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Class 10 History Elective Chapter 3 The World War Between the Two World Wars : 1919 – 1939
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Q 6. Discuss the main features of the foreign policy of Hitler.
Ans : One of the main cause for the outbreak of the second world war was the rise of Hitler in Germany during the post – First World War period. Acute economic depression, political instability, Communists phobia, social insecurity, etc. That existed in Germany after the rise of autocratic ruler like Hitler followed an aggressive foreign policy. Some of the main features of this policy were:
(i) Massive arms build -up : The main basis of Hitler’s foreign policy was the military force. From the very beginning, Hitler was determined to nullify the Treaty of Versailles. Treaty had reduced the military strength of Germany. They were not allowed to build ships and aeroplanes. Arms build- up as he knew he needs a well Armed force to capture the colonies and fight the Allies if needed
(ii) Conquest of Austria : One of the first countries to be conquered by Hitler was Aaustria. This was because most of the population of Austria to the German race. Therefore, in 1934, he began to interfere in the affairs of the country with a view to annexing it to Germany. However, because of the opposing stand of England and France he could not conquer it straightaway. He waited for some more time for annexing it. He remained satisfied simple by signed a treaty with a Austria in 1936.
(iii) Rome – Berlin Axis : Hitler supported mussoulini in the latter’s attempt to conquer Ethiopia even though England and France strongly objectived to it. This resulted in the formation of ‘ Rome-Berlin Axis ‘ in October 1936. In The next month, he signed the Anti-Comminter pact with japan to prevent the spread of Communism. Mussolini too joined this pact and thus the new pact became ‘Rome – Berliner -Tokyo’ Axis. Meanwhile, England and France followed a policy of appeasement and tried not to provoke Hitler but in to his various demands.
(iv) Various annexations : when Hitler realized that England and France were not interested in war, he conquered Austria in the month of March, 1938 and annexed it to Germany without any opposition from England and France. Thereafter , Hitler truned his attention to çzechoslovakia and conquered the country within a short time.
Next he occupied the port town of me memel on the Baltic sea and soon raised it to the level of a military Port. Soon after this, he turned his attention to the city of Danzig which was internationalized by the Treaty of Versailles. He annexed it and made it part of the Thrid Reich m, the German empire Under Adolf Hitler.
(v)Other pacts : The various conquest ànd annexations created ripples in European politic. England and France began to realized that something had to be done to oppose Hitler. Realizing that England and France might oppose his further conquest, Hitler got the support of Benito Mussolini by signing the famous pact named ‘ Pact of Steel’ with Mussoulini on 22 May 1939.
To neutralize Russia, in case of war against him, he signed ‘ Russo-German Non-aggression pact’ on 21 August 1939. Soon after the signing of the non – aggression pact with Russia, Hitler started his military offensive against poland on a massive scale on 1 September 1939. The integrity and independence of Poland had been assured by England and France by the munich pact (1 October 1938) and so both the countries declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939. Thus, the second World war began mostly as a result of the aggressive foreign policy followed by Adolf Hitler.
|Chapter 1||Growth of Imperialism and Colonialism|
|Chapter 2||The First World War|
|Chapter 3||The World War Between the Two World Wars: 1919 – 1939|
|Chapter 4||The Second World War|
|Chapter 5||The United Nations Organization|
|Chapter 6||Emergence of Asia and Africa in the Post – Second World war Period|
|Chapter 7||The Non-Aligned Movement|
|Chapter 8||Foreign policy of India|
Q 7. Was the Anglo-French appeasement policy responsible for the rise of Mussolini and Hitler ?
Ans : During the post – First World War period the foreign policy of England and France was characteristicterize by a policy named the policy of appeasement. The repercussions following this policy were disastrous and finally led to the outbreak of the second world war.
The policy of conciliation with an aggressive power at the expenses of some other power is known as the policy of appeasement. It seems that the British prime Ministers of stanley Baldwin was the first person to initiate this policy of appeasement towards the Fascists in Italy and the Nazis in Germany.
This policy was strongly followed up by the next Prime Minister of England , neville chamberlain who succeeded stanley Baldwin in 1937. Neville chamberlain did not want to and conquests as their legitimate needs. In Other words, chamberlain allowed the legitimate needs. In Other words, chamberlain allowed the expansionist policy of Hitler and Mussolini. Therefore, both countries did not do anything when Hitler conquered Austria in March , 1938. The British appeasement policy towards Hitler whetted his appetite for more Territories.
