Class 10 Elective Geography Chapter 3 Concept of Region and Regional Geography of The World Question answer to each chapter is provided in the list so that you can easily browse throughout different chapters Assam Board HS Class 10 Elective Geography Chapter 3 Concept of Region and Regional Geography of The World and select needs one.
Class 10 Elective Geography Chapter 3 Concept of Region and Regional Geography of The World
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Concept of Region and Regional Geography of The World
Chapter : 3
Textual Questions And Answers
Q1. What do you mean by a region? Explain the importance of region in geographical study.
Ans: Any tract of the earth’s surface which stands unique and different from the areas around it is called a region in geography. In other words, the terms ‘region’ refers to a part of the earth’s surface which is characterised or marked by certain noticeable natural or man-made features, making it distinguishable from its surrounding areas. For example, different places in the world that receive high rainfall on account of monsoon winds in summer are placed together under the category of ‘monsoon region.’
Regions are identified either on the basis of natural characteristics include the amount of rainfall, extent of temperature, type of soil, kind of natural vegetation, nature of topography, etc. Man-made characteristics include density of population, economic activities, industrial development, etc.
One of the aims of geography is to study the surface of the earth. But, this is really very difficult as the earth’s surface is very extensive and diverse. However, this task becomes much easier when we divide the whole earth into certain regions and study them one by one. In this respect, demarcation of a region has assumed great importance in geography. It makes the study of geography simple and clear.
Understanding of different regions is also very important for agencies and government which are engaged in bringing about regional development, parity in development, etc. The experience obtained in a particular region is highly helpful in avoiding certain mistakes in the development, etc. The experience obtained in a particular region is highly helpful in avoiding certain mistakes in the developmental activities in places having similar characteristics.
The study about different regions helps us to make a comparative study about them. Moreover, the study of the whole world becomes simpler and symtematic when we do it from the angle of region. Regional approach in geographical study is one of the most accepted ways of studying the earth. That is why, the topic of region is an important section in regional geography.
Q2. Explain how a region can be identified on the earth’s surface.
Ans: A part of the earth’s surface which is characterised or marked by certain noticeable natural or man-made features, making it distinguishable from its surrounding areas is known as a region in geography. In other words, any tract of earth’s surface which stands unique and different from the areas around it is called a region. A region can be identified on the basis of two aspects :
(i) On the basis of homogeneity
(ii) On the basis of functional interrelationship
(i) On the basis of homogeneity : One of the main features of the earth’s surface is its diversity. Due to factors such as earth’s position in the solar system, earth’s shape and structure, its rotation, revolution, etc., different places on the earth have different climate, rainfall, temperature, topography, soil conditions while many others have different physical environment.
The places that have similar climate, rainfall, temperature, soil conditions, etc. are grouped together to form a region. This division is done on the basis of homogeneity of the selected elements. For example, the entire Assam valley can be grouped together as a region since almost all places in the Brahmaputra valley have similar climate, rainfall, temperature, soil conditions, etc. Thus, a region can be identified on the basis of homogeneity of physical features such as soil, climate, natural vegetation, etc.
(ii) On the basis of functional interrelationship : Another way to identify a region is on the basis of functional interrelationship among the different elements.
Generally, a functional region is identified around a town or market centre. Every region has a town, market, etc. around which certain activities take place. The surrounding region is functionally interlinked through interdependent activities with the town or market. In this way, the boundary of the region linked with the town can be easily determined.
For example, the region around the city of Kolkata is closely linked to the city as the region supplies essential goods and men for its different activities. The people in the surrounding region totally depend on the city for their daily business and life and the city sustains on these interlinked areas. Thus, there is a functional region around the city of Kolkata in which the internal elements are dissimilar but are closely interlinked through an interdependent relationship. So is the case with all other cities, towns, industrial centres, tourist spots, educational centres, etc.
Q3. Bring out the difference between the homogeneous region and the functional region.
Ans: The differences between the homogeneous region and the functional region are :
Q4. What do you mean by regional geography of the world? What is the importance of this study?
Ans: The branch of geography which studies the natural and man-made characteristics of a region is known as regional geography. In other words, the term ‘regional geography’ refers to a branch of study engaged in understanding the distinguishable features of an area with a view to understand better, the geographical diversities of the entire earth. Regional geography provides us a detailed geographical picture of any region, country or a continent.
The earth is a big planet covering over 510 million sq. km of total surface area (149 million sq. km of land area and 361 million sq. km of water surface area) which cannot be studied as one piece. Moreover, the entire earth is marked by diversities of different types. However based on the similarities of certain elements or on the functional interrelationship of the elements, the entire earth can be divided into regions and these can be studied one by one making the study of earth easier, simpler and clearer. The study of such regions is called regional geography.
Some of the major reasons that explain the importance of the study of regional geography are :
(i) It helps us to understand why certain regions lag behind in development.
(ii) Such a study helps us to undertake proper development plans for the various regions of a country.
(iii) Geography can be better understood when we study it from the regional basis.
(iv) Such a study gives an overall picture of the whole region.
