Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its compounds The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters NCERT Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its compounds and select need one.
Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its compounds
Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its compounds Solutions for All Subjects, You can practice these here…
Q.1. Ethane, with the molecular formula C₂H₆ has
(a) covalent bonds.
(b) 7 covalent bonds.
(c) 8 covalent bonds.
(d) 9 covalent bonds.
Ans. (b) 7 covalent bonds.
Q.2. Butane is a four carbon compound with the fundamental group :
(a) carboxylic acid.
Ans :- (c) ketone.
Q.3. While cooking, if the bottom of the vessel is getting blackened on the outside, it means that :
(a) The food is not cooked completely.
(b) The fuel is not burning completely.
(c) The fuel is wet.
(d) The fuel is burned completely.
Ans :- (b) The fuel is not burning completely.
Q.4. Explain the nature of the covalent bond using the bond formation in CH₃CI.
Ans :- Covalent bond is formed by sharing of electrons so that the combining atom complete their outermost shell. In CH₃CI, this happens as follows.
There hydrogen atoms complete their outermost shells by sharing three electrons of carbon atoms. Chlorine completes its outermost shell by sharing its one out of seven electrons with one electron of carbon atom. Thus carbon atom shares in all its four electrons with three of three hydrogen atoms and one of chlorine atoms and completes its outer shell.
Q.5. Draw the electron dot structures for
(a) ethanoic acid
Ans :- (a) Ethanoic acid :-
Q.6. What is a homologous series ? Explain with an example.
Ans :- A homologous series is a group of organic compounds having similar structures and similar chemical properties in which the successive compounds differ by CH₂ group.
All the alkanes have similar structures with single covalent bonds and show similar chemical properties, so they can be grouped together in the form of a homologous series. The first five members of the homologous series of alkanes are Methane, Ethane, Propane, Butane and Pentane.
Q.7. How can ethanol and ethanoic acid be differentiated on the basics of their physical and chemical properties.
Ans :- (i) Ethanol has a pleasant smell whereas ethanoic acid has the smell of vinegar.
(ii) Ethanol has a burning tase whereas ethanoic acid has a sour taste.
(iii) Ethanol has no action on litmus paper whereas ethanoic acid turns blue litmus paper to red.
(iv) Ethanol has no reaction with sodium hydrogen carbonate but ethanoic acid gives brisk effervescence with sodium hydrogen carbonate.
Q.8. Why does micelle formation take place when soap add to water ? Will a micelle be formed in other solvents such as ethanol also ?
Ans :- Micelle formation takes place when soap is added to water because the hydrocarbon chains of soap molecules are hydrophobic which are insoluble in water, but the ionic ends of soap molecules are hydrophilic and hen soluble in water.
Micelle formation not take place when soap is added to organic solvents like ethanol because the hydrocarbon chains of soap molecules are soluble in organic solvents like ethanol.
Q.9. Why are carbon and its compounds used as fuels for most applications ?
Ans :- Carbon and its compounds used as fuels for most applications because they gives a large amount of heat per unit weight.
Q.10. Explain the formation of scum when hard water is treated with soap.
Ans :- Hard water contains salts of calcium and magnesium. Calcium and magnesium on reaction with soap forms insoluble substance kcalled scun.
Q.11. What change will year observe if you test soap with litmus paper (red or blue) ?
Ans :- Red litmus paper turn blue.
Q.12. What is hydrogenation ? What is its industrial application ?
Ans :- The addition of hydrogen to unsaturated hydrocarbon in the presence of catalyst is called hydrogenation.
Ghee on industrial scale is made by hydrogenation of naturally available vegetable oils.
Q.13. Which of the following hydrocarbons undergo addition reactions : C₂H₆, C₃H₈, C₃H₆, C₂H₂
Ans :- C₃H₆ and C₂H₆
Q.14. Give a test that can be used to differentiate chemically between butter and cooking oil.
Ans :- When a drop of bromine is added to cooking oil, its colour disappears whereas when a drop of bromine is added to butter, it becomes brown.
Q.15. Explain the mechanism of the cleaning action of soap.
Ans :- When soap is dissolved in water, it forms a colloidal suspension in water in which the soap molecules cluster together to form spherical micelles. In a soap micelle, the soap molecules are arranged radially with hydrocarbon ends directed towards the centre and ionic ends directed out wards.
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