Class 10 History Elective Chapter 2 The First World War

Class 10 History Elective Chapter 2 The First World War The answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters Assam Board HS Class 10 History Elective Chapter 2 The First World War and select needs one.

Class 10 History Elective Chapter 2 The First World War

Also, you can read the SCERT book online in these sections Solutions by Expert Teachers as per SCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines. These solutions are part of SCERT All Subject Solutions. Here we have given Assam Board Class 10 History Elective Chapter 2 The First World War Solutions for All Subject, You can practice these here…

Easy Types Questions :

Q1. Discuss four major cause of the First World War.

Ans : The First World War is considered to be one of the important event of the world history. It was the first War fought on a global basis. It altered the scenario of the world to such an extent that a totally a new world emerged from the embers of this man – made calamity. The  war originated as a result of a series of long pending causes. Four  major causesof the First World War were: 

(i) International rivalry : The colonial and imperstic rivalries  prevalent  in the International Scene since 1850, and prepared the ground for the war  .Many of the European  countries such as England,France, Italian, Germany,  Russia, Belgium, etc.were involved in a series of  bitter and fierce rivalry  and competition  for the possession of Colonies. The most important rivalries that  preceded the war were : 

(i) The Anglo – French in Egypt.

(ii) The Anglo- Russian in persia.

(iii )The Franco – German in Morocco.

(iv)  The Russo -Japanese in China.

(v) The rivalry  between Russian, England, Germany, and Austria  in the Balkan peninsula.

Buy 1900 , These rivalries had reached a breaking point. The annexation of Bosnia  and Herzegovina in 1908, lifted the Austria – Serbian rivalry beyond repair . Austria was determined to crush serbia’s rising power. The consequence of this rivalry was the event of 28 june 1914, which ignited the decade- long gathered inflammable material into an international inferno.

(ii) Emergency of aggressive  nationalism : During the 25 years prior to the outbreak the war , many of the politically suppressed , Economically oppressed and socially exploited nationalities desired for racial unity. The countries of the Balkan peninsula in the Eastern  Europe were inhabited by the different nationalities such as the serbs or Slavs, the Albanians these , the Serbian national movement was the most prominent and they objected to and Herzegovina by Austria in the wake of Turkish Revolution of 1908, causes  the serbs to the First World War, took place.

(iii) Rival system of alliances : By the beginning of 19000, Europe was practically divided into two rival military camps. The man who initiated the formation of various alliances and pacts was Otto von Bismarck of Germany He e formed the ‘ Three Emperors’ League’  in 1873, comprising the emperors of the Austria, Germany and Russia. 

In 1879, Bismarck fromed the ‘ Austro – German Dual Alliance’ which became Triple Alliance with the joining of Italy in 1882. soon, England and France burried their difference and fromed a counter – alliances named ‘Anglo – French Entente Cordiale’ in 1940. During this period , England also tried to settle her differences with  Russia. This resulted in the signing of the ‘Anglo – Russian Conversation’ in 1907.

With the conclusion of the Anglo-Russian. Convention was transformed into ‘Triple Entente’ in 1907. Both this these alliances secret  had clauses Which created fer and suspicion among the countries of the opposite camp. Thus by 1907, Europe had become ready to explode a dynamite waiting for a matchstick to light it.

(iv ) Massive arms build -up : The rapid Industrialisation of Germany brought her surplus national Capital which she  used to upgrade her  defence War – machinery. Since 1900, she began to arms herself to the teeth as she knew that a trial of strength was inevitable. Seeing the military expansion of Germany, other European  countries such as, England, France , Italy and Russia commenced rapid military expansion programmes. In fact during the period 1870-1914, the major power of Europe started a massive arms build-up and greatly Increased their defence expenditure. During this period Germany Increased her defence expenditure to 335% , Russia to 214%, Italy to 185% , England to 180%, Austria-hungary to 155%, and French to 133%. This made Europe ready to explode a bomb.

Sl. No.Contents
Chapter 1Growth of Imperialism and Colonialism
Chapter 2The First World War
Chapter 3The World War Between the Two World Wars: 1919 – 1939
Chapter 4The Second World War
Chapter 5The United Nations Organization
Chapter 6Emergence of Asia and Africa in the Post – Second World war Period
Chapter 7The Non-Aligned Movement
Chapter 8Foreign policy of India

Q 2. Discuss the major military pacts and Alliance contracted by the European powers before the outbreak of the First World war.