Another example of British prime Ministers neville chamberlain’s appeasement policy can be seen in the Treaty signed between Britain and Italy in April 1938 regarding spain. She had interfered in the internal affairs of Spain in support of general Franco. In exchange of Italian withdrawal from spain, chamberlain recognized italian contorl over Ethiopia and allowed Italy to occupy the country. This he did in the hope keeping mussoulini from the camp of the camp of Hitler.
A further example of Britain’s appeasement policy is seen with regard to chzechoslovakia. Hitler wanted to occupy sudetenland from çzechoslovakia and annex it to Germany as this area was mostly inhabited by the Germans. In order to please Hitler, chamberlain allowed Germany to occupy this area. In addition, chamberlain tried to bring the government of France and çzechoslovakia to accept German annexion of studetenland with the hope that Hitler would stop at that.
Therefore, under the British influence, the famous munich pact was signed on 1 October 1938 Wich allowed Germany to occupy studetenland. However, soon after the occupation of studetenland, Hitler demanded the whole of çzechoslovakia. Without wating for the in England’s support or view, Hitler conquered and the annexed it to the German empire. England and France could not prevent the occupation of çzechoslovakia in any way . The great powers, manily France and England freared Russian advance towards the Mediterranean Region and Balkan peninsula and to contain it preferred to support Hitler and Mussolini as they declared themselves enemies of communism and mussoulini to and Hitler would do the job of removing the Communists From Italy and Germany respectively and thus communism would be wipe out from Europe. Historian believe that the rise of mussoulini and Hitler as world threats was the direct consequence of the policy of appeasement followed by England and France during 1930- 1939 periods. It resulted in titling the interational peace and security of the world. Therefore, it can be said that following of the policy of appeasement by England and France was greatly responsible for the second world war that began in September, 1939.
Q 8. Present a brief note on the rise and growth of the United States of America during 1919-41.
Ans : The rise of the United States of America after the first world war is an important period in the world history. The first world War was brought to a close due to her support and after the war, she continued to thrive and prosper while the European world took a great deal of time to recover from the after- effects of the First World war. After the war , America became the banker of the world. The war devastated European countries, big and small, had to look to untied states of America for financial support.
Through her financial support, she came to control the affairs of Europe and to exert great influence on world politics. After the end the first world war , japan emerged as the most powerful country in the far East. Rise as a major power posed a threat to America power. Besides, japan followed an aggressive policy towards China and wanted to bring China under her control which America did not want to happen. Therefore, she called a nine – ñation conference on China in 1921 which prevented japan from occuping China for some time . During November 1921 to February 1922, this conference was held in washington with the presence of the representatives of the USA , Great Britain, Italy, Freance, japan, China, Belgium, the netherlands and portugal.
During this time , America had to face severe Economic depression. This great depression started during the period of US president , Herbert hoover (1929 – 32).It main sometime in October 1929 and lasted few years. The main cause for the depression was overproduction and lack of adequate market . In addition to overproduction , availability of loans on easy terms and speculation contributed to this development, depression affected Industry, finance , export, import , Money market and led to serious unemployment problem .
However, the next Us president Franklin Roosevelt was able to change the situation. He indicated a wave of economic reconstruction programme known as ‘ New Deal’ which was able to bring depression Under control. Within a few years, the American Economic normalize and the once again became the most important economic power in the world .
In view of the Increasing menace of the rise of Fascism in Italy and Nazaim in Germany , Roosevelt convened an international conference of American Republics at Buenos Aires in Argentina in 1936 and took measures for collective security. The same policy as repeated in the All – American conference held at lima in peru in 1936 and took measures for collective security . The same policy as repeated in the All – American conference held at Lima in Peru in 1938.
Soon after the outbreak of the second world War in September 1939 , Roosevelt was able to supply essential war items to allies. Though she maintained neutrality during the first phase of the war she was forced to join the war after the Japanese attack on pearl harbour ( in Hawaii Islands ) on 7 December 1941. With her entry in the second world war, the victory for Allied Powers was assured and after the war, she remained the Most important interational power in the world while other European powers had to suffer terrible Economic hardship due to the war .