(v) A detailed account of physical environment, economic condition, human settlement, state of development of transport and communication, etc. of a place can be found through this study.
(vi) Regional geography gives us an idea about spatial variations within a region.
(vii) Such a study helps us to understand the nature of geographical relationship that exists between the concerned region and its neighbouring region.
(viii) Through regional studies, the socia-economic progress of a country or region and the problems associated with it can be assessed.
Q5. What do you mean by ‘natural region’? Into how many natural regions, the whole earth can be divided? Write their names and show on the map.
Ans: Natural region is the division of earth into certain geographical units that have similar geographical characteristics such as relief, climate, rainfall, temperature, soil, natural vegetation, etc. In other words, an area having more or less uniformity in certain physical and geographical elements is known as a natural region.
The whole earth can be divided into the following eleven natural regions :
(i) Equatorial region
(ii) Monsoon region
(iii) Tropical grassland region
(iv) Tropical hot desert region
(v) Mediterranean region
(vi) Mid-latitude desert region
(vii) Mid-latitude temperate region.
(viii) Mid-latitude grassland region
(ix) Cold coniferous forest region
(x) Cold polar region
(xi) High mountainous region
Q6. How can the regional geography of the world be understood through the study of natural regions? Write in brief.
Ans: Natural region is the division of earth based on similarity of certain geographical characteristics such as relief, climate, rainfall, temperature, soil, natural vegetation, etc. The main basis for the division of earth into natural regions is geographical homogeneity. Due to similarity of climate, soil, vegetation, etc. different places in the world can be grouped under one division. One of the most important advantages of the study of natural region is that it helps in understanding the regional geography in a better way. For example, the Coastal Californian region has Mediterranean climate which is normally found in the region surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. Therefore, the climate condition, the economic occupation, the vegetation of California can be understood well when we look at it from the angle of natural regions. The study of natural regions will help us to see the interrelationship that exists between the various regions of the world. In other words, the study of regional geography becomes much simpler, easier and clearer when we study them or look at them from the angle of natural regions. The study of natural region is also a source of great help in planning developmental projects in various regions of a country.
The various agencies engaged in the development of a particular region will find highly useful the lessons gained from similar work done in a similar natural region. Such a comparative study will also help the concerned authorities to avoid costly mistakes and to plan the development of the region in a better manner.
Q7. Write about the physical environment of each of the natural regions of the world.
Ans: The physical environment of each of the eleven natural regions of the world is discussed below :
(i) Equatorial region : This region is characterised by a hot and wet climate with heavy rainfall. The region is almost entirely covered by dense evergreen forests. As this region experiences vertical sunrays, the temperature difference between day and night and summer and winter is very low here.
(ii) Monsoon region : This region has warm and wet summers and cold and dry winters. The average annual rainfall is 200 cm and deciduous vegetation is prevalent. The highlands have laterite soil while the low-lying areas and river valleys have fertile alluvial soil.
(iii) Tropical grassland region : This region experiences a short and warm summer season and a long and dry winter season, with high diurnal and seasonal range of temperature. The amount of rainfall is moderate i.e. about 25–100 cm and tropical grasslands are seen in this region.
(iv) Tropical hot desert region : This region has a hot and dry climate throughout the year, with high diurnal range of temperature. Rainfall is almost negligible (20-25 cm annually). Unlike other regions, most part of this region remains covered with sand. Only short grass and thorny shrubs are found over the vast sandy areas.
(v) Mediterranean region : The climate here is a hot and dry summer and cold and wet winter. The average annual temperature is 8°-25°C and annual rainfall is 25-75 cm. The vegetation consists of evergreen short trees and shrubs.
(vi) Mid-latitude desert region : This region is surrounded by high mountains on almost all sides. The rainfall is very low and the seasonal and diurnal range of temperature is very high. A little amount of snowfall also occurs in the winter season.
(vii) Mid-latitude temperate region : The coastal areas of this region have an equitable climate with average winter temperature 5°-10°C. In the mid-latitude temperate region, the intensity of summer and winter is less. The rainfall too is between 75-150 cm annually but decreases with increase in distance from the sea. Winters are dry. Though deciduous vegetation is common, evergreen trees are found in areas of higher rainfall and coniferous trees are found on hill slopes.
(viii) Mid-latitude grassland region : This region receives very low rainfall, only 15-50 cm annually. The seasonal range of temperature is high and winters are severe. Though vegetation is almost absent , grasslands are common. The soil is rich in organic matter and thus fertile.
(ix) Cold-coniferous forest region : The climate here is dry and cold. Summer temperatures reach 15°C and snowfall occurs in winter. The little rainfall is received in summer. Softwood evergreen forests called Taiga, cover the region.
(x) Cold polar region : This region is covered with snow almost throughout the year. The short summers have temperatures from 0°-18°C with heavy snowfall. Almost no vegetation except for some grass, moss, fern, etc. is found here. Rainfall is almost nil in this region.
(xi) High mountainous region : In these high peak areas, temperatures decrease with altitude. While windward sides receive rainfall and have forest growth, the leeward sides are dry and devoid of vegetation. High peaks are always covered with snow.
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