Ans : The outbreak of the First World war in 1914 is one of the major events of world history after which the world has never remained the same. One of the most important factors was the formation of alliances and pacts by the different countries of Europe. It Bismarck who initiated the system of pacts and Alliances  in Europe. The major military pacts and Alliances contracted by the European powers before the outbreak of the First World War were : 

(i)  ‘Three Emperors’ League’ (1873) : Bismarck organised a union of three emperors of Europe named ‘ Three Emperors’  League’ in 1873. It consisted of the main aim of this league was to keep France isolated in European politics, so that she wouldn’t be in a position to attack on Germany for annexing her rich of Alsace and Lorraine.

(ii)  Austro – German Dual Alliances ( 1879)  : Since Bismarck was not very sure of the support of Russia in any conflict,   he entered into a secret military pact with Austria in 1879.

This allince came to be known as the ‘Austro – German Dual Alliances.’  The union of Germany and Austria created ripples in the European politics and compelled countries such as England and France to come together.

(iii) Triple Alliance ( 1882) : Germany instigated France to occupy Tunis in Africa. This created a rivalry between Germany took Italy into  Austro – German  Dual Alliance and converted it into the Triple Alliance In 1882. The creation of Triple Alliance had far reaching repercussions .The other European powers felt the need to from similar protective allinces.

(iv) Russo- prussian pact( 1887) : The Russo – prussian  pact is known as Reinsurance Treaty. During the crisis in Bulgaria between Austria and Russia,  Germany  supported Russia. This lead  to the collapes of the ‘ Three Emperors’ League’. To establish Russo – German relationship on a strong footing , German  Chancellor Otto von Bismarck entered into pact with Russia known as the ‘ Russo – prussian pact ‘ in 1887.

(v)  Anglo – japanese treaty ( 1902) : This treaty of was signed between England and Japanese in order to maintain a status quo is the prevailing colonial possessions of the imperial power in the east and to preserve the peace and tranquility in China and korea. They tried to achieve this gola by maintaining their territorial integrity conducive for equal commercial pursuit.

(vi) Anglo- French Eñternte cordial (1904) : The creation of a secret military alliance by Germany, Austria and Italy tilted the international peace and balance.England and French felt thteàtened and so decided. to bury their Differences and to form a similar allince. This allince came to be known as the ‘Anglo- French Entente Cordiale’. This alliance  was fromed in 1904. 

(vii) Anglo – Russian Conversation (1907) : During this period, England tried to settle her differences with Russia. Theophile Delcasse, the former prime Ministers of   Freance , played  a key role in bringing England and Russia to the ‘ Anglo – Russian Conversation’ in 1907 wherein both countries followed a policy of ‘give and take’ regarding the main issues that divided them.

(viii) Triple Entente ( 1907):  With the conclusion of the Anglo – Russian Conversation, the Anglo-French Eñternte cordial was transformed into ‘Triple Entente’ in 1907. Thus, triple Entente consists of England , Freance and Russia. This was organised as a counter – allince against the Triple Alliance consists of Germany, Austria and Italy.

Q 3. Narrate briefly the circumstances leading to the division of Europe into two opposing armed camps before the outbreak of the First World War.

Ans : The circumstances leading to the division to  the Germany m, Austria and their allies as one camp and England, French and their allies as another camp, before the outbreak of the First World war were : 

(i) In the process of establishing a German Nation state, the Germans invaded France and occupied Alsace and Lorraine.

(ii) Viewing the event of an attack from France , Germany made àn allince with Austria and Russia and thus laid the foundation of the three Emperors’ League in 1873.

( iii) Germany development a more friendly relation with Austria by the Austro -German Dual Alliance In 1879.

(iv) On the hand , England and France joined hands to  restrict the German soldiers in the Western Front. Thus, the Anglo – French Entente cordial was signed in 1904.

(v) England had a very bitter relationship with Russia, regarding persia, Afghanistan and Tibet. In this situation, French played a very significant role in building a good relation between the two countries and thus the Anglo – Russian Conversation was formed in 1907. After the incluion of France in this conversation, it was known as the Triple Entente in 1907.