Q 9. Give a brief note on the rise and growth of the Union of Soviet Socialist republic during 1917-41.
Ans : The rise of Russia as a great international power begin with the October revolution. Immediately after the revolution, certain drastic administrative changes were brought in Russia in July 1918 with the promulgation of a New constiuction. As per the New constiuction of 1924 the name of the country was charged into Union of Soviet Socialist republic ( USSR) . Russia comprised of 7 republics and under the constitution of 1936; the number of republics rose to 11.
Russia was primarily an agricultural based country. But, soon after the Revolution of 1917, began to make solid strides in all fields of human activity. Speedy measures were undertaken for the overall development of the country. The period of economic progress and reconstruction initiated from 1918 to 1921 came to be known as the period of’ War commusim’. One of the main planks of this new policy was privatization of all production.
All the Industrial units and establishment belonging to individual owners were nationalized. On the country, the private Industries were declared illegal. This principle greatly affected production, which led to the decline of production in all sectors. The whole economic system of Russia fell down. Therefore, the government started a new economic policy named the’ New Economic policy’ (NEP) in 1921 . Within a short time, the New Economic policy began to bring about great changes in the country and once again the Russian economy began to prosper. The export and import, Industrial production, trade, production of foodstuff, etc. Registered a high growth rate.
Lenin died in January 1924 and then his position was occupied by Joseph Stalin. Within a short period, he became the absolute ruler of Russia. He started the the firstFive – YEAR plan in 1928. The FIRST FIVE- YEAR plan was a great success. While most western Countries suffered from the great depression of 1929-1835 periods, Russia was totally unffected. This definitely boosted the image of Russia in the world. As a result of the tremendous economic growth and Industrial production, Russia emerged as one of the most developed industrialized nations of the world almost at par with the United States of America. However, the affairs of Russia were marred by the ‘ Great purge’ in the party initiated by Joseph Stalin.
With the Death of Lenin in 1924, There emerged a struggle for power among the leading members within the party. This struggle continued for sometime and all those opposes Stalin or the party. Stalin let loose a reign of terror from 1924 to 1934 and it lowered the image of Russia.
Q 10. Discuss the main features of the Soviet Foreign policy during 1917 – 41.
Ans: Soviet Russia became a key player in the international politics after the revolution of 1917. They did the influence the trun of events in the international arena during the post-Firs World War period. The Bolshevik party after coming to power in 1917disowned the treaties and agreement made with the foreign powers by the Czarist regime. They also withdrew from the First World war as the be Communists were opposes to the war. With the end of the Russian Revolution of 1917, Lenin declared that his Bolshevik party would support the movement of liberation of Russia. The aim of this movement was to liberate the oppressed people who were exploited in various parts of the world Under colonialism and imperialism.
Aiming this objective, an organization named the Communists interational or comminter to was was established in 1919 and its head office was at Moscow. To fulfill its objective, Russia soon began to provide help to revolutionary organations of the middle East countries and the Balkan peninsula.This was the period from 1918 to 1921.
In 1920, soviet Russia established bilateral relations with Finland, Latvia, Estonia and Lithuanian. Besides, she entered into bilateral relations with poland, Afghanistan, Turkey And Persia in 1921.In the same way , she established commercial contracts with Germany and England.
After a long waiting, the Soviet government of the Bolshevik party got recognition from Germany in 1922 and France, Italy had England in 1924. The Anglo-soviet treaty was signed in 1924 and accordingly soviet Russia received francial aid from Britain. In the year 1934, USA gave recognition to the Soviet government, when Franklin Roosevelt was the president of USA Russia got a short time, Soviet got the permanent membership of the council.
There had been no good relations between Russia and japan during the Czarist regime. Just after the beginning of the Bolshevik Revolution, japan intervened Russia immediately. As per the term of the Russo- japanese agreement, japan withdrew her forces from Siberia and sakhalin Island.
As the Nazis came to power Under the leadership of Hitler in Germany, the national security and territorial integrity of Soviet Russia became extremely dangerous. Hitler severally pointed out to soviet Russia as an for future German expansion. Great Britain and France expressed their sympathy to Hitler.In Durnig that time, there was a fear of the Russo-German Non-agressive pact of 1939, this fear slightly reduced.
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