferredin the phloem tissue emerge from ATP. This increase the osmotic Pressures that movies the material in the phloem to tissue which have less pres pressure.|
Q.9. Compare the functioning of alveoli in the lungs and nephrons in the kidneys with respect to their structure and functioning .
|1. Alveoli have thin walled balloon like structure . Scarface is fine and delicate.||1. Nephron have thin walled cup shaped structure attached with thin walled tubule.|
|2. Alveoli only provide surface for exchange of gases in the lungs.||2. Tubular part of nephron also carries the urine to collecting duct.|
Additional Questions and Answers
Q.1. Why are molecular movements needed for life ?
Ans :- Molecular movements are required to provide various essential molecules throughout the body of an organism for repairing and maintaining their structures .
Q.2. What is nutrition ?
Ans :- The sum total of processes by which living organisms obtain food materials and prepare them for use in the growth , repair and providing energy is termed nutrition.
Q.3. List six features of living organisms .
Ans :- ( i ) Growth.
( ii ) Movements.
( iii ) Cellular body.
( iv ) Nutrition.
( v ) Respiration.
( vi ) Reproduction .
Q.4. Name the main modes of nutrition .
Ans :- Autotrophic and heterotrophic .
Q.5. What is aerobic respiration ?
Ans :- Aerobic respiration is the process in which glucose is completely broken down in Co₂ and H₂O in presence of oxygen .
Q.6. What is anaerobic respiration ?
Ans :- Anaerobic respiration in the process in which food is broken down incompletely in ethyl alcohol or lactic acid in the absence of oxygen.
Q.7. What is photosynthesis ?
Ans :- The process of synthesis of food from raw materials H₂O and CO₂ in presence of sunlight by the green plants is known as photosynthesis .
Q.8. What is transpiration ?
Ans :- The loss of water in vapour from mainly from the leaves is called transpiration .
Q.9. What are the raw materials of photosynthesis ?
Ans :- The raw materials of photosynthesis are –
( i ) CO₂.
( iii ) Water.
( iii ) Light.
( iv ) Chlorophyll.
Q.10. Name the photosynthetic pigment present in a chloroplast.
Ans :- Chlorophyll .
Q.11. What is meant by digestion ? Give the important steps the process of protein digestion in man .
Ans :- The process of mechanical and chemical breakdown of ingested complete food material into simpler soluble and absorbable molecules is called digestion . In man , it starts from mouth and continues until the small intestine .
The digestion of protein in man starts in stomach . The gastric juice of stomach contains pepsin enzyme . It converts complete protein molecules into smaller molecules – peptones .
In duodenum , pancreatic juice enzyme trypsin also acts upon protein molecules to convert it into peptides and peptones . In ileum intestinal juice enzymes convert simple molecules of proteins into amino acids . Proteine are absorbed as amino acids by the intestinal villi .
Q.12. What do you mean by Dialysis ?
Ans :- The procedure used in artificial kidney in place of normal is called dialysis .
Q.13. What is blood vessels ?
Ans :- The vassals in which blood flows throughout the body are called blood vessels like artery , veins and capillaries .
Q.14. Name the following :
( i ) Thin walled air sacs of the lungs .
( ii ) The respiratory pigment in man .
( iii ) A gas present in large proportion in the expired air .
Ans :- ( i ) Alveoli.
( ii ) Haemoglobin.
( iii ) Carbon dioxide .
Q.15. Name the respiratory organs of :
( i ) Fish.
( ii ) Mosquito.
( iii ) Earthworm.
( iv ) Dog .
Ans :- ( i ) Gills.
( ii ) Trachea.
( iii ) Body wall.
( iv ) Lungs.
Q.16. Name the term for transport of food from leaves to other in parts of the plants .
Ans :- Translocation of food .
Q.17. Give one reason why multicellular organisms require special organs for exchange of gases between their body and their environment .
Ans :- All the cells of multicellular organism are not in direct contact with the surrounding environment .
Q.18. What is double circulation ?
Ans :- The blood flows twice through the heart in one cycle , it is called double circulation .
Q.19. Write major functions of stomata present in the epidermis.
Ans :- ( i ) Stomata are essential for exchange of gases between the plant and the atmosphere .
( ii ) Normally , plants eliminate excessive water in the form of vapour through stomatal openings .
( iii ) When there is shortage of water , stomatal openings get closed . Thus , reduce water lose . Stomatal openings also close down during night.
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