Q 4. Give a brief Review history of the armed conflict in Europe and Africa during 1902- 14 

Ans : The armed conflict that occurred in Europe and Africa during 1902-14 were: 

(i) In 1904 by agreement between Anglo-French and French  -Spain , the Moroccan countries like Bosnia, Morocco, Herzegovina, Tripoli and the Balkan peninsula were secretly portioned among the English , the French and Spain. This enraged Germany and as a result, the first Morocco Crisis developed.

(ii) The secret pacts between Britain, French and Spain erraged the Germans and they declared Morocco as  an Independent country and advocate for holding an international conference on the matter. The international conference was held in Algeciras from January – April 1906. In this conference, Freance and Spain were provided with some special right conference, France and Spain were provided with some special rights and privileges along with the sultan of Morocco over the countries.

(iii) In 1911, owing to the deteriorated law and order situation in Morocco, France sent an armed force to Morocco to tackle the situation. In reply, Germany also sent its warship to Morocco. This mad the war imminent between the two countries and thus, the second Moroccan crisis development in 1911.

(iv) The second crisis was again solved in favour  of France with a tripartite agreement between Freance, Britain and Germany on 3 And 4 November 1911.

(v) In the meantime, Italy attacked Turkey  and Rhodes and other islands in the Mediterranean Sea. These  attacks of Italy, created great confusion in Germany, Austria and Hungry. Owing to these attacks by Italy on Turkey, Turkey hañded over Tripoli to Italy of Lausanne on 15 October 1912.

Q 5. Narrate briefly the war situation during 1917-18.

Ans. The First World War began on 28 July 1914. The immediate cause of the war was the murder of Francis Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria at sarajevo on 28 june 1914 by a serbian revolution youth. The war took a new turn due to the following two major events that took a place in1917.

(i) War situation in 1917  :  The United States of America  joined the war support to  the Allies in 1917. The American entry immediately changed the course of the war in 1917. America declared war  on germany on 6 April 1917 and on Austria in December , 1917. 

Although America had remained neutral for more than two years, she was forced to enter the as the fortunes of the was a possibility of Germany over – running the entire European countinent which might prove harmful to the rising power of America . Secondly, one of the German u- boats had destory a British ship named Lusitania which had about 118 American complling the USA to other countries followed suit.soon China, Brazil, Costa, Rica , Nicaragua, Liberia, Guatemala,Haiti, Honduras,  etc. also declared war against the Central powers. The joined of America completely turned the situation. America which was  well- Of  Economically started to pour men and materials into the battlefront. She sent thousand of soldiers to France to fight against the Germans. Within a short time, time Allies with the American forces began to make much headway in the war. 

The second event that changed the war situation in 1917 was the Russian Revolution which took place in russiain October 1917. One of the major results of the Russian revolution was Russia soon withdrew from the war by a treaty named the Treaty of Brest Litovsk with Germany, which was singed on 8 March 1918. It was a great step for Germany as the eastern front could be utilized in the western front. 

(ii) War situation in 1918 : A supreme Allied War Council was created in November,1917with a view to a have better coordination among thhike Allied members. Marshal Ferinand Foch was authorize to direct major offensive against the Central powers in Frenchce. .

He was to be assisted by Marshal petain, a French general and Sir Douglas Haig, the British commender. With better organization and command the Germans realized that their end was near.Nevertheless, the German military chief General ludendorff made a brave effort by launching a massive attack on the  Anglo-French combined forces in March 1918. But within a short time, he was defeated at several had to suffer defeat. Thereafter, the Germans continued to suffer defeat one after another. On 29 September  1918, Bulgaria surrendered followed by Turkey on 30 September 1918. Austria surrendered on 3 November 1918. Finally on 9 November 1918, the Germans emperors, william II, fled to Holland and sought political asylum. A new republican Government was formed in Germany which quickly signed an armistice with the Allies on 11 November 1918. In this way , the first world war came to end.

Q6. Discuss the results of the first world war.

Ans : The First World War is viewed as one of the most significant episode of world history. It is one of the most poignant events of modern times. Its repercussions and consequences were so overwhelming that every nation, every race and every corner of the world underwent rapid changes as a result of this war. The results of the First World war were : 

( i) The peace of settlement : One of the most important consequences of the First World War was the peace settlement that followed it.The most important Treaty came to be known as the Treaty Versailles. The Treaty signed between Austria and the Allies was known as the Treaty of st germain.she too had to surrender several of her Territories. The Treaty of trianon was signed with hungry. The Treaty of neuily and the Treaty of serves were signed with Bulgaria and Turkey respectively.

