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Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Carbon and its compounds
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Carbon and its compounds
Chapter – 4
TEXTUAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
Page – 61
Q.1. What would be the electron dot structure of carbon dioxide which has the formula CO₂ ?
Q.2. What would be the electron dot structure of a molecule of sulphur which is made up of eight atoms of sulphur? [Hint : the eight atoms of sulphur are joined together in the form of a ring ]
Page – 67
Q.1. Calculate the difference in the formulae and molecular masses for
(a) CH₃ OH and C₂H₅OH.
(b) C₂H₅OH and C₃H₇OH and
(c) C₃H₇OH and C₄H₉OH.
Ans :- (a) difference in formula is – CH₂ difference in molecular mass is 14 amu.
(b) difference in formula is – CH₂ difference in molecular mass is 14 amu.
(c) difference in formula is – CH₂ difference in molecular mass is 14 amu.
Q.2. Is there any similarity in these three ?
Ans :- They have similar chemical properties because they have some functional group (alcohol).
Q.3. Arrange these alcohols in the order of increasing carbon atoms to get a family. Can we call this family a homologous series ?
Ans :- CH₃OH, C₂H₅OH, C₃H₇OH, C₄H₉OH. This is a homologous series of alcohols.
Q.4. Generate the homologous series for compounds containing up to four carbons for the other functional groups given in table 4.3.
Ans :- Homologous series of Halides – CH₃CI, C₂H₅CI, C₃H₇CI, C₄H₉Cl
Homologous series of Aldehydes – CH₃CHO, C₂H₅CHO, C₃H₇CHO
Homologous series of carboxylic acids – CH₃COOH, C₂H₅COOH, C₃H₇COOH
Q.1. How many structural isomers can you draw for pentane ?
Ans :- Three structural isomers of pentane are :-
(i) n – pentane :-
(ii) Iso – Pantane :-
(iii) Neopentane :-
Q.2. What are the two properties of carbon which lead to the huge number of carbon compounds we see around us ?
Ans :- (i) Catenation.
Q.3. What will be the formula and electron dot structure of cyclopentane ?
Ans :- The formula of cyclopentane is C₅H₁₀.
Structure : –
Q.4. Draw the structure for the following compounds :
(i) Ethanoic acid.
Ans :- (i) Ethanoic acid :-
(ii) Bromopentane : –
(iii) Butanone :-
(iv) Hexanal :-
There are three structural isomers for bromopentane depending on the position of Br at carbon 1, 2, 3.
There are :-
Q.5. How would you name the following compounds ?
Ans :- (i) Bromoethane.
(iii) 1, Hexyne.
Q.1. Why is the conversion of ethanol to ethanoic acid an oxidation reaction ?
Ans :- Alkaline potassium permanganate or acidified potassium dichromate are oxidising ethanol to ethanoic acid, that is adding oxygen. So conversion of ethanol to ethanoic acid an oxidation reaction.
Q.2. A mixture of oxygen and ethyne is burnt for welding. Can you tell why a mixture of ethyne and air is not used ?
Ans :- If ethyne is burnt in air which contains nitrogen and other inactive gaseous contents, sufficient oxygen is not available for burning ethyne to give the required heat. But a mixture of ethyne and oxygen gives enough heat that can be used for welding.
Q.1. How would you distinguish experimentally between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid ?
|1. Sodium metal test||H₂ is produced but no effervescence||H₂ is produced with effer vescence|
|2. Litmus test||Blue litmus turns red||No change in colour|
|3. Sodium carbonate||Brisk effervescence is produced.||No action|
Q.2. What are oxidising agent ?
Ans :- The substances which give oxygen to another substance is called oxidising agent.
Q.1. Would able to check if water is hard by using a no. detergent ?
Ans :- Detergent is equally effective in hard water as well as soft water. So we can not check the hardness of water by using detergent.
Q.2. People use a variety of methods to wash cloths, usually after adding the soap, they ‘beat’ the cloths on a stone, or beat it with a paddle, scrub with a brush or the mixture is agitated in a washing machine why is agitation necessary to get clean clothes ?
Ans :- It is necessary to agitate to get clean clothes because the soap micelles which entrap oily or greasy particles on the surface of dirty cloth have to be removed from its surface. When the cloth washed in soap solution is agitated or beaten, the micelles containing ony or greasy dirt particles get removed from the surface of dirty cloth and go into water. And the dirty cloth gets cleaned.
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