(ii) Downsizing of Germany : The First World war was great blow to German expansion and prestige . Her Territory was completely reduced , military subdued , Economically crippled and internationally ridiculed. Much of her Territory was parcelled out . All her colonies in Asia and Africa were taken away. Her military strength was reduced to 1,00,000 men. In short , Germany was down – sized and hemmed from all sides. 

( iii) Sowed the seeds of the Second World war : The treaty of versailles was absolutely vindictive and humiliating . Germany was treated like an international criminal. A similar treatment was given to other central powers, such as Austria , Bulgaria , Turkey , etc. Vengeance was the key features of the Versailles peace arrangement. Hance , the vanquished nation were determine to  undo the injustice done to them at the Paris peace Conference. The second world war was the inevitable consequence.

(iv) Rise of new ñations : One of the major results of the  war was the creation of several new ñation. The Versailles peace Conference re-  drew the map of Europe on National lines and created new state , such as ,  Finland, Estonia , latvia , Lithuania, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and restructured poland.

(v) Lead to national akwaking in several countries: The famous ‘Fourteen points’ of Woodrow Wilson of America and the principle of self – determination which characterized the versailles peace Conference in 1919 , was a great triumph for the suppressed nationalities. This boosted the National Awakening in asia , Africa and the Turkish empire.

(vi) Rise of dictatorship : post – war Europe was confronted with a variety of complex problems and in many in many cases infant democracies found themselves incapable of coping with them. The results was the emergence of certain anti- demoratic movements such as Bolshevism, fascism , Nazism, etc. Which brought untold havoc in the world later.

(vii) Change in the balance of power: The  war redically altered the balance of power in the world. Great Britain, Germany , France , Russia and Austria gradually sank in importance. The international center of power shifted from Europe to America. New York and washington became the core center of international politics and Dipolmacy.

(viii) Established of the League of Nations : perhaps the most lasting consequences of the the first world war were establishemeant of the league of nations to mantain peace and Security in the world . The credit for eastablishing it goes to Woodrow Wilson of America who proposed such an institution in his ‘ ‘fourteen points’ During the post – war period , this international  organisation played a key role in settling several international disputes and bringing peace to the world at least for some time.

(ix) Great loss of life and property : The war caused great loss of life and property . The loss is almost inestimable. Millions lost Their lives and while million become homeless and wound. The distraction of property was colossal. It took a long time for the world to recover from shocks of the war and the effects of the war.

Q7. ‘ The defeat of the central powers in the frist world war lead to the emergence of several new ñations states in Europe’ Discuss.

Ans : The outbreak of the First World war in 1914 is one of the most significant events of world history. It was caused by a culmination of several factors such as colonial and imperstic, rivalries, several crises in Balkan peninsula, massive arms build up , division of Europe into rival military camps, rise of aggressive Nationalism , ect. This was the first global war . The war was fought by Two rival camps named central powers and Allied Powers of Allies. 

The central powers consisted  of Germany, Austria , Turkey , Bulgaria, etc. While the Allies comprised England ,France , Russia, America, China, ect. The war came to a close with The signing of armistice by Germany with the Allies on 11 November 1918. Soon, an international peace Conference was held at Versailles in Paris to frame the peace treaties. 

The peace Conference lasted over a year and concluded with the signing of five separate treaties with the defeated central powers in 1919 and 1920. The main peace treaty signed between Germany and the Allies came to be known as the Treaty of Versailles. This Treaty had 440 provisions divided into 14 parts. One of the main results of These peace treaties was the emergence of several new ñations These peace treaties were the emergence of several new ñations particularly in the Balkan peninsula. The other result were : 

(i) The twin states of Austria -Hungary were divided into two separate countries.

(ii) A new state known as Czechoslovakia comprising Bohemian, Moravia and sudetenland of Germany was created.

(iii) A new country called Yugoslavia was formed. It consisted of Serbia, Bosnia, Montenegro , Herzegovina, Croatia and Dalmatia.

(iv) New countries such as Estonia,latvia, Lithuania, etc. Were carved out from Russia.

(v) poland was declared independent and restructured.

(vii) Luxembourg was declared an independent and neutral country.

(viii) The port City of Danzig , a purely German town was declared a free city